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For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito have been da

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For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito have been da  [#permalink]

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For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito have been damaged by exhaust from the many tour buses that come to the city. There has been little parking space, so most buses have idled at the curb during each stop on their tour, and idling produces as much exhaust as driving. The city has now provided parking that accommodates a third of the tour buses, so damage to Palitito's buildings from the buses' exhaust will diminish significantly.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the argument?


(A) The exhaust from Palitito's few automobiles is not a significant threat to Palitito's buildings.

(B) Palitito's Renaissance buildings are not threatened by pollution other than engine exhaust.

(C) Tour buses typically spend less than one-quarter of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers from one site to another.

(D) More tourists come to Palitito by tour bus than by any other single means of transportation.

(E) Some of the tour buses that are unable to find parking drive around Palitito while their passengers are visiting a site.


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Originally posted by MamtaKrishnia on 19 Jul 2008, 19:24.
Last edited by Bunuel on 07 Sep 2018, 03:48, edited 2 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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QOTD: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito  [#permalink]

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The conclusion of the argument is simply that damage to Palitito's buildings from the [tour] buses' exhaust will diminish significantly. Notice that the conclusion refers specifically to damage from TOUR BUS exhaust, not to damage from all vehicles or damage from other factors.

Let's examine the author's reasoning:

  • For years, exhaust from the many tour buses coming to Palitito has damaged the Renaissance buildings there. So obviously people want to visit these buildings, but when tour buses are used to transport visitors, the exhaust from the buses causes damage to the buildings.
  • There has been little parking space, so most buses have just idled at the curb (i.e. kept the engine running while stopped on the side of the road) during each stop on their tour. So instead of parking in a parking space, shutting off the engine, and letting passengers off to view the buildings, most buses simply pull over to the curb and leave the engine running until they are ready to move on to the next stop.
  • Idling produces as much exhaust as driving, so idling at the curb for, say, ten minutes produces as much exhaust as driving around for ten minutes.
  • Now the city has provided parking that accommodates a third of the tour buses. This seemingly gives buses the OPTION of parking in those spaces and shutting off the engines while the passengers enjoy each stop. But will that actually happen and, if so, will it SIGNIFICANTLY decrease the amount of damage from tour bus exhaust?

We need an answer choice that strengthens the argument:

Quote:
(A) The exhaust from Palitito's few automobiles is not a significant threat to Palitito's buildings.

As stated above, the conclusion specifically refers to damage FROM THE TOUR BUSES' exhausts, not from automobiles. Choice (A) is thus irrelevant and can be eliminated.

Quote:
(B) Palitito's Renaissance buildings are not threatened by pollution other than engine exhaust.

Again, we are only concerned with damage from the exhaust of the buses. There might be a variety of other threats to the buildings, but if the new parking spaces reduce damage from the tour buses' exhaust, then the author's argument is valid. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) Tour buses typically spend less than one-quarter of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers from one site to another.

What if tour buses typically spend MOST of their time driving from site to site and only a small fraction of their time waiting at each site? In that case, most of the exhaust would be released while the buses were driving from place to place, NOT while the buses were idling at each site. If that were true, the introduction of new parking spaces might help a little but would probably not have a significant impact on the exhaust damage. This would weaken the author's argument. Choice (C) tells us that this is NOT the case and thus strengthens the argument. Hang on to this one.

Quote:
(D) More tourists come to Palitito by tour bus than by any other single means of transportation.

Choice (D) tells us that tourists visiting Palitito use tour buses more than any other mode of transportation. This suggests that the impact from the tour buses probably exceeds the impact from other modes of transportation. But we aren't trying to show that exhaust from tour buses represents the GREATEST impact to the buildings. Even if tour buses only represent a small fraction of tourist transportation to Palitito, the author's argument could still be valid as long as the new parking spaces significantly diminish the damage from the tour buses' exhaust.

In other words, the level of exhaust damage before the spaces were installed does not matter. As long as the new spaces significantly reduce the level of exhaust damage from the tour buses, the author's reasoning is sound. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) Some of the tour buses that are unable to find parking drive around Palitito while their passengers are visiting a site.

