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# QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago

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QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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08 May 2017, 09:12
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Verbal Question of The Day: Day 6: Sentence Correction

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First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head; a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and a red eye.

(A) found in the Philippines and that resembles
(B) found in the Philippines and that, resembling
(C) found in the Philippines and resembling
(D) that is found in the Philippines and it resembles
(E) that is found in the Philippines, resembling

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https://www.nytimes.com/1997/01/21/science/new-species-of-bird-is-discovered-or-rediscovered-in-philippines.html

THE tiny sunbirds, with their dazzling colors and long pointed bills for sipping nectar from flowers in tropical forests, are in many ways the Old World counterparts of the hummingbirds of the Americas. Sunbirds are found from Africa, where they are especially abundant, to the islands of Southeast Asia; like the hummingbirds, there is a large number of known species: 126 to be exact with the discovery, being announced today, of a new sunbird on the southern Philippine island of Mindanao.

Lina's sunbird is a four-and-a-half-inch-long avian jewel that Dr. Robert S. Kennedy, a researcher at the Cincinnati Museum of Natural History and Science, described as generally green above and yellow below, with shimmering metallic colors on the head, wings and tail; a brilliant orange patch in the center of the breast, bordered on the sides by scarlet tufts; and ''a blood-red eye that enhances the overall beauty of this rare sunbird.''

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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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08 May 2017, 09:13
13
9
Quote:
(A) found in the Philippines and that resembles
(B) found in the Philippines and that, resembling

We can ditch (A) and (B) pretty quickly: "and" is followed by a phrase beginning with "that" -- and there's nothing earlier in the sentence that could possibly be parallel to the phrase beginning with "that."

Quote:
(C) found in the Philippines and resembling

(C) doesn't SOUND parallel, but it is!

"Found" is just an adjective that modifies the animal, and so is "resembling." Sure, they don't sound the same, but they're both adjectives, so we're all good here. Let's keep (C).

(And for more on parallelism and "-ing" words, check out this article: https://gmatclub.com/forum/experts-topi ... 39780.html).

Quote:
(D) that is found in the Philippines and it resembles

The parallelism isn't quite right in (D), either. The phrase that follows "and" is a brand-new clause: "it resembles a hummingbird." And that can't possibly be correct here, since "it resembles a hummingbird" isn't parallel to "that is found in the Philippines". Besides, the underlined portion is part of a modifier, and I have no idea why we would stick a full, independent clause inside that modifier. So (D) is gone.

So we're down to (C) and (E). Here's the sentence again, with (E) punched in:
Quote:
(E) First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippines, resembling a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head...

The trouble here is that we have a messy (and unnecessary) "double modifier": "that is found in the Philippines" modifies the animal, and so does the phrase "resembling a hummingbird." Notice that (C) puts these two modifiers in a nice, parallel structure, with an "and" separating the two modifiers ("found..." and "resembling..."). That isn't happening in (E) -- it's almost as if "resembling a hummingbird" is trying to modify the other modifier, "that is found in the Philippines," and that just doesn't make any sense.

(C) is much clearer, and it's our winner.
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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08 May 2017, 10:08
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First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head; a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and a red eye.

A. found in the Philippines and that resembles
"found in...and that resembles a..." is not parallel
One is verb-ed modifier and other is a verb

B. found in the Philippines and that, resembling
"resembling" tags the preceding verb/action which alters the meaning

C. found in the Philippines and resembling
NOTE: Verb-ed and Verb-ing modifiers are parallel to each other. Hence both "found" & "resembling" correctly modify Lina's sunbird and are parallel hence RIGHT ANSWER choice

D. that is found in the Philippines and it resembles
"found" & "resembles" not parallel

E. that is found in the Philippines, resembling
"resembling" incorrectly used modifier. It modifies the preceding verb which is not correct
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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08 May 2017, 10:35
1
First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head; a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and a red eye.

