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# QOTD: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito

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QOTD: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2018, 11:53
2
6
00:00

Difficulty:

65% (hard)

Question Stats:

56% (01:16) correct 44% (01:33) wrong based on 306 sessions

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Verbal Question of The Day: Day 204: Critical Reasoning

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For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito have been damaged by exhaust from the many tour buses that come to the city. There has been little parking space, so most buses have idled at the curb during each stop on their tour, and idling produces as much exhaust as driving. The city has now provided parking that accommodates a third of the tour buses, so damage to Palitito's buildings from the buses' exhaust will diminish significantly.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the argument?

(A) The exhaust from Palitito's few automobiles is not a significant threat to Palitito's buildings.

(B) Palitito's Renaissance buildings are not threatened by pollution other than engine exhaust.

(C) Tour buses typically spend less than one-quarter of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers from one site to another.

(D) More tourists come to Palitito by tour bus than by any other single means of transportation.

(E) Some of the tour buses that are unable to find parking drive around Palitito while their passengers are visiting a site.

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QOTD: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2018, 06:47
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The conclusion of the argument is simply that damage to Palitito's buildings from the [tour] buses' exhaust will diminish significantly. Notice that the conclusion refers specifically to damage from TOUR BUS exhaust, not to damage from all vehicles or damage from other factors.

Let's examine the author's reasoning:

• For years, exhaust from the many tour buses coming to Palitito has damaged the Renaissance buildings there. So obviously people want to visit these buildings, but when tour buses are used to transport visitors, the exhaust from the buses causes damage to the buildings.
• There has been little parking space, so most buses have just idled at the curb (i.e. kept the engine running while stopped on the side of the road) during each stop on their tour. So instead of parking in a parking space, shutting off the engine, and letting passengers off to view the buildings, most buses simply pull over to the curb and leave the engine running until they are ready to move on to the next stop.
• Idling produces as much exhaust as driving, so idling at the curb for, say, ten minutes produces as much exhaust as driving around for ten minutes.
• Now the city has provided parking that accommodates a third of the tour buses. This seemingly gives buses the OPTION of parking in those spaces and shutting off the engines while the passengers enjoy each stop. But will that actually happen and, if so, will it SIGNIFICANTLY decrease the amount of damage from tour bus exhaust?

We need an answer choice that strengthens the argument:

Quote:
(A) The exhaust from Palitito's few automobiles is not a significant threat to Palitito's buildings.

As stated above, the conclusion specifically refers to damage FROM THE TOUR BUSES' exhausts, not from automobiles. Choice (A) is thus irrelevant and can be eliminated.

Quote:
(B) Palitito's Renaissance buildings are not threatened by pollution other than engine exhaust.

Again, we are only concerned with damage from the exhaust of the buses. There might be a variety of other threats to the buildings, but if the new parking spaces reduce damage from the tour buses' exhaust, then the author's argument is valid. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) Tour buses typically spend less than one-quarter of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers from one site to another.

What if tour buses typically spend MOST of their time driving from site to site and only a small fraction of their time waiting at each site? In that case, most of the exhaust would be released while the buses were driving from place to place, NOT while the buses were idling at each site. If that were true, the introduction of new parking spaces might help a little but would probably not have a significant impact on the exhaust damage. This would weaken the author's argument. Choice (C) tells us that this is NOT the case and thus strengthens the argument. Hang on to this one.

Quote:
(D) More tourists come to Palitito by tour bus than by any other single means of transportation.

Choice (D) tells us that tourists visiting Palitito use tour buses more than any other mode of transportation. This suggests that the impact from the tour buses probably exceeds the impact from other modes of transportation. But we aren't trying to show that exhaust from tour buses represents the GREATEST impact to the buildings. Even if tour buses only represent a small fraction of tourist transportation to Palitito, the author's argument could still be valid as long as the new parking spaces significantly diminish the damage from the tour buses' exhaust.

In other words, the level of exhaust damage before the spaces were installed does not matter. As long as the new spaces significantly reduce the level of exhaust damage from the tour buses, the author's reasoning is sound. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) Some of the tour buses that are unable to find parking drive around Palitito while their passengers are visiting a site.