Driving around produces just as much exhaust as idling at the curb. So choice (E) simply reinforces the idea that the buildings can be subject to exhaust damage when tour buses cannot find parking (whether the buses idle at the curb or drive around). Obviously some buses will continue to drive around or idle even after the new spaces have been installed (i.e. when they cannot find a parking space), but if the new spaces REDUCE the amount of driving around/idling, then the author's argument is valid. However, choice (E) does not provide any evidence to suggest that the new spaces will in fact decrease the amount of idling or driving around and thus has no impact on the author's argument. Eliminate (E).

Choice (C) is the best answer.
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Re: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito have been da  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2017, 19:24
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Hello everyone! I am now teaching the GMAT independently; I'll be posting here regularly.
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This argument has a fundamentally mathematical conclusion: It's saying that the amount of exhaust from buses (= a NUMERICAL QUANTITY) will decrease thanks to the addition of new parking spots near tourist attractions.

For arguments whose point is fundamentally MATHEMATICAL—ESPECIALLY if that point just deals with absolute increases or decreases—BEFORE YOU LOOK AT THE CHOICES, you should try to LIST EVERYTHING that could possibly contribute to the increase/decrease in which you're interested.

__

Here are a couple unrelated examples:

Xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxx xxxx. Therefore, the region's population will continue to increase.
—> There are EXACTLY 4 THINGS IN THE WHOLE WORLD that affect POPULATION:
births (which CONTRIBUTE TO an increase in population)
deaths (which work AGAINST an increase in population)
immigration (which CONTRIBUTES TO an increase in population)
emigration (which works AGAINST an increase in population)
...and that's it. Only choices that deal directly with at least one of these 4 things could possibly affect this argument.

Xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxx xxxx. Therefore, the country will need to import more oil next year.
—> There are EXACTLY 2 THINGS IN THE WHOLE WORLD that affect IMPORTS OF OIL:
production of oil WITHIN the country (which works AGAINST the need for imports)
DEMAND for oil within the country (which CONTRIBUTES TO the need for imports)
...and that's it. Only choices that deal directly with at least one of these 2 things could possibly affect this argument.

Etc.

__

What do we have here?

(Damage to Palitito's buildings from) the buses' exhaust will diminish significantly.

More exhaust means more damage, so, the part in parentheses doesn't change anything.

Unlike population or fuel imports, "bus exhaust" is NOT something that works in an unchanging way; it could be affected by totally different factors from one instance to the next. So, we need to stick to factors ACTUALLY GIVEN in the problem.

We're given exactly 3 CONSIDERATIONS:
Driving, which PRODUCES exhaust.
• Idling, which PRODUCES exhaust.
• Parking, which, of course, DOESN'T produce exhaust (this is common sense; we don't have to be told this).
These are the ONLY relevant factors.
Furthermore, we have driving = idling (in terms of exhaust output), so, really it's just DRIVING AND/OR IDLING —versus— PARKING.
...Yep. That's it.

NOW you're equipped to go to the choices.

For each choice, think ONLY about how—or whether—that choice AFFECTS THE BALANCE OF THESE 3 ACTIVITIES! Nothing else is relevant (...and now it should be obvious why you should list the factors BEFORE going to the choices—you have a NARROWLY FOCUSED GOAL now).

A/
We're concerned ONLY with buses, so, this choice is irrelevant.
Even if this choice said "Autos pollute just as much as buses do", it would STILL be irrelevant! Make sure you understand EXACTLY why this is the case—and that you can POINT TO THE SPECIFIC WORDS that guarantee this.

B/
This choice is irrelevant for exactly the same reasons as A.
(It's unusual for an official problem to have 2 choices that are functionally identical—but, as you can see, that occasionally happens.)

C/
If this is true, then the buses "WANT" to PARK for more than 75% of the total duration of the tours!
This DEFINITELY means that the extra parking spaces will allow a significant number of buses to IDLE LESS and PARK MORE.
This answer is correct.

