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Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen

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Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2015, 06:25
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Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen considerably the minimum time between takeoffs from the airport. In consequence, the airport would be able to accommodate 10 percent fewer flights than currently use the airport daily. The city’s operating budget depends heavily on taxes generated by tourist spending, and most of the tourists come by plane. Therefore, the proposed new safety rules, if adopted, will reduce the revenue available for the operating budget.

The argument depends on assuming which of the following?

(A) There are no periods of the day during which the interval between flights taking off from the airport is significantly greater than the currently allowed.

(B) Few, if any, of the tourists who use the Beach City airport do so when their main destination is a neighboring community and not Beach City itself.

(C) If the proposed safety rules are adopted, the reduction in tourist numbers will not result mainly from a reduction in the number of tourists who spend relatively little in Beach City.

(D) Increasing the minimum time between takeoffs is the only way to achieve necessary safety improvements without a large expenditure by the city government on airport enhancements.

(E) The response to the adoption of the new safety rules would not include an increase in the number of passengers per flight.

OG2017, CR628, P534

Beach City Airport

Step 1: Identify the Question

The phrase argument depends on assuming in the question stem indicates that this is a Find the Assumption question.

Step 2: Deconstruct the Argument

new rules = ↑ time between takeoffs = ↓ flights

↓ flights = ↓ tourists = ↓ operating budget

The argument depends on a series of connections: if one thing decreases, then another will also decrease. Note that if any one of these connections were invalid—for instance, if the decrease in flights didn’t actually decrease the number of tourists—the argument would no longer be valid.

Step 3: Pause and State the Goal

On Assumption questions, the goal is to pick a statement on which the argument’s logic depends. The right answer will be something the author must believe to be true in order for the argument to be reasonable.

Step 4: Work from Wrong to Right

(A) This answer choice appears to support the connection between increased time between takeoffs and a decreased number of flights. If there were currently ‘quiet periods’ at the airport, couldn’t extra flights be squeezed in, to avoid reducing the total number of flights while still obeying the rules? However, the argument already specifies that the new rules will result in at least a 10% decrease in the number of flights. This is a statement of fact, so no further assumptions need to be made in order to support it.

(B) Even if Beach City tourists represented a very small fraction of those arriving in the city by airplane, a decrease in the number of flights would still decrease their numbers proportionally, resulting in a lower operating budget.

(C) If the reduction will not consist mostly of low spenders, then it will consist mostly of high spenders. A reduction in the number of tourists who spend a lot would have a large effect on the operating budget. Therefore, this answer choice strengthens the argument. However, although this is a strengthener, it isn’t an assumption, because it doesn’t have to be true in order for the logic of the argument to hold. Imagine a scenario in which 10% of the tourists spent $1 in Beach City, while the remaining 90% spent $1000 each. Even if the 10% who spent $1 were those who stopped visiting due to a lack of flights, that still represents an overall decrease in revenue. Although this answer choice would strengthen the argument, it isn’t necessary to the argument, since it could be false and the argument could still hold.

(D) It doesn’t matter whether there are other ways to achieve safety improvements. The conclusion addresses only the effects of this particular improvement, not why it was selected or whether it was superior to the alternatives.

(E) CORRECT. This must be true in order for the argument to be logically sound. If it weren’t true, then the number of passengers per flight would increase and it would no longer be possible to conclude that the overall number of tourists coming to Beach City would decrease. In this case, the operating budget might not decrease after all.
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2015, 22:28
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WillGetIt wrote:
Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen considerably the minimum time between takeoffs fiom the airport. In consequence, the airport would be able to accommodate 10 percent fewer flights than currently use the airport daily. The city’s operating budget depends heavily on taxes generated by tourist spending, and most of the tourists come by plane. Therefore, the proposed new safety rules, if adopted, will reduce the revenue available for the operating budget.

The argument depends on assuming which of the following?

A There are no periods of the day during which the interval between flights taking off from the airport is significantly greater than the currently allowed

B Few, if any, of the tourists who use the Beach City airport do so when their main destination is a neighboring community and not Beach City itself.

C If the proposed safety rules are adopted, the reduction in tourist numbers will not result mainly from a reduction in the number of tourists who spend relatively little in Beach City.

D Increasing the minimum time between takeoffs is the only way to achieve necessary safety improvements without a large expenditure by the city government on airport enhancements.

