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Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make co

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Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make computers that can understand English and other human languages, recognize objects, and reason as an expert does—computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these.


(A) as an expert does—computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these

(B) as an expert does, which may be used for purposes such as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan

(C) like an expert—computers that will be used for such purposes as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan

(D) like an expert, the use of which would be for purposes like the diagnosis of equipment breakdowns or the decision whether or not a loan should be authorized

(E) like an expert, to be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan or not, or the like


Verbal Question of The Day: Day 189: Sentence Correction


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Question No.: SC 95
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Originally posted by WinWinMBA on 21 Jun 2005, 13:30.
Last edited by Bunuel on 21 Sep 2018, 04:33, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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New post 15 Dec 2015, 20:39
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Look at the first option; --- as an expert does---Let’s now look to the corresponding verb in the earlier part? It is ‘can understand’. ‘Can understand’ is different in meaning from ‘does’ in that ‘can’ means a possibility while ‘does’ is a current action. So, they are not parallel in meaning. Perhaps if the sentence had said, - Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make computers that can understand English and other human languages, recognize objects, and reason as an expert can ----, that will be acceptable.

Therefore, the first option isn’t appropriate. On the contrary, the second option ‘like an expert’ correctly compares the computer to an expert
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Re: QOTD: Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2017, 20:54
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We’ve had a few QOTDs lately that feature dashes, including this one. We also discussed dashes in this YouTube webinar on GMAT punctuation. The short version: for the most part, you really don’t want to worry too much about the dashes, since the presence or absence of a dash will almost never be the deciding factor on actual GMAT questions. There are almost always more important things going on in GMAT SC questions that include dashes – and this one is no exception.

Quote:
(A) as an expert does--computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these

If you completely ignore the dash, you can still eliminate (A) quickly and easily. The word “or” is a parallelism trigger, suggesting that we have a list of several items, and those items need to be structurally and logically parallel.

But in this case, they definitely aren’t parallel: “computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these…” That’s a hot mess: “to diagnose” is a verb, “deciding” is presumably a noun (gerund), and “other purposes” is also a noun… but even then, it seems like we would need a “for” in front of “other purposes.” Clearly a mess, and that’s enough to eliminate (A).

A far less important issue: the phrase “such as these” seems like a waste of words. I don’t think it’s WRONG, exactly, and I wouldn’t eliminate (A) based on that issue alone. But it’s not awesome.

For whatever it’s worth: I’m OK in principle with the beginning of the underlined portion. The word “does” has plenty of uses in English, but in this case (and in this one), it basically replaces a verb (sort of like a pronoun, but for verbs). So we have “…computers that can… reason as an expert [reasons].” That makes sense.

I’m also OK with the use of the dash, just in case you’re wondering about that, too. The stuff after the dash just gives us a more detailed description of the computer. Fair enough.

Anyway, the parallelism issue IS a really big problem, so (A) is definitely out.

Quote:
(B) as an expert does, which may be used for purposes such as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan

The parallelism is better in (B): “purposes such as diagnosingor deciding…” Looks much better than (A)!

The problem is the word “which.” In most cases, “which” begins a phrase that modifies the preceding noun – or, at the very least, a noun that’s in really, really close proximity to the phrase beginning with “which.” And in this case, “which may be used for purpose such as diagnosing equipment breakdowns…” seems to be modifying “as an expert does”, and that makes no sense at all. The phrase beginning with “which” needs to describe the computer, not the phrase “as an expert does.”

So (B) can be eliminated.

Quote:
(C) like an expert--computers that will be used for such purposes as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan

The parallelism is also really good in (C): “purposes such as diagnosingor deciding…” Great. And as discussed in (A) above, the dash is also completely fine, since the thing that follows is just a nice description of the computer.

You might be wondering about the use of “like” here. And as you probably know, “like” is generally used to compare two nouns on the GMAT, and “as” is used in situations like these to compare two nouns performing two actions. Consider the following:

    1. Like a moldy piece of fruit, Donald Trump has fine orange hair. → correct, since the noun “a moldy piece of fruit” is being compared with another noun, “Donald Trump”, and “like” compares two nouns

    2. Like a moldy piece of fruit does, Donald Trump has fine orange hair. → wrong, since the sentence is now structured as “like (noun verb), (noun verb)”, so we’re comparing two clauses (i.e., two nouns with two verbs) – and “like” can only compare two nouns, not two clauses

    3. As a moldy piece of fruit does, Donald Trump has fine orange hair. → correct, since we can use “as” to compare two clauses (two nouns with two verbs)… even if it sounds kinda goofy

So it turns out that the use of “like” in (C) is fine: we’re comparing “computers” with “an expert”, and both of those things are nouns, as they are in example #1. (Note that the use of “as” in (A) was also acceptable, because “as” was used to compare two nouns with two verbs: “computers can reason… as an expert does…” That's the same setup as example #3.)

Anyway, I don’t see any problems in (C), so let’s keep it.