A. found in the Philippines and that resembles
B. found in the Philippines and that, resembling
C. found in the Philippines and resembling
animal found and animal resembling --- parallel
D. that is found in the Philippines and it resembles
E. that is found in the Philippines, resembling

IMO C
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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09 May 2017, 08:02
The answer is option C. It is a case of imperfect parallelism. verb-ed || verb-ing. Found || resembling.
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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09 May 2017, 15:41
C is correct because Found and Resembling are both participles. As GMATninja said they are adjectives so they are parallel. The Ing vs Ed does not make a difference. Found is past participle, and resembling is present participle but they are still both participles the are modifying Lina's sunbird. So its fine.

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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 28 Jun 2017, 07:21
GMATNinja wrote:
We can ditch (A) and (B) pretty quickly: "and" is followed by a phrase beginning with "that" -- and there's nothing earlier in the sentence that could possibly be parallel to the phrase beginning with "that."

(C) doesn't sound parallel, but it is. "Found" is just an adjective that modifies the animal, and so is "resembling." Sure, they don't sound the same, but they're both adjectives, so we're all good here. Let's keep (C).

(For more on parallelism and "-ing" words, check out this week's Verbal Experts' Topic of the Week: https://gmatclub.com/forum/experts-topi ... 39780.html).

The parallelism isn't quite right in (D), either. The phrase that follows "and" is a brand-new clause: "it resembles a hummingbird." And that can't possibly be correct here, since "it resembles a hummingbird" isn't parallel to "that is found in the Philippines". Besides, the underlined portion is part of a modifier, and I have no idea why we would stick a full, independent clause inside that modifier. So (D) is gone.

So we're down to (C) and (E). Here's (E) again:
Quote:
(E) First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippines, resembling a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head...

The trouble here is that we have a messy (and unnecessary) "double modifier": "that is found in the Philippines" modifies the animal, and so does the phrase "resembling a hummingbird." Notice that (C) puts these two modifiers in a nice, parallel structure. That isn't happening in (E) -- it's almost as if "resembling a hummingbird" is trying to modify the other modifier, "that is found in the Philippines," and that just doesn't make any sense. (C) is much clearer, and it's our winner.

Hi GMATNinja
I am totally confused with modifiers in option C/D, I am unable to get to OA: C
I selected option D with below understanding:
a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippine is my first independent clause with that as a subject and is found as verb
Moving on
and it resembles it correctly refers to 4.5 inch animal (no pronoun ambiguity here) and with it as subject and resembles as verb, this also forms
another independent clause (IC)
Both ICs are correctly joined by AND as connector since there are only two elements in this list. I feel meaning wise and grammatically this option sounds good.
Further as you mentioned in your post the underlined portion is part of a modifier, and I have no idea why we would stick a full, independent clause inside that modifier
are you considering that is found in the Philippines as modifier? Further in option C, can found act as verb-ed modifier which modifies Lisa's sunbird by jumping over animal? Note here there is no helping verb associated with found
WR,
Arpit
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Originally posted by adkikani on 15 May 2017, 11:04.
Last edited by adkikani on 28 Jun 2017, 07:21, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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15 May 2017, 22:37
I selected option D with below understanding:
a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippine is my first independent clause with that as a subject and is found as verb

Hi Arpit, perhaps this was the reason for confusion. Following is just a phrase (and not a clause):

a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippines

This basically comprises a phrase (a four-and-a-half-inch animal) + a Dependent clause (that is found in the Philippines).

Such structures always function as phrases in English grammar.

Quote:
Moving on
and it resembles it correctly refers to 4.5 inch animal (no pronoun ambiguity here) and with it as subject and resembles as verb, this also forms
another independent clause (IC)

Correct.

Quote:
Further in option C, can found act as verb-ed modifier which modifies Lisa's sunbird by jumping over animal?

found is indeed a past participle here, modifying four-and-a-half-inch animal.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Clauses (Independent and Dependent), their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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15 May 2017, 23:20
souvik101990 wrote:

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 6: Sentence Correction

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First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head; a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and a red eye.