D/
Like A and B, this choice is irrelevant because we care ONLY about buses (...not about other factors, nor about comparing bus exhaust to other issues).

E/
Since we're told specifically that IDLING = DRIVING in terms of pollution, the relative amounts of idling and driving are irrelevant—the same amount of pollution is generated by any combination of those two activities.
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Re: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito have been da  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2016, 12:32
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MamtaKrishnia wrote:
For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito have been damaged by exhaust from the many tour buses that come to the city. There has been little parking space, so most buses have idled at the curb during each stop on their tour, and idling produces as much exhaust as driving. The city has now provided parking that accommodates a third of the tour buses, so damage to Palitito's buildings from the buses' exhaust will diminish significantly.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the argument?

(A) The exhaust from Palitito's few automobiles is not a significant threat to Palitito's buildings.
(B) Palitito's Renaissance buildings are not threatened by pollution other than engine exhaust.
(C) Tour buses typically spend less than one-quarter of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers from one site to another.
(D) More tourists come to Palitito by tour bus than by any other single means of transportation.
(E) Some of the tour buses that are unable to find parking drive around Palitito while their passengers are visiting a site.

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So let's start by quickly putting into easy words what this whole situation is about. So we have some city where buses are ruining the buildings. Most buses pretty much do 2 things- they either drive passengers around or they idle around doing nothing. In either case, buildings are damaged by the exhaust. So the city thinks building parking that will accommodate 1/3 of buses will lessen exhaust damage. Now let's look at the answer choices.

A) Who cares about regular automobiles? We are only concerned about buses and parking spots here. It's a trap choice because the GMAT is trying to shift your thinking towards alternative causes of pollution; a type of thinking handy on many other CR questions. If we can assume other things won't make the problem worse, we would have reason to believe this plan might work, but this is exactly the type of thinking the GMAT is tricking you with here, since the prompt says the buildings are damaged by buses, and thus cars don't matter here.

B) Whether other pollution harms these buildings or not does not matter as well, since the plan seeks to reduce damage from buses and not other sources. Pretty easy one to eliminate.

D) Also may be a trap answer for some test-takers. D confirms the idea that buses constitute the majority proportion of tourist traffic. Either way, this does not support the city's plan that parking will reduce bus pollution. Whether buses are 99% of all tourist traffic or 51%, this has no bearing on the fact that additional parking will reduce current pollution levels.

E) Okay, this is probably the trickiest and most appealing trap answer choice here. Here's why it's a trap- E states that some of the buses that can't find parking are gonna just drive around polluting the city with reckless abandon, so you think great, additional parking will definitely reduce pollution because these buses would be parked instead of driving around. But here's the thing, what would those buses that can't find parking do instead? They are either going to idle around, polluting the city anyway. E doesn't actually change anything about what we already know of this world. E is in fact, describing a scenario that is, in terms of pollution output, fundamentally the same as what is already written in the prompt. We already know parking is limited, and that buses idle around because of this. Whether they drive around or idle around makes no difference to the level of harm the buildings will experience. So it doesn't really support the plan, E is rather neutral.

C) THE CORRECT ANSWER! Whew, we made it guys! Let's look at why C definitely is the correct answer. C says buses spend less than one-quarter of the time transporting people around from site to site. So the rest of the time, the MAJORITY of the time, these buses need to find somewhere to park or they will just idle around. The prompt says parking is limited though, so most of the time these buses are damaging buildings by idling at the curb. If a third of these buses are now able to find parking, you'd have good reason to believe the pollution to buildings will decrease, thereby strengthening the logic of the prompt. It is also important to note that C says the majority of the time is spent idling, since parking is the alternative to idling; thus, buses will actually spend a lot of time parked and therefore not polluting.
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Re: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito have been da  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2008, 20:26
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IMO between B/C/D. Not sure how to reson among these. IMO C

Good question.

A. out of scope of the passage
E. even if 2/3 that cannot find parking just drive aroudn the city the pollution will increase
C. If the buses are spending only 1/4 of their time transporting tourists and are idiling 3/4 of the time on curbs emitting fumes then this will increase the pollution. However, if they can park in a parking lot and shut off the engines then pollution will at lest be reduced.
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Re: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito have been da  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2008, 23:29
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OA is C.

c) Tour buses typically spend less than one-quarter of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers from one site to another.