E The response to the adoption of the new safety rules would not include an increase in the number of passengers per flight.

"Please hit kudos, if you like this post"



Respnding to a pm:

Premises:
New rules will increase the minimum time between takeoffs (say from 10 mins to 15 mins)
The airport would be able to accommodate 10 percent fewer flights (Airport capacity will decrease by 10%)
City’s operating budget depends on taxes generated by plane-using tourists.

Conclusion: So new rules, if adopted, will reduce the revenue available for the operating budget.

To arrive at the conclusion, you are making a lot of assumptions:
1. Decrease in capacity will actually lead to decrease in number of flights.
2. Decrease in number of flights will actually lead to decrease in number of tourists in the city
3. Decrease in number of tourists will actually lead to decrease in revenue (tourists will not start spending extra)
4. Decrease in tourist revenue will actually decrease revenue available for budget (it will not be compensated in another way).

Look at the options:

A There are no periods of the day during which the interval between flights taking off from the airport is significantly greater than the currently allowed

There is a problem with (A). There could be periods of day during which interval between flights is more - say the 12 noon to 4 pm slot. But still, it is possible that the number of flights are reduced, say in the peak hours of 7 pm to 10 pm. We don't know whether it is feasible to readjust flight timings to occupy free slots. Hence, we cannot assume that there are no free slots.

E The response to the adoption of the new safety rules would not include an increase in the number of passengers per flight.
This is our point 2 given above. We are assuming that decrease in number of flights will lead to decrease in number of tourists. So we are assuming that the reduced flights will not carry increased number of passengers.
This is correct.

Answer (E)
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2016, 22:32
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WillGetIt wrote:
Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen considerably the minimum time between takeoffs fiom the airport. In consequence, the airport would be able to accommodate 10 percent fewer flights than currently use the airport daily. The city’s operating budget depends heavily on taxes generated by tourist spending, and most of the tourists come by plane. Therefore, the proposed new safety rules, if adopted, will reduce the revenue available for the operating budget.

The argument depends on assuming which of the following?

A There are no periods of the day during which the interval between flights taking off from the airport is significantly greater than the currently allowed

B Few, if any, of the tourists who use the Beach City airport do so when their main destination is a neighboring community and not Beach City itself.

C If the proposed safety rules are adopted, the reduction in tourist numbers will not result mainly from a reduction in the number of tourists who spend relatively little in Beach City.

D Increasing the minimum time between takeoffs is the only way to achieve necessary safety improvements without a large expenditure by the city government on airport enhancements.

E The response to the adoption of the new safety rules would not include an increase in the number of passengers per flight.

"Please hit kudos, if you like this post"


Type: Assumption
Boil It Down: Safety rule reduces # of flights -> Tourism revenue/operating budget down
Missing Information: No other factors
Goal: Find the option that exposes some missing information the argument takes for granted.
Analysis: The person making the argument makes the wholesale assumption that just because the number of flights will be reduced that the number of people on the remaining flights would be reduced. What if they're flying super-jumbo jets such as the Airbus A380? How do we know that the capacity of the remaining flights couldn't be increased by using higher capacity aircraft such as the A380?

A) This option that there are no periods of time between takeoffs greater than the allowed minimum (as some sort of possible hidden way to increase the number of flights perhaps) is entirely irrelevant since the argument establishes as a fact: "the airport would be able to accommodate 10 percent fewer flights than currently use the airport daily."

B) This option discusses an entirely irrelevant factor. The argument could still hold whether some people go to neighboring communities. This option is not something that the logic of the argument hinges on.

C) This one involves some tricky logic, so let's evaluate with the Opposite Test: Even if the reduction in travellers were mainly attributable to people who spend relatively little, the argument still holds because this group would still be spending something. This option is DEFINITELY not something the logic of the argument requires.

D) The argument doesn't require the proposal to be the ONLY way to increase the safety standards. There could be other proposals, and this argument about this proposal still stands. Therefore, this option is not required either. Gone.