A. found in the Philippines and that resembles

B. found in the Philippines and that, resembling and that, is wrong

C. found in the Philippines and resembling
Parallelism Error

D. that is found in the Philippines and it resembles
Helping verb is not required .

E. that is found in the Philippines, resembling
Incorrect modifier

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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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15 May 2017, 23:27
GMATNinja wrote:
We can ditch (A) and (B) pretty quickly: "and" is followed by a phrase beginning with "that" -- and there's nothing earlier in the sentence that could possibly be parallel to the phrase beginning with "that."

(C) doesn't sound parallel, but it is. "Found" is just an adjective that modifies the animal, and so is "resembling." Sure, they don't sound the same, but they're both adjectives, so we're all good here. Let's keep (C).

(For more on parallelism and "-ing" words, check out this week's Verbal Experts' Topic of the Week: https://gmatclub.com/forum/experts-topi ... 39780.html).

The parallelism isn't quite right in (D), either. The phrase that follows "and" is a brand-new clause: "it resembles a hummingbird." And that can't possibly be correct here, since "it resembles a hummingbird" isn't parallel to "that is found in the Philippines". Besides, the underlined portion is part of a modifier, and I have no idea why we would stick a full, independent clause inside that modifier. So (D) is gone.

So we're down to (C) and (E). Here's (E) again:
Quote:
(E) First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippines, resembling a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head...

The trouble here is that we have a messy (and unnecessary) "double modifier": "that is found in the Philippines" modifies the animal, and so does the phrase "resembling a hummingbird." Notice that (C) puts these two modifiers in a nice, parallel structure. That isn't happening in (E) -- it's almost as if "resembling a hummingbird" is trying to modify the other modifier, "that is found in the Philippines," and that just doesn't make any sense. (C) is much clearer, and it's our winner.

I wish to know why use of "that "
in second clause is wrong . Isn't it referring to sun bird?

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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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20 May 2017, 23:25
EducationAisle wrote:
I selected option D with below understanding:
a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippine is my first independent clause with that as a subject and is found as verb

Hi Arpit, perhaps this was the reason for confusion. Following is just a phrase (and not a clause):

a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippines

This basically comprises a phrase (a four-and-a-half-inch animal) + a Dependent clause (that is found in the Philippines).

Such structures always function as phrases in English grammar.

Quote:
Moving on
and it resembles it correctly refers to 4.5 inch animal (no pronoun ambiguity here) and with it as subject and resembles as verb, this also forms
another independent clause (IC)

Correct.

Quote:
Further in option C, can found act as verb-ed modifier which modifies Lisa's sunbird by jumping over animal?

found is indeed a past participle here, modifying four-and-a-half-inch animal.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Clauses (Independent and Dependent), their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.

a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippines is a phrase not a clause since in spite of having a subject and verb, it communicates partial meaning.
Am I interpreting you correctly?
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2017, 00:58
ones should never pay attention to words that are not underlined if those words have wrong grammar issues.
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2017, 09:27
Hi GMATNinja
I am totally confused with modifiers in option C/D, I am unable to get to OA: C
I selected option D with below understanding:
a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippine is my first independent clause with that as a subject and is found as verb
Moving on
and it resembles it correctly refers to 4.5 inch animal (no pronoun ambiguity here) and with it as subject and resembles as verb, this also forms
another independent clause (IC)
Both ICs are correctly joined by AND as connector since there are only two elements in this list. I feel meaning wise and grammatically this option sounds good.
Further as you mentioned in your post the underlined portion is part of a modifier, and I have no idea why we would stick a full, independent clause inside that modifier
are you considering that is found in the Philippines as modifier? Further in option C, can found act as verb-ed modifier which modifies Lisa's sunbird by jumping over animal? Note here there is no helping verb associated with found
WR,
Arpit

Thank you for the query. This is in response to your PM.

Let's begin from the beginning. The meaning of the sentence is pretty clear and easy to understand. The sentence presents a lot of information about this bird named Lina's sunbird.

