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Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent

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Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2019, 22:05
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Project SC Butler: Day 149 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.

A) which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending

B) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone to extend

C) a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending

D) a treatise provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone that extends

E) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone of extension

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Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2019, 22:07
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 149 Sentence Correction (SC1)



• Meaning?
A United Nations law governs ownership of the Arctic Ocean and gives Arctic nations possession of an economic zone in the Arctic ocean that is theirs alone and that extends 200 nautical miles from their shores.

THE PROMPT

Quote:
Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.


THE OPTIONS

Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.

Quote:
A) Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.

• Option A contains only one error: had provided
-- Did the law stop providing governance? No. Ownership . . . IS governed.
Past perfect is illogical and unwarranted.
-- Past perfect requires at least one event written in simple past tense or a time marker that creates the same effect.
No event is in simple past tense, and no time marker exists. Past perfect is ungrammatical.
Eliminate A.

Quote:
B) Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone to extend 200 nautical miles from land.

• The infinitive to extend could mean either in order to extend or that will extend
-- Neither meaning makes sense.
-- Not all infinitives are infinitives of purpose: Ammonia and chlorine combine to form a deadly gas.

• Nothing is wrong with which.
-- which typically modifies a preceding noun, true—but which can modify the immediately preceding noun or the main noun in a noun phrase.
Noun: LAW (+ prepositional phrase of the Sea).
-- which is allowed to "reach over" the prepositional phrase to get to its noun.
The prepositional phrase is an essential modifier and cannot be placed elsewhere.
Essential modifiers trump nonessential modifiers.
So we place [comma + which] right after the prepositional phrase.
-- Essential? Too close to call. In the very few questions of late in which GMAC tests whether a clause is essential, the material in question is obviously essential.
I would not eliminate this answer on the basis that the second part of this sentence is essential.
The appositive in (C) is not essential. Now what?
Eliminate B

C) Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.
• the verb provides correctly conveys that the Act is still in force. (The non-underlined portion of the sentence says, "Ownership . . . IS.")
• the present participle extending properly and sensibly modifies exclusive economic zone
a treatise that . . . is an appositive that renames or re-describes the noun.

Quote:
D) Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, a treatise provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone that extends 200 nautical miles from land.
[/quote]
provided is past tense. That tense is incorrect. The law is still in force.
• For this sentence to be logical, the word that needs to be inserted after "a treatise."
Eliminate D

Quote:
E) Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone of extension 200 nautical miles from land.

which is okay
• a economic zone of extension is not idiomatic. It doesn't make any sense.
If you are not sure, compare this answer to (C). Option C wins.

The correct answer is C

COMMENTS

tinytiger , ccheryn , and Prasannathawait , welcome to SC Butler. :)

SAURAV700 , I am happy that SC Butler was the arena in which a post pushed you over the "Manager" threshold. :lol:

Some of these explanations are excellent. Others are incomplete. Just below the question there is always a reminder post in which I state that correct answers with good explanations get kudos.
(Do you all realize that I used to award one kudos to the winner? And that I required people to write the meaning of the sentence?)

I am glad to see lots of perspectives and input.
I have corrected a few urban legends here and there. This is the place to clear them up.

No explanation? No kudos. In fact, I may delete your post.
If your answer barely explains, no kudos.
I will award kudos to answers whose authors explained well. Nice work!
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Re: Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2019, 22:38
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IMO B


Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.

A) which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending
The law still provides ownership, hence use of "had" is wrong

B) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone to extend
Use of present tense is correct, since the law still provides ownership.
"To extend" denotes intention,which is the aim of the law/treaty


C) a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending
Run-on error. Two independent clauses joined by comma

D) a treatise provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone that extends
Use of past tense is incorrect

E) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone of extension
"of extension" is incorrect
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Re: Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2019, 23:34
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Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.

A) which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending

B) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone to extend

C) a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending ->correct

D) a treatise provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone that extends

E) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone of extension
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Re: Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2019, 23:57
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Only Option C presents the correct 'noun+noun modifier' structure, using 'a treatise' to describe the immediate preceding UN convention and providing more details on how that ownership works.
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Re: Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 00:11
1
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 149 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.

A) which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending

B) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone to extend

C) a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending

D) a treatise provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone that extends

E) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone of extension


A) which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending - convention still provides - so present tense must be used

B) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone to extend - is incorrect, it already extends to 200 miles

C) a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending - Correct (noun+noun modifier)

D) a treatise provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone that extends - Tense error as in option A

E) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone of extension - of extension - incorrect. needs "extending" or "that extends"
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Re: Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 01:20
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IMO correct answer is C

Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.

