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# First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-

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Joined: 02 Nov 2011
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2017, 09:25
1
Hi egmat

Let me know if my understanding is correct for option D:

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal (Clause 1)
that is found in the Philippines (pronoun that is modifying animal)
and it resembles a hummingbird, (and suggests parallelism with it refers back to animal and is found and resembles are verbs for subject - animal) . Hope pronoun is not ambiguous here
has
shimmering[/color] metallic colors on its head,
a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts,
in the center of its breast; and a red eye. (cont. of clause 1)

The only issue I found in D is usage of AND since AND only is advised to use before last element in parallel list, i.e, before has

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal (Clause 1)
that is found in the Philippines (pronoun that is modifying animal)
and it resembles a hummingbird, (and suggests parallelism with it refers back to animal and is found and resembles are verbs for subject - animal) . Hope pronoun is not ambiguous here
has
shimmering[/color] metallic colors on its head,
a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts,
in the center of its breast; and a red eye. (cont. of clause 1)

You have identified the first SV pair correctly. However, the second SV pair that you have identified is not correct. The subject for the verb is found is that and not animal.

Please bear in mind that more often than not the relative pronoun modifier acts as the subject of the dependent clause it starts. For example:

1. The book that is kept on the desk belongs to me.

2. My friend has a vintage car that needs immediate repair.

In the above mentioned example sentences, that is the subject for the verbs is kept and needs in respective sentences even if that in sentence 1. refers to The book and to a vintage car in sentence 2.

Now let's talk about Choice D of the official question at hand.

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal
that is found in the Philippines and
it resembles a hummingbird,

has
shimmering metallic colors on its head;
a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and
a red eye.

As you can see, in the first parallel list, that is found in the Philippines is a dependent clause and it resembles a hummingbird is an independent clause. Structurally, these two entities are not parallel.

If we replace it with that in the second parallel entity, then the choice would be correct.

There is no issue with the usage of and in Choice D because there are two lists in the sentence as you can see in the sentence structure above.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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25 Apr 2018, 02:18
Is'nt 'found in the Phillippines' an incomplete part of the sentence?I think 'found' is a participle and that part of the sentence needs a verb. After 'and' there is again a modifier clause. So, option D fulfils the requirements. Please let me know where did I go wrong.
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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25 Apr 2018, 20:17
1
rakeshlochansarma wrote:
Is'nt 'found in the Phillippines' an incomplete part of the sentence?I think 'found' is a participle and that part of the sentence needs a verb. After 'and' there is again a modifier clause.

Hi Rakesh, your analysis is correct. Following are the two modifiers, joined by and:

i) found in the Philippines - Past Participial Phrase
ii) resembling a hummingbird - Present Participial Phrase

Since both of these are Participial Phrases, they are considered grammatically parallel. Hence, this construct is fine.

Quote:
So, option D fulfils the requirements. Please let me know where did I go wrong.

With option D, the parallel parts are:
i) that is found in the Philippines - Dependent Clause
ii) it resembles a hummingbird - Independent Clause

In general, an Independent Clause is not considered grammatically parallel to a Dependent Clause. On that note, following structure in D would have been valid:

.....a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird..

The parallel parts in this sentence are:
i) that is found in the Philippines - Dependent Clause
ii) that resembles a hummingbird - Dependent Clause

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses these issues with Paralleliism, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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09 May 2018, 22:09
egmat wrote:
Hi GMATNinja
I am totally confused with modifiers in option C/D, I am unable to get to OA: C
I selected option D with below understanding:
a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippine is my first independent clause with that as a subject and is found as verb
Moving on
and it resembles it correctly refers to 4.5 inch animal (no pronoun ambiguity here) and with it as subject and resembles as verb, this also forms
another independent clause (IC)
Both ICs are correctly joined by AND as connector since there are only two elements in this list. I feel meaning wise and grammatically this option sounds good.
Further as you mentioned in your post the underlined portion is part of a modifier, and I have no idea why we would stick a full, independent clause inside that modifier
are you considering that is found in the Philippines as modifier? Further in option C, can found act as verb-ed modifier which modifies Lisa's sunbird by jumping over animal? Note here there is no helping verb associated with found
WR,
Arpit

Hi E-

Thank you for the query. This is in response to your PM.