Let's take a look at the structure of this sentence:

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal
found in the Philippines and
that resembles a hummingbird,

has
shimmering metallic colors on its head;
a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast;
and a red eye.

As you can see, there are two SV pairs in the sentence. The SV pair Lina's sunbird has makes the IC and the SV pair that resembles makes the DC.

Since found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird modify a four-and-a-half-inch animal = Lina's sunbird, they form a parallel list, evident by the connector and. But this list is not grammatically parallel because found in the Philippines is verb-ed modifier while that resembles a hummingbird is a clause. They both have the same function in the sentence, i. e., they both modify the same noun entity. But a phrase modifier cannot be parallel to a clause modifier. Hence, the original sentence is incorrect.

Now, let's take a look at the sentence with the correct answer choice C:

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal
found in the Philippines and
resembling a hummingbird,
has
shimmering metallic colors on its head;
a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and
a red eye.

Per this choice, both the modifiers found in the Philippines and resembling a hummingbird form the perfect list. Both the modifiers are phrases.

It is true that found in the Philippines is a verb-ed modifier and resembling a hummingbird is a verb-ing modifier and hence, they do not look similar. But "looks" do not matter. Both the modifiers perform the same function in this sentence, i. e., they both modify the same noun entity and appear as phrases. Therefore, these two noun modifiers are perfectly parallel.

You can perform the same analysis with all the other answer choices to spot the errors with the remaining three answer choices.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2017, 18:30
Hi egmat

Let me know if my understanding is correct for option D:

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal (Clause 1)
that is found in the Philippines (pronoun that is modifying animal)
and it resembles a hummingbird, (and suggests parallelism with it refers back to animal and is found and resembles are verbs for subject - animal) . Hope pronoun is not ambiguous here
has
shimmering[/color] metallic colors on its head,
a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts,
in the center of its breast; and a red eye. (cont. of clause 1)

The only issue I found in D is usage of AND since AND only is advised to use before last element in parallel list, i.e, before has
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2017, 19:31
Let me know if my understanding is correct for option D:

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal (Clause 1)
that is found in the Philippines (pronoun that is modifying animal)
and it resembles a hummingbird, (and suggests parallelism with it refers back to animal and is found and resembles are verbs for subject - animal) . Hope pronoun is not ambiguous here
has
shimmering[/color] metallic colors on its head,
a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts,
in the center of its breast; and a red eye. (cont. of clause 1)

The only issue I found in D is usage of AND since AND only is advised to use before last element in parallel list, i.e, before has

Hi adkikani, in D, following elements are supposed to be parallel:

(a) that is found in the Philippines and
(b) it resembles a hummingbird

However, they are not parallel because (a) is a Dependent clause while (b) is an Independent clause.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses parallelism with clauses, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2017, 19:35
a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippines is a phrase not a clause since in spite of having a subject and verb, it communicates partial meaning.
Am I interpreting you correctly?

Hi adkikani, basically following structure always functions as a phrase:

Phrase + a Dependent clause

Some examples:

i) Car that is red
ii) Pencil, which is broken
iii) Students who are in the class
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2017, 09:25
1
Hi egmat

Let me know if my understanding is correct for option D:

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal (Clause 1)
that is found in the Philippines (pronoun that is modifying animal)
and it resembles a hummingbird, (and suggests parallelism with it refers back to animal and is found and resembles are verbs for subject - animal) . Hope pronoun is not ambiguous here
has
shimmering[/color] metallic colors on its head,
a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts,
in the center of its breast; and a red eye. (cont. of clause 1)

The only issue I found in D is usage of AND since AND only is advised to use before last element in parallel list, i.e, before has

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal (Clause 1)
that is found in the Philippines (pronoun that is modifying animal)
and it resembles a hummingbird, (and suggests parallelism with it refers back to animal and is found and resembles are verbs for subject - animal) . Hope pronoun is not ambiguous here
has
shimmering[/color] metallic colors on its head,
a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts,
in the center of its breast; and a red eye. (cont. of clause 1)

You have identified the first SV pair correctly. However, the second SV pair that you have identified is not correct. The subject for the verb is found is that and not animal.