E) Here we are! The argument ABSOLUTELY assumes that the number of passengers per flight won't increase. Applying the Opposite Test: if the number of passengers per flight were to increase, then the whole condition on which argument is based (fewer travellers) is nullified, and therefore the argument would collapse. This option IS required for the logic of the argument to hold---the argument depends on this assumption.
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Jul 2015, 11:06
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amatya wrote:
WillGetIt wrote:
Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen considerably the minimum time between takeoffs fiom the airport. In consequence, the airport would be able to accommodate 10 percent fewer flights than currently use the airport daily. The city’s operating budget depends heavily on taxes generated by tourist spending, and most of the tourists come by plane. Therefore, the proposed new safety rules, if adopted, will reduce the revenue available for the operating budget.

The argument depends on assuming which of the following?

A There are no periods of the day during which the interval between flights taking off from the airport is significantly greater than the currently allowed

B Few, if any, of the tourists who use the Beach City airport do so when their main destination is a neighboring community and not Beach City itself.

C If the proposed safety rules are adopted, the reduction in tourist numbers will not result mainly from a reduction in the number of tourists who spend relatively little in Beach City.

D Increasing the minimum time between takeoffs is the only way to achieve necessary safety improvements without a large expenditure by the city government on airport enhancements.

E The response to the adoption of the new safety rules would not include an increase in the number of passengers per flight.

"Please hit kudos, if you like this post"



Can you please explain why A is wrong and why E is correct



Amatya, I am happy to respond.

First look at the stimulus, and understand the argument

After you decompose the argument into premises and conclusion, detect which are one, and fully understand how the passage flows, then it is necessary pre-think the answer.

For this, think about how can the conclusion not be true. Our conclusion is that the proposed new safety rules, if adopted, will reduce the revenue available for the operating budget so now think about possible scenarios where this might not be true.

1-What if proposed legislation in fact will not necessarily mean lower revenues, is that possible? if it is possible then how? are the same number of passenger going to fly, is the ticket price going to increase while maintaining the same number of passengers?

Once you start thinking of possible weakeners, then you predict your assumption that such weakeners are not going to happen. In doing so, you are "protecting your argument" and that is what an assumption really does. "An assumption (the hidden idea or premise we take for granted when reading our argument) must be true for the conclusion to hold true.

So next step is to find some prediction similar to your pre-thinking analysis, eliminating wrong answer choices i.e. out of scope, too extreme, too broad, or simple re-statements (These are the usual wrong answers in such questions)

Answer choice E, IF we negate it, it means that "The response to the adoption of the new safety rules would include an increase in the number of passengers per flight. If it includes an increase, such increase could either cancel out the negative effect or bring even more customers and hence more money per flight. Simply our conclusion would fall apart.

Answer choice A: There are no periods of the day during which the interval between flights taking off from the airport is significantly greater than the currently allowed. This could be true but it is not necessarily true. If we negate this option, meaning that There are periods of the day during which the interval between flights taking off from the airport is significantly greater than the currently allowed and we critically think as how this affect our conclusion, we see that this option does not make the argument less likely. Even if there are no periods greater than the currently allowed, this reasoning does not give me the connection that the conclusion states that the proposed legislation will lead to decreased revenues.

As a final remark, focus on your conclusion and deconstruct the argument, understanding how it flows, how its premises lead to conclusion and what "jumps"of reasoning did the author make.

With practice, it will be much easier to recognize the same patterns

keep it up :)

Hit for kudos if you liked my explanation ;-)

Originally posted by mmelendez on 13 Jul 2015, 11:03.
Last edited by mmelendez on 13 Jul 2015, 11:06, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2015, 08:05
WillGetIt wrote:
Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen considerably the minimum time between takeoffs fiom the airport. In consequence, the airport would be able to accommodate 10 percent fewer flights than currently use the airport daily. The city’s operating budget depends heavily on taxes generated by tourist spending, and most of the tourists come by plane. Therefore, the proposed new safety rules, if adopted, will reduce the revenue available for the operating budget.

The argument depends on assuming which of the following?

A There are no periods of the day during which the interval between flights taking off from the airport is significantly greater than the currently allowed

B Few, if any, of the tourists who use the Beach City airport do so when their main destination is a neighboring community and not Beach City itself.

C If the proposed safety rules are adopted, the reduction in tourist numbers will not result mainly from a reduction in the number of tourists who spend relatively little in Beach City.

D Increasing the minimum time between takeoffs is the only way to achieve necessary safety improvements without a large expenditure by the city government on airport enhancements.

E The response to the adoption of the new safety rules would not include an increase in the number of passengers per flight.