Let's begin from the beginning. The meaning of the sentence is pretty clear and easy to understand. The sentence presents a lot of information about this bird named Lina's sunbird.

Let's take a look at the structure of this sentence:

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal
found in the Philippines and
that resembles a hummingbird,

has
shimmering metallic colors on its head;
a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast;
and a red eye.

As you can see, there are two SV pairs in the sentence. The SV pair Lina's sunbird has makes the IC and the SV pair that resembles makes the DC.

Since found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird modify a four-and-a-half-inch animal = Lina's sunbird, they form a parallel list, evident by the connector and. But this list is not grammatically parallel because found in the Philippines is verb-ed modifier while that resembles a hummingbird is a clause. They both have the same function in the sentence, i. e., they both modify the same noun entity. But a phrase modifier cannot be parallel to a clause modifier. Hence, the original sentence is incorrect.

Now, let's take a look at the sentence with the correct answer choice C:

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal
found in the Philippines and
resembling a hummingbird,
has
shimmering metallic colors on its head;
a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and
a red eye.

Per this choice, both the modifiers found in the Philippines and resembling a hummingbird form the perfect list. Both the modifiers are phrases.

It is true that found in the Philippines is a verb-ed modifier and resembling a hummingbird is a verb-ing modifier and hence, they do not look similar. But "looks" do not matter. Both the modifiers perform the same function in this sentence, i. e., they both modify the same noun entity and appear as phrases. Therefore, these two noun modifiers are perfectly parallel.

You can perform the same analysis with all the other answer choices to spot the errors with the remaining three answer choices.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Hi egmat,

Need your help to understand this solution.

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head; a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and a red eye.

(A) found in the Philippines and that resembles
(B) found in the Philippines and that, resembling
(C) found in the Philippines and resembling
(D) that is found in the Philippines and it resembles
(E) that is found in the Philippines, resembling

Sentence structure -

First discovered more than 30 years ago, [ Modifier modifying Subject]
Lina's sunbird,
a four-and-a-half-inch animal found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird, [Noun + Noun Modifier]
has
shimmering metallic colors on its head;
a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and a red eye. [This is the list]

I understand that C is correct and better answer for this sentence.

1) My question is generic, Can we place two modifier next to each other.

2)
First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippines, resembling
has shimmering metallic colors on its head;
a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and a red eye.

Whether this sentence structure can be considered correct? And As what is the best way to eliminate E.

Thanks
Sudhanshu
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Re: QOTD: First discovered more than 30 years ago  [#permalink]

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13 May 2018, 16:29
1
SudhanshuSingh, check out the explanation here for some insights on answer choice (E). In this particular sentence, we certainly could put two modifiers next to each other, but if those modifiers are parallel to each other -- in other words, if they logically modify the same thing -- then they should ideally be separated with an "and", as they are in answer choice (C).

I hope this helps!
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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-  [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2018, 03:15
How come Option C doesn't have a parallelism error " found and resembling" ?
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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-  [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2018, 06:28
shreytrivedi wrote:
How come Option C doesn't have a parallelism error " found and resembling" ?

Hi Shrey, this is because found is used as a past participle here, while resembling is used as a present participle.

Both past participles and present participles are adjectives and hence, considered grammatically similar to each other. For this reason, participles are also considered grammatically similar to adjectives.

For example, following is correct sentence:

Fans of the club, impatient and hoping for their club to win, were disappointed.

Impatient (adjective) is grammatically similar to hoping for their club to win (present participle)

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses participles, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-  [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2019, 03:53
GMATNinja , Can't the "that" in A be said as a parallel element to a noun modifier "a four and a half inch animal"?
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First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-  [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2019, 04:02
1
Hi Vishal, for that to be parallel to another element, the sentence should have been modified as:

Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal that is found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird
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First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-   [#permalink] 11 Apr 2019, 04:02

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