Please bear in mind that more often than not the relative pronoun modifier acts as the subject of the dependent clause it starts. For example:

1. The book that is kept on the desk belongs to me.

2. My friend has a vintage car that needs immediate repair.

In the above mentioned example sentences, that is the subject for the verbs is kept and needs in respective sentences even if that in sentence 1. refers to The book and to a vintage car in sentence 2.

Now let's talk about Choice D of the official question at hand.

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal
that is found in the Philippines and
it resembles a hummingbird,

has
shimmering metallic colors on its head;
a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and
a red eye.

As you can see, in the first parallel list, that is found in the Philippines is a dependent clause and it resembles a hummingbird is an independent clause. Structurally, these two entities are not parallel.

If we replace it with that in the second parallel entity, then the choice would be correct.

There is no issue with the usage of and in Choice D because there are two lists in the sentence as you can see in the sentence structure above.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2017, 10:59
First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head; a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and a red eye.

This question checks the parallelism among the modifiers ( V+ed and V+ing found and resembling)

Meaning

The meaning of the sentence is very clear on the first read. It is the description of the bird.

POE
The Lina' Sunbird is followed by two commas meaning the following sentence ", a four-and-a-half-inch animal found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird," . So the phrase or sentence within the commas is a is a modifier

after the second comma, there is a verb has shimmering metallic colors which agree with the subject Lina's sunbird which was discovered 30 years ago.

A. found in the Philippines and that resembles
"that" does not modify the noun Lina's sunbird

B. found in the Philippines and that, resembling
"that" does not modify the noun Lina's sunbird

C. found in the Philippines and resembling
Here found(V+ed) and resembling(V+ing) are modifiers of the noun The Lina's sunbird and has shimmering is the following verb

D. that is found in the Philippines and it resembles
Parallelism error
1. It must be
that is found in the Philippines
and that resembles
2.And also since "found" is an action verb the following verb should also be in past tense which will not agree with the present perfect continuous verb has shimmering

E. that is found in the Philippines, resembling
Parallelism error.
that is found in the Philippines, resembling something then the non-underlined following verb "has shimmering" also must be followed by that
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2018, 22:39
1
My Explanation:
Expert daagh egmat GMATNinja pls help if my understanding is not right.
this question is basically testing our understanding of parallel structure. The underlined part is a piece of modifier, which is modifying “Lina’s sunbird”. We know we have to take extra care on the parallel markers like and,but,or, etc.. Now let’s start eliminating wrong choices one by one.
A. found in the Philippines and that resembles – here “and” is connecting two parallel list modifying “lina’s sunbird”. Here “found” a participle and “that resembles a humming bird” a DC is not parallel in structure- Hence OUT.
B. found in the Philippines and that, resembling- Here, “Found” and “that+,+ participles (resembling)” are not parallel. Here, to make these two parallel, that+comma has to be removed. OUT
C. found in the Philippines and resembling- CORRECT- Found (participle) & Resembling (participial) both are parallel in structure.
D. that is found in the Philippines and it resembles – “that is found in the Philippines” and “it resembles a hummingbird” are not parallel because the first is a DC & the second is an IC. OUT
E. that is found in the Philippines, resembling – Here we need a parallel structure, which should modify the “Lina’s sunbird”, but “resembling a hummingbird” is now modifying the DC “that is found in the Philippines”- which is nonsensical.
C is the winner.
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Joined: 12 Nov 2017
Posts: 18
Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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25 Apr 2018, 02:18
Is'nt 'found in the Phillippines' an incomplete part of the sentence?I think 'found' is a participle and that part of the sentence needs a verb. After 'and' there is again a modifier clause. So, option D fulfils the requirements. Please let me know where did I go wrong.
Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago &nbs [#permalink] 25 Apr 2018, 02:18

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# QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago

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