This option states that its only 1/4 th of the time do the tour buses actually transport tourists.
The rest of the 3/4th time they are either idle or looking for parking space.
Therefore is directly strengthens the argument.

Option E on the other hand is close but says SOME which makes it less preferable over option C.
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Re: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito have been da  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2012, 10:24
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B/W C and D,

C is addressing the issue directly. I says more than 3 quarters the buses will be in idling state. So, if we provide parking for them, pollution decreases.

D is just telling more tourists use buses but not specific. At the end, we need to choose the best given :-D
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Re: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito have been da  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2012, 00:04
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(A) The exhaust from Palitito's few automobiles is not a significant threat to Palitito's buildings.
but the exhaust specially during idling* is causing the damage-incorrect
(B) Palitito's Renaissance buildings are not threatened by pollution other than engine exhaust.
may or may not be in real but here , pollution other than engine exhaust is not under consideration-incorrect
(C) Tour buses typically spend less than one-quarter of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers from one site to another.
True, because so much time idling can cause enough pollution to damage the buildings-correct
(D) More tourists come to Palitito by tour bus than by any other single means of transportation.
may or may not be in real, but here , any conveyance other than the tour buses is not under consideration-incorrect
(E) Some of the tour buses that are unable to find parking drive around Palitito while their passengers are visiting a site.
they can roam around and park the vehicle to some distance place, and can avoid idling -incorrect

*idling is a state of vehicle when the engine is running but the vehicle is idle and standing , when we see a red light on traffic signal we standby the vehicle without switching off the engine.
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New post 30 May 2013, 07:44
The statement does not indicate that there is MORE exaust gas emitted when idling compared to that when it is in running state. Which means that irrespective how much time the bus spends idling Vs time spent on running is irrelevent. But the fact that other automobiles do not pollute as much as the buses do ,, would mean that when the bus pollution issue is addressed we are going to see a substantial decrease in pollution of the buildings.

Where am I going wrong ?
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New post 30 May 2013, 17:59
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ramanujanu wrote:
The statement does not indicate that there is MORE exaust gas emitted when idling compared to that when it is in running state. Which means that irrespective how much time the bus spends idling Vs time spent on running is irrelevent. But the fact that other automobiles do not pollute as much as the buses do ,, would mean that when the bus pollution issue is addressed we are going to see a substantial decrease in pollution of the buildings.

Where am I going wrong ?


Hi ramanujanu:

Maybe my post helps you.

You're correct: The statement does not indicate that there is MORE exaust gas emitted when idling compared to that when it is in running state.

Actually, you don't need that information at all. The fact that idling vehicles create MORE or LESS exhaust does not matter.

The proposal is based on the assumption that idling vehicles DO emit exhaust.
There are two types of vehicles: (1) running; (2) idling.
You cannot anything to affect running vehicles. The only thing you can do to reduce exhaust is STOP idling vehicles emitting. Correct?

How do you make idling vehicles STOP emitting ==> The solution is building parking garage. Those vehicle will stop emitting when they are parked.

Let get back to answer C. why C is correct.

C says: "Tour buses spend less than 1/4 of the time they are transporting passengers from one site to another." It means these tour buses spend almost the time on IDLING. That's KEY point for the success of the proposal. Because if these buses run almost the time. You cannot do anything to stop them emitting exhaust.

Hope my post helps.
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New post 15 Jul 2017, 11:16
Isn't "most strongly support"..type questions inference questions? That is, the correct answer must be "derived" from the argument in the stimulus?
Although I see how C could be the correct answer, from the available options, how is C "derived" from the argument?
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New post 15 Jul 2017, 17:03
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sevenplusplus wrote:
Isn't "most strongly support"..type questions inference questions? That is, the correct answer must be "derived" from the argument in the stimulus?
Although I see how C could be the correct answer, from the available options, how is C "derived" from the argument?