"Please hit kudos, if you like this post"



Can you please explain why A is wrong and why E is correct
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2015, 08:31
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Hello,

Well A literally mentions that "flights are taking off on time"

Does this have anything to do with conclusion... No.

Can we say because flights are taking off as usual so revenue would be decreased?????? No..

Hope it clears!

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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2015, 11:04
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Hello,

Detailed analysis of question is attached for your help.







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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2015, 03:51
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Well see we need to identify the key word.

Increase in time between take offs -- > 10% fewer accommodate at airport.

budget depends heavily on--> tourist spending-->tourists mostly travels in plane

conclusion: the proposed new safety rules, if adopted, will reduce the revenue available for the operating budget.

Ok

So our prethinking should be in such fashion:

Lesser tourist --> lesser tourist spending -->lesser budget.

Now see E..

The response to the adoption of the new safety rules would not include an increase in the number of passengers per flight.

What does it mean?

It means the passengers/flight would not increase. Also we know that now 10% fewer plans accommodate at airport.So in total the net number of tourists coming to the Beach City has decreased.

Well I hope this helps.. Please do give kudos if you have liked my explanation.
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2015, 04:48
Hello Karishma,

Thanks for great explanation.

I was just wandering whether the assumption number 01 mentioned by you is actually a assumption?

In my opinion it is not. Would appreciate your feedback.

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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2015, 22:27
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WillGetIt wrote:
Hello Karishma,

Thanks for great explanation.

I was just wandering whether the assumption number 01 mentioned by you is actually a assumption?

In my opinion it is not. Would appreciate your feedback.

Regards



Here is a case where decrease in capacity may not lead to decrease in number of flights.

Say, the airport can handle 48 flights in a day since it is essential to have 30 mins between takeoffs. So the capacity of the airport is 48 flights.
But it actually handles only 24 - with one hour between take offs.
Now, say new norms require that there should be at least 45 mins between two flights so the capacity of the airport goes down. But will the number of flights reduce? No. There is already more than 45 mins between successive takeoffs. So a decrease in capacity needn't actually cause a decrease in the number of flights.
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2015, 10:35
I was stuck between C and E.
In C, even though the reduction in revenue because of these tourists will be relativesly low, there will still be loss in revenue generated. So, in that case C doesn't weaken the conclusion.

Is that right? If someone has better explanation, please share!

Thanks!
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2015, 11:22
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Remember that we are looking for assumption question not a weakening question.

Hope it helps!
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2015, 22:23
The revenue depends on the number of tourists and not on the number of flights. "E" identifies the assumption correctly.The author assumes that the number of passengers would not increase and hence concludes the revenues will decline. "C" gives a reason for a reduction in tourist numbers. It is not a necessary assumption.
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2016, 02:46
E >> If the new safety rule increase the number of passenger per flight, the city could collect more revenue from customer.
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New post 23 Mar 2016, 02:15
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Someone pls help me eliminate C. Thanks!

C. If the proposed safety rules are adopted, the reduction in tourist numbers will not result mainly from a reduction in the number of tourists who spend relatively little in Beach City.

I thought the total reduction = reduction in numbers of tourists who spend relatively little in Beach City + reduction in numbers of tourists who spend relatively much more in Beach City

Choice C says that the total reduction will not come mainly from the little, meaning it will come mainly from the much more. Negate this choice: the reduction will come mainly from the little, then it somewhat will not reduce the revenue: the conclusion doesn't hold any more.
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2016, 21:26
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punta wrote:
Someone pls help me eliminate C. Thanks!

C. If the proposed safety rules are adopted, the reduction in tourist numbers will not result mainly from a reduction in the number of tourists who spend relatively little in Beach City.

I thought the total reduction = reduction in numbers of tourists who spend relatively little in Beach City + reduction in numbers of tourists who spend relatively much more in Beach City

Choice C says that the total reduction will not come mainly from the little, meaning it will come mainly from the much more. Negate this choice: the reduction will come mainly from the little, then it somewhat will not reduce the revenue: the conclusion doesn't hold any more.



(C) If the proposed safety rules are adopted, the reduction in tourist numbers will not result mainly from a reduction in the number of tourists who spend relatively little in Beach City.

Negated (C): If the proposed safety rules are adopted, the reduction in tourist numbers will result mainly from a reduction in the number of tourists who spend relatively little in Beach City.