Quote:
(D) like an expert, the use of which would be for purposes like the diagnosis of equipment breakdowns or the decision whether or not a loan should be authorized

The first “like” is fine (“like an expert”), as discussed in the explanation for (C). The second “like”, however, is a problem: the GMAT generally frowns upon the use of “like” to introduce examples, and “such as” is generally preferred. (At least one official exception exists, but “like” is used to introduce examples in all five answer choices, so it’s a non-issue in that case. In every official question that gives us a choice between “like” and “such as”, “such as” is correct.)

There are other problems with (D). The phrase “whether or not” is generally considered redundant on the GMAT, and has never appeared in a correct answer, at least not to my knowledge. There’s also a modifier placement problem: the phrase “the use of which…” seems to modify “an expert”, and that makes no sense, since “an expert” is not being used for “the diagnosis of equipment.”

So we have plenty of good reasons to get rid of (D).

Quote:
(E) like an expert, to be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan or not, or the like

This one is a hot mess. “Whether or not” is generally considered redundant, as we mentioned in (D). “Or the like” makes no sense at all, and I can’t imagine that the GMAT would ever be OK with that phrase. And the parallelism is spectacularly bad: “to be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan or not, or the like.”

So we can eliminate (E), and we’re stuck with (C).
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New post 15 Dec 2015, 19:25
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Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make computers that can understand English and other human languages, recognize objects, and reason (as an expert does) / (like an expert).

I understand that for comparison if we use "Like" then it must be followed by noun and if we use "AS" then it must be followed by a clause. Please suggest which one is better to use in this case and why??

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New post 21 Jun 2005, 17:14
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would like C.....


like an expert (using like for comapring nouns)

"such purposes as diagnosing equipment breakdowns" such as for quoting examples

using "whether" which is correct and not "whether or not" which is redundant
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Re: Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make co  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2011, 06:10
even though its a very "ancient" post, i would like to know what's wrong with B.

"such purposes as" sounds more weird than " purposes such as"...
plz correct me if i am wrong
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New post 29 Aug 2011, 06:38
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siddharthasingh wrote:
even though its a very "ancient" post, i would like to know what's wrong with B.

"such purposes as" sounds more weird than " purposes such as"...
plz correct me if i am wrong


B) as an expert does, which may be used for purposes such as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan

which modifies the noun preceding the comma. What is in this case "does"; it is a verb and not a noun. Thus incorrect.

"such purposes as" and "purposes such as" are both correct usage. It depends what author wants to convey.

If the author writes:
purposes such as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan.

Here, such as followed by "purposes" is referring to entire purposes that exist in this world AND then gives only two examples out of those: diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan.

When author writes:
such purposes as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan
Then the author is actually talking about only two types of purposes specifically that the computers will be capable of, viz. diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan, thus "such X as examples" is more apt.
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New post 25 Nov 2015, 21:19
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(A) as an expert does—computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these ---First indication is the faulty parallelism. --- To diagnose, an infinitive, and deciding, a simple gerund and or other purposes, a noun --- three different forms in a single list. Secondly the wrong comparison of computers to what an expert does


(B) as an expert does, which may be used for purposes such as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan ---- 1. What is the specific antecedent of ‘which’? Is it referring to artificial intelligence or computers. Obviously not to experts or to proponents, since we don’t refer human beings by ‘which’. 2. The comparison issue as in A.


(C) like an expert—computers that will be used for such purposes as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan – The parallelism is set in place smugly by using two gerunds such diagnosing and deciding. The comparison is also correct in comparing the computers to an expert. Correct choice.

(D) like an expert, the use of which would be for purposes like the diagnosis of equipment breakdowns or the decision whether or not a loan should be authorized --- 'The use of which' is a problem as in B. 2.'Like' to denote example is another issue.

(E) like an expert, to be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan or not, or the like -- 1. Parallelism: 1. to diagnose 2. deciding or 3. the like – not parallel. 2. It is not clear what the term ‘to be used’ refers to an expert or to computers or to intelligence
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New post 26 Nov 2015, 13:11
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There are two things about this problem that have always interested me:

1) The split between "like" and "as" is a fakeout! We don't need to decide that to get the problem right, and in fact either one could work! You can reason "like an expert" or "as an expert does." What's really at issue is how we follow up on this comparison. In B, D, and E, we are using the expert, when it seems we should be using the computer. That leaves us with just two choices!

2) The other interesting bit is how the dash is used here. For some reason, the Verbal Review book seems to feature the dash more prominently than the main OG, and it's put to interesting use. The dash--not a hyphen, but a long dash--is often used as a parenthetical, as in this sentence you're reading. :) However, it can also be used to indicate a break in the sentence that increases clarity. In the case of this problem, we need to make it clear that we're talking about computers, not experts, so we use a dash to break in and reintroduce the subject again. If you're not sure why we're doing that, take a look at how we'd have to write C without the dash:

Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make computers that can understand English and other human languages, recognize objects, and reason like an expert and that will be used for such purposes as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan.