Driving around produces just as much exhaust as idling at the curb. So choice (E) simply reinforces the idea that the buildings can be subject to exhaust damage when tour buses cannot find parking (whether the buses idle at the curb or drive around). Obviously some buses will continue to drive around or idle even after the new spaces have been installed (i.e. when they cannot find a parking space), but if the new spaces REDUCE the amount of driving around/idling, then the author's argument is valid. However, choice (E) does not provide any evidence to suggest that the new spaces will in fact decrease the amount of idling or driving around and thus has no impact on the author's argument. Eliminate (E).

Choice (C) is the best answer.
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Re: QOTD: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2018, 08:23
(C) Tour buses typically spend less than one-quarter of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers from one site to another.
Currently 75% of the buses time is spent idling and exhausting.
So with new parking lot, buses can spend idle time parked and not producing exhaust(pollution). Overall pollution will come down and damage to building will be reduced.
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QOTD: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2018, 08:30
(A) The exhaust from Palitito's few automobiles is not a significant threat to Palitito's buildings. - Goes against the argument.

(B) Palitito's Renaissance buildings are not threatened by pollution other than engine exhaust. -Weakens, since the remaining two-third of buses will continue pollution.

(C) Tour buses typically spend less than one-quarter of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers from one site to another. - Strengthens. Since buses spend less time in transporting passengers, the remaining time they can be parked, thereby reducing pollution.

(D) More tourists come to Palitito by tour bus than by any other single means of transportation. - Weakens

(E) Some of the tour buses that are unable to find parking drive around Palitito while their passengers are visiting a site. - 'Some' drive around, we don't know how many, so not relevant.

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Re: QOTD: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2018, 09:22
A Tricky Question:

Conc:- Providing space for 33% vehicles will reduce the pollution significantly.

Prethinking :-

Assumption: Pollution from vehicles do not vary significantly.

This question resembles questions involving statistics (Numbers & %).

Keeping 33% buses in Parking will lead to significant reduction in pollution.

Strengthener : Any evidence related to above pre thinking could be a answer.

POE:-

(A) The exhaust from Palitito's few automobiles is not a significant threat to Palitito's buildings.
Irrelevant. Stimulus is related to pollution from buses only.
(B) Palitito's Renaissance buildings are not threatened by pollution other than engine exhaust.
Irrelevant
(C) Tour buses typically spend less than one-quarter of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers from one site to another.
Correct:
If Tour Buses spend less than 1/4 th of time in transporting passengers, then buses are spending majority of their time in idle mode, which in turn produces more exhaust (pollution). So if we keep those buses in parking, then Pollution can be reduced significantly.

Moreover, If you Negate C option then statement will be " Tour buses typically do not spend less than one-quarter of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers from one site to another".

This negated statement Shatters the conclusion because, Say , if Tour Buses spends 90% of time in transporting Passengers . then the provision for parking will not reduce the pollution significantly as Buses keep roaming.
Therefore: This statement is a contender. So Hang on C

(D) More tourists come to Palitito by tour bus than by any other single means of transportation.
Irrelevant

(E) Some of the tour buses that are unable to find parking drive around Palitito while their passengers are visiting a site.
"Some" Means 1 - 100.
So it cannot be a better choice.

So IMO, C is a Better Strengthener.

Kindly let me know flaws, if any, in my reasoning.

Regards
Raju
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Re: QOTD: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2018, 13:23

(C) Tour buses typically spend less than one-quarter of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers from one site to another. - So what are they doing for the 3/4 of the time? They must be idle on the curb (given by the prompt, dont over stretch your assumptions). And if they have places to park their cars and turn off the keys? The buses arent polluting anymore

(E) Some of the tour buses that are unable to find parking drive around Palitito while their passengers are visiting a site. - Trap answer. A) Key in on the "some" language. Be very sensitive to answers providing "some" or "most". If only 1/10 (some) do it, how would that affect our plan in the grand scheme of things?
Re: QOTD: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito   [#permalink] 22 Jan 2018, 13:23
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