There's an easier way.

ANY question starting with either of these——
Which of the following, if true, ...
Which of the following would be useful/important/etc...

——is asking for NEW INFORMATION that would impact the argument.


Note
"if true"
"would"
These words—or some equivalent—MUST appear in the question, because you DO NOT (and CANNOT) "prove" these statements. The whole point is that they're completely new outside hypotheticals.

Ordinary conversation is no different.
"If you found out xxxxx, what would you think about me?" —> "xxxxx" is a totally random outside thought, but, the point is to consider what would happen if it were actually true. (It should be plain that "xxxxx" is not something you could "support" or "prove"; it's a random hypothetical.)

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Problems about "inferences", on the other hand, could ABSOLUTELY NEVER possibly contain either of the wordings above.

If this isn't perfectly clear, then, think about it for a bit.
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New post 21 Jul 2017, 05:45
Hi,

Can someone explain what category of questions does this argument fall under?
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New post 22 Jul 2017, 04:58
ameyaprabhu wrote:
Hi,

Can someone explain what category of questions does this argument fall under?


^^ "Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the argument?" ...so it's a strengthening question
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New post 22 Jan 2018, 08:30
(A) The exhaust from Palitito's few automobiles is not a significant threat to Palitito's buildings. - Goes against the argument.

(B) Palitito's Renaissance buildings are not threatened by pollution other than engine exhaust. -Weakens, since the remaining two-third of buses will continue pollution.

(C) Tour buses typically spend less than one-quarter of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers from one site to another. - Strengthens. Since buses spend less time in transporting passengers, the remaining time they can be parked, thereby reducing pollution.

(D) More tourists come to Palitito by tour bus than by any other single means of transportation. - Weakens

(E) Some of the tour buses that are unable to find parking drive around Palitito while their passengers are visiting a site. - 'Some' drive around, we don't know how many, so not relevant.

Answer C.
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Re: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito have been da  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2019, 08:50
(A) The exhaust from Palitito's few automobiles is not a significant threat to Palitito's buildings.
This is irrelevant, it has nothing to do with the pollution from the exhaust pollution of tour buses.

(B) Palitito's Renaissance buildings are not threatened by pollution other than engine exhaust.
This is irrelevant, we aren't worried about any pollution other than that caused by tour bus engine exhaust.

(C) Tour buses typically spend less than one-quarter of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers from one site to another.
Bingo! If tour buses spend less than 1/4 of the time they are in Palitito transporting passengers, this means that they spend 3/4 of the time waiting around. In the past, all of the buses would be idling while they wait, but now 1/3 of the buses will be parked the majority of the time they're in Palitito. This is our answer!

(D) More tourists come to Palitito by tour bus than by any other single means of transportation.
This is irrelevant. We aren't worried about the tourists in any way.

(E) Some of the tour buses that are unable to find parking drive around Palitito while their passengers are visiting a site.
This kind of weakens the argument. We don't know how many buses drive around when they don't find parking and the word "some" is vague.

The correct answer is C.


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New post 11 Jul 2019, 06:31
The following is what I wrote about this problem from the OG Diagnostic Test in my book, The GMAT™ Codebreaker. If you like what you see, please check out the book on Amazon and help support independent authors and tutors.

GMAT™ Official Guide 2020, Diagnostic Test, Critical Reasoning, Page 34, Question 80.

Key points: The question follows a strengthen-the-argument format. Look for any flaws to see what needs shoring up.
Breakdown:

1) The flip-side to the previous question, this straightforward question asks about what supports the argument. To do that, we need to understand the argument being made.

2) The passage informs us that exhaust from idling tour buses is damaging “beautiful Renaissance buildings.” To address the problem, the city has designated parking for buses, an action that “accommodates a third of the tour buses.” The argument is that because of the new parking arrangement, the damage “from the buses’ exhaust will diminish significantly.” What would help strengthen such an argument? Perhaps if we knew the buses that produced the most damaging exhaust (or the largest amount of it) were the ones using the dedicated spaces, that would help, or if the bus drivers were also no longer allowed to leave their vehicles idling. That is enough to get things going and turn to the answers.