The reduction will be in the number of tourists who spend relatively little.

Is it still possible that the revenue available for the operating budget will reduce?

Yes, these tourists are spending little, relatively speaking. They could still be spending a substantial amount. Also, the number of these tourists could be rather high and a big reduction could actually cause a substantial reduction in the revenue. Anyway, our conclusion talks about a reduction, not a substantial reduction so if there is any kind of reduction, the conclusion holds.

On negating (C), the conclusion can hold and hence (C) is not our assumption.
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New post 25 May 2016, 06:25
Why is B wrong? I mean if a lot tourist are just using Beach City as a hopping flight destination, they will stop taking connecting flight from the Beach City and take another route for the nearby community where they are planning to go eventually. Since these travelers were never planning to stay and spend in the Beach City, this wont affect revenues in the Beach City. Does it make sense?
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2016, 22:32
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NoHalfMeasures wrote:
Why is B wrong? I mean if a lot tourist are just using Beach City as a hopping flight destination, they will stop taking connecting flight from the Beach City and take another route for the nearby community where they are planning to go eventually. Since these travelers were never planning to stay and spend in the Beach City, this wont affect revenues in the Beach City. Does it make sense?


Even if some tourists are hopping over Beach city, there is no reason to believe that only they will be the ones switching to another route. Fewer flight availability would mean fewer for everybody. The flights are not allotted according to final destinations. No preference is given to people entering the city as opposed to people leaving from the airport itself. Hence, (B) is not correct.
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Sep 2016, 20:21
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WillGetIt wrote:
Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen considerably the minimum time between takeoffs fiom the airport. In consequence, the airport would be able to accommodate 10 percent fewer flights than currently use the airport daily. The city’s operating budget depends heavily on taxes generated by tourist spending, and most of the tourists come by plane. Therefore, the proposed new safety rules, if adopted, will reduce the revenue available for the operating budget.

The argument depends on assuming which of the following?

A There are no periods of the day during which the interval between flights taking off from the airport is significantly greater than the currently allowed

B Few, if any, of the tourists who use the Beach City airport do so when their main destination is a neighboring community and not Beach City itself.

C If the proposed safety rules are adopted, the reduction in tourist numbers will not result mainly from a reduction in the number of tourists who spend relatively little in Beach City.

D Increasing the minimum time between takeoffs is the only way to achieve necessary safety improvements without a large expenditure by the city government on airport enhancements.

E The response to the adoption of the new safety rules would not include an increase in the number of passengers per flight.

"Please hit kudos, if you like this post"


The correct answer is E

---------A increases-------------------------> B decreases ----------------------------> C decrease
Security check time increase--------->Number of flight decreases-------->Number of Tourist decreases
. .(A). .(B). .(C).

Our goal is to Maintain C (Number of tourists)

A (Security Check time )cannot be tinkered with, It will stay as it is,
B (Number of Flights ) cannot be changed either ; BUT BUT BUT it can be modified in such a way that C (Number of tourists ) stays constant ---> In summary although the number of flight cannot be increased but size of the planes can be increased, so that every flight coming to the airport can carry more number of tourist whenever it arrives.

So the argument assumes that it cannot happen--> Number of people in flight cannot be increased and therefore number of tourist will decrease

What options says so :--->
E) The response to the adoption of the new safety rules would not include an increase in the number of passengers per flight

Thus E is the assumption that is made by the author.

THEREFORE CORRECT ANSWER IS E

If you personalise any argument that you can find the errors very quickly. For example here you could have used the your knowledge of polar bear food behavior. Polar bears sleep for 6 months and thus cannot eat anything when they are asleep. Thus to compensate for the "NO FOOD- I CANT EAT- I AM SLEEPING", the bear eat lots and lots and lots and lots of food continuously for many weeks before going to hibernation. Similarly when Number of flight is reduced, then aeroplanes should be filled with lots and lots and lots of people, so that number of tourist doesn't decrease.
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Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 14 Jul 2016, 12:28.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 13 Sep 2016, 20:21, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2016, 01:12
E

if u negate E , the operating budget remains same.So it destroys the conclusion

C is a trap.nothing about spending is given
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Re: Proposed new safety rules for the Beach City airport would lengthen   [#permalink] 15 Jul 2016, 01:12

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