A) which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending - use of "had provided", past perfect tense is not required as no two past events have been compared here in timeline;
Again if you go by the meaning of the sentence, the law came first & then it provided the extension of economic zone for the Arctic nations;
Also, use of ", which........." is a non-restrictive clause - we are talking about a particular subset of laws, if we strike out the part after the comma, no essential piece of information is lost, thus actual context of the sentence is not covered- Incorrect

B) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone to extend - Though Tense error is rectified here - "provides" - Simple present ;
Same issue again as of option A; ", which........." is not an ideal option here. we should go for "that" - restrictive clause;
Also, "to extend" is incorrect as we are not showing any intention, a causal relationship does not require this infinitive usage.

C) a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending -

SVA is maintained, sentence is in simple present tense - Tense error is also rectified.

use of "that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending"...correctly as a restrictive clause & if we ignore the part after "that", the sentence cannot stand alone by its own, it shatters;

"extending" - VerbING without comma modifies the preceding noun/noun phrase, which is correctly indicating "exclusive economic zone" that is extending 200 nautical miles from land

Correct

D) a treatise provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone that extends - Tense error - "provided" is used in simple past, but the non-underlined portion "is" in present tense.; misplace modifier "that" incorrectly modifying "exclusive economic zone"; Incorrect

E) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone of extension - Same error as A & B - Use of non-restrictive clause is incorrect.
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Re: Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 02:38
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Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.

A) which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending - incorrect use of "which". it refers to the immediate preceding noun.

B) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone to extend - same A. + Usage of "to extend" distorts the meaning of the original sentence.

C) a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending Correct. Noun + Noun modifier fits pefectly here.

D) a treatise provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone that extends non-nonsensical and grammatically incorrect. Incorrectly connected 2 clauses.

E) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone of extension same as A.
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Re: Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 05:46
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Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.

error analyisis

reason 1 : comma plus which is a non restrictive modifier modifies the preceding noun... so which here wrongly refers to the sea ..

A) which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending wrong due to reason 1

B) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone to extend wrong due to reason 1

C) a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending ( all error rectified, to avoid confusion Noun + relative clause modifier is introduced which makes the meaning clear) correct choice

D) a treatise provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone that extends wrong due to independent clause introduced again without proper connector , infact it should be written as dependent clause as in option C

E) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone of extension wrong due to reason 1
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Re: Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 06:42
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Quote:
Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.

A) which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending

B) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone to extend

C) a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending

D) a treatise provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone that extends

E) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone of extension


This sentence talks about a treaty 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea which gives the arctic nation an exclusive economic zone.
Ownership of the Arctic (Subject ) is governed (Verb) by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land. --> Incorrect Use of Past Participle as the Law still stands, we need to use simple present tense as this is a fact.

POE:
A) which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending -->Incorrect as above

B) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone to extend --> Corrects the tense but adds an error by using to extend. Here there is no need for purpose as this extra information which is stated. We should use a modifier instead.

C) a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending --> Correct usage of Noun + Noun Modifier. Also corrects both the errors of A and B.

D) a treatise provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone that extends --> Same as A. adds verb tense error.

E) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone of extension Incorrect usage of noun form.
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Re: Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 08:16
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 149 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.

Sentence Structure
Subject - verb
    Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea,
      a treatise that( a treatise) provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.

Issues:
    Meaning issue: The timelines are distorted as per OptionA:
    According to OptionA - The provision of the exclusive economic zone for Arctic nations was done before the governance of ownership by the 1958 UN convention.
    Timeline issue -
      --Provision of the exclusive economic zone( Before-action )---|--- Ownership Governance( After-action )---

    The general facts MUST be stated in simple present/past tense.
    A Unsolicited tense-shift

Answer choice analysis:
    A) which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending
      Unsolicited tense-shift

    B) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone to extend
      Meaning issue: To-extend signifies intent of the action

    C) a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending
      Better than the rest. C is the winner!

    D) a treatise provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone that extends
      Structural issue: 2 ICs are connected by a mere comma.

    E) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone of extension
      Meaning issue: Of-extension distorts the meaning

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Re: Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 08:38
C) a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone

C is the best answer.

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Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 12:06
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Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.

A) which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending
--- provided seems to be the wrong verb tense here. Please note, the use of 'which' cannot be deemed incorrect. It correctly modifies the UN Conventions

B) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone to extend
-- to extend is problematic in the sense that it suggests intend, which is not the case here.

C) a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending
--- no apparent errors. extending correctly modifies zone

D) a treatise provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone that extends
-- same as A, verb tense issue (please correct me if im wrong on the verb tense issue)


E) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone of extension
- zone of extension is plain wrong.

IMO - C


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Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 13:49
Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending 200 nautical miles from land.

A) which had provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending - no needs for past perfect, since we don't have consequentce in actions

B) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone to extend - no goals

C) a treatise that provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone extending - correct answer

D) a treatise provided Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone that extends- SVA mistake- wrong verb

E) which provides Arctic nations with an exclusive economic zone of extension - changed meaning
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Re: Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 23:49
I have posted the official explanation HERE
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Re: Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent   [#permalink] 10 Aug 2019, 23:49
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Ownership of the Arctic is governed by the 1958 United Nations Convent

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