Answers:

(A) automobile exhaust is not a significant threat

Analysis: This does touch on the environmental burden that buses in particular pose to the Renaissance buildings; on the other hand, it ignores the fact that two-thirds of the buses have no designated parking spaces, meaning that the majority of the most problematic polluters have NOT been removed. That certainly diminishes the impact of what otherwise appears to be a reasonable answer. Yellow light.

(B) the buildings are not threatened by other types of pollution

Analysis: This response introduces a consideration I had overlooked, namely that of other sources of pollution besides vehicles. As I said in the previous analysis, however, the fact that the new parking spaces accommodate just a third of the tour buses is problematic, and it is unclear what effect such a half measure (or less) will produce. This answer does not address the main problem that lies with the buses. With that said, I would go back and change my read on choice (A) to match this one: red light.

(C) Tour buses spend less than one-quarter of the time… transporting passengers

Analysis: If, as the passage states, “idling produces as much exhaust as driving,” then whether the tour buses are moving or not, exhaust can be an issue. But then the numbers come in: less than 25 percent of the time, the buses are shuttling people around, so more than 75 percent of the time, they are not. What about idling? With the new parking accommodations, one-third of the tour buses are presumably parked, or not idling, when immobile. It may not be a perfect solution, but it is better than anything else we have encountered up to this point. Yellow light.

(D) More tourists come… by tour bus

Analysis: I should sound like a broken record by now: the problem of exhaust from idling buses is not considered. Why would the passage go to such lengths to ensure that the reader understood the issue if it were not significant? Red light.

(E) Some… buses that are unable to find parking drive around

Analysis: Driving, like idling, produces exhaust, so only the parked buses would not be contributing to the overall pollution. Furthermore, what are we to make of “some”? That presumably means that some other buses that are unable to find parking do NOT drive around, which means that they idle. If the engine is on, the vehicle is doing harm. Red light.

Guessing: Choice (C) appears to be the best answer, despite being sub-optimal, in my mind. (A) is off-topic, focusing on another type of vehicle, while (D) distracts the reader with tourists. Among (B), (C), and (E), choice (E) hides behind a vague “some” and outright tells us that the buses “drive around,” which we know is comparable to idling, in terms of producing damaging exhaust. That leaves a 50/50 between (B) and (C), and only (C) sets restrictions on tour buses in particular. On these harder questions, if you had to put a finger on the subject of each answer and assess all of them from such a starting point, it might help you cut out some of the distractions. Look at what happens here, for instance:

(A) automobiles
(B) buildings
(C) buses
(D) tourists
(E) buses

From the time “buses” are mentioned in the first sentence of the passage, they remain the focus thereafter. It makes sense, then, that an argument that also stems from buses would need support in the form of--what else?--buses. Between (C) and (E), it is much easier to expose flaws in the latter.
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Re: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito have been da  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2019, 05:08
E is still not clear.
So many explanations already but if some buses which do not get parking drive around, if they get parking they wont drive around and reduce the damage.
Are we saying that driving around doesn't cause exhaust near the building so this is not our target set of buses?
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New post 16 Oct 2019, 07:33
rk0510 wrote:
E is still not clear.
So many explanations already but if some buses which do not get parking drive around, if they get parking they wont drive around and reduce the damage.
Are we saying that driving around doesn't cause exhaust near the building so this is not our target set of buses?


Hello, rk0510. No one is saying that "driving around doesn't cause exhaust near the building." In fact, driving produces exhaust, plain and simple, and that damages the Renaissance buildings of Palitito. The issue that must be addressed is reducing exhaust by tour buses, and choice (E) does not achieve that. Again, whether idling or driving around, tour buses produce exhaust that damages the buildings. Only buses with their engines turned off will help reduce the pollution, and only choice (C) touches on this point in any notable way.

I would be happy to discuss the point further if you need clarification.

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Re: For years the beautiful Renaissance buildings in Palitito have been da   [#permalink] 16 Oct 2019, 07:33
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