Technically, we could say that we had done our job. We have parallel clauses: "that can understand . . . " and "that will be used." However, there's so much complexity in between that it becomes very hard to understand what we're trying to say. If we think of good grammar as a form of good manners, the dash is our way of leading the reader politely to our intended meaning.
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Re: Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make co  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2017, 07:26
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WinWinMBA wrote:
Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make computers that can understand English and other human languages, recognize objects, and reason as an expert does--computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these.


it is a clear C for me.

computers will be used to:
a) diagnose equipment breakdowns
b) decide whether to authorize a loan


(A) as an expert does--computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these
such as these - which ones? moreover to diagnose is not parallel to deciding - as it is now, in the ing modifier, it doesn't make any sense!

(B) as an expert does, which may be used for purposes such as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan
which after verb is never ever ever correct.

(C) like an expert--computers that will be used for such purposes as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan
looks good.

(D) like an expert, the use of which would be for purposes like the diagnosis of equipment breakdowns or the decision whether or not a loan should be authorized
use of computer or of the expert? as it is now - it implies the expert - out.
like to give examples is not correct either.

(E) like an expert, to be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan or not, or the like
again, it implies that the expert is to be used...
overall, this option is a total mess...ing modifier used when it's not needed
whether already implies OR NOT, so usage of this form is considered wordy
or the like - what?
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New post 03 May 2017, 13:23
Can someone explain to me why "reason like an expert" is a comparison? Shouldn't "as + noun" be used in such a situation to describe a function?
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New post 03 May 2017, 23:57
v0latility wrote:
Can someone explain to me why "reason like an expert" is a comparison? Shouldn't "as + noun" be used in such a situation to describe a function?

Hi v0latility, when you suggest as + noun, I believe you mean as + noun + verb, since no option has as + noun.

Also, when it comes to as vs like, it is not always an or relationship. This is one particular case where both like and as + noun + verb would work well. So, we should not be using it for split.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana specifically notes this points and discusses as Vs like, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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New post 17 Sep 2017, 07:13
There's one thing stumping me about this question:

Saying that a computer "can X, Y and Z, LIKE an expert" - doesn't this compare the actions of the computer directly to an expert........in other words, I wanted to make the comparison such that it compared the actions of the computer to the ACTIONS of the expert.

I'll appreciate any help on this
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New post 06 Oct 2017, 06:25
nrxbra001 wrote:
There's one thing stumping me about this question:

Saying that a computer "can X, Y and Z, LIKE an expert" - doesn't this compare the actions of the computer directly to an expert........in other words, I wanted to make the comparison such that it compared the actions of the computer to the ACTIONS of the expert.

I'll appreciate any help on this



Hello nrxbra001,

I am not sure if you still have this doubt or not. Nonetheless, he is the explanation. :-)

In comparison, there are two entities that are compared because of some point of similarity.

In this official sentence, the two compared entities are certain experts and certain computers.

Why have they been compared? They have been compared because they both can perform certain tasks in the same manner.

Hence, this comparison can be expressed both ways:

Like experts, computers can do A, B, and C.

As experts do, computers can do A, B, and C.

It is so because the basis of the comparison is what these two entities can do. So the computers have been compared to the experts because both can perform the same tasks. The action is inherent in the comparison.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: QOTD: Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2017, 22:20
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C it is
*like* will be used to show similarity. so A and B are wrong
the next thing after expert should be *computers* and one need *such as* to show how computer will be used for different purposes. E and D are wrong. D using *like* but sentence needs *such as*
in E comma + to be used is wrong? what to be used? experts?
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Re: QOTD: Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2017, 23:49
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Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make computers that can understand English and other human languages, recognize objects, and reason as an expert does--computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these.

(A) as an expert does--computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these

(B) as an expert does, which may be used for purposes such as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan

(C) like an expert -computers that will be used for such purposes as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan

(D) like an expert, the use of which would be for purposes like the diagnosis of equipment breakdowns or the decision whether or not a loan should be authorized

(E) like an expert, to be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan or not, or the like
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New post 29 Dec 2017, 10:43
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sananoor wrote:
C it is
*like* will be used to show similarity. so A and B are wrong
the next thing after expert should be *computers* and one need *such as* to show how computer will be used for different purposes. E and D are wrong. D using *like* but sentence needs *such as*
in E comma + to be used is wrong? what to be used? experts?



Hello sananoor,

Congratulations on solving this rather complicated question correctly. :thumbup:

I say rather complicated because many test takers feel that this question tests the usage of comparison expression like and as.

Per the grammar rules of the correct usage of these comparison expressions, like must be followed by a noun entity and as must be followed by a clause.

The first two choices that use as follow the rule correctly. So do the last three choices that use like.

Hence, we cannot make a decision about the possibly correct answer on the basis of the usage of like and as because usage of both these expressions convey the same meaning.

Both the expressions present comparison between a certain kind of computers and experts. These two entities have been compared on the basis of their capability to understand human languages.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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