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Research data indicate that there is a great deal of poverty

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Research data indicate that there is a great deal of poverty  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 02 Jun 2018, 04:59
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Research data indicate that there is a great deal of poverty in the United States among single parent families headed by women. This problem could result from the fact that women’s wages are only 60 percent of men’s. Some economists believe that rigorous enforcement of existing equal pay laws would substantially decrease this wage inequity. But equal pay laws are ineffectual when women and men are concentrated in different occupations because such laws require only that women and men doing the same jobs be paid the same. Since gender concentration exists (for example, 80 percent of clerical workers are women), other economists argue that a comparable worth standard, which would mandate that women and men in any jobs that require comparable training and responsibility be paid the same, should be applied instead. But some policy analysts assert that, although comparable worth would virtually equalize male and female wages, many single parent families headed by women would remain in poverty because many men earn wages that are below the poverty line. These policy analysts believe that the problem is not caused primarily by wage inequity but rather by low wages coupled with single parent hood, regardless of sex. As a solution, they challenge the government’s assumption that a family’s income should depend primarily on wages and urge the government to provide generous wage supplements (child and housing allowances) to single parents whose wages are low.


1. The passage suggests that the United States government’s policy towards providing wage supplements to parents whose wages are low is

(A) considered ill advised by most economists who have studied the issue
(B) based on assumptions about the appropriate sources of family income
(C) under revision in response to criticism from some policy analysts
(D) capable of eliminating wage inequality but not of raising incomes for both women and men
(E) applicable to single-parent families headed by women but not to single-parent families headed by men



2. Which of the following is most clearly an example of the policy advocated by the policy analysts mentioned in line 8 ?

(A) A government provides training to women who wish to move out of occupations in which women are concentrated.
(B) A government supports research that analyzes the connection between wage inequality and poverty among single-parent families headed by women.
(C) A government surveys wages annually to make certain that women and men in the same jobs receive the same pay.
(D) A government analyzes jobs in terms of the education and responsibility they require and publishes a list of jobs that should be considered equivalent for wage purposes.
(E) A government provides large rent subsidies to single parents whose wages are less than half the average worker’s wage.



3.According to the passage, some economists believe that, in the United States, there would be smaller differences between the wages of women and men who do the same jobs if

(A) equal pay laws were enforced more fully
(B) more stringent equal pay laws were passed
(C) a more rigorous comparable worth standard were developed and applied
(D) more men entered the occupations in which women are concentrated
(E) women received the same kind and amount of job training that men receive



Can someone please be more specific about question 2? Thanks.

Originally posted by eyunni on 01 Feb 2008, 14:37.
Last edited by hazelnut on 02 Jun 2018, 04:59, edited 3 times in total.
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New post 08 Sep 2016, 05:49
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johng2016 wrote:
Hey guys, about the third question, why it is not C ?
It is quite clear with A, but I'm not satisfied.

In the passage:
"Some economists believe that rigorous enforcement of existing equal pay laws would substantially decrease this wage inequity.............................Since gender concentration exists......, other economists argue that a comparable worth standard , which..............., should be applied instead."


Read the question carefully. It says "According to the passage, some economists believe that, in the United States, there would be smaller differences between the wages of women and men who do the same jobs if

Comparable worth comes into picture when we compare men and women who are in different occupations. Here, the question compares men and women who are in the same job and for that economists note " Some economists believe that rigorous enforcement of existing equal pay laws would substantially decrease this wage inequity "

This is why "C" is incorrect and "A" is correct.
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New post 11 Feb 2008, 06:26
How you guys are coming to B for Q1:

Not on the basis on these lines:
As a solution, they challenge the government’s assumption that a family’s income should depend primarily on wages. How can we conclude from this that the United States government’s policy towards providing wage supplements to parents whose wages are low is based on assumptions about the appropriate sources of family income.
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New post 11 Feb 2008, 06:47
Question 1
E. applicable to single-parent families headed by women but not to single-parent families headed by men

Women make less than men so the government's policy of supplementing single family low wages would affect the woment who make less.

Question 2
E. A government provides large rent subsidies to single parents whose wages are less than half the average worker’s wage.

The analysts assert that even if women make what men make they will still be below poverty because men themselves are below poverty as well. They challenge the governments assumptions that family income should be based on wages and urge for housing allowances to all single families who's wages are low.

Question 3
A. equal pay laws were enforced more fully

'Some economists believe that rigorous
enforcement of existing equal pay
(10) laws would substantially decrease
this wage inequity.'
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New post 23 Nov 2015, 02:42
ontheway wrote:
How you guys are coming to B for Q1:

Not on the basis on these lines:
As a solution, they challenge the government’s assumption that a family’s income should depend primarily on wages. How can we conclude from this that the United States government’s policy towards providing wage supplements to parents whose wages are low is based on assumptions about the appropriate sources of family income.


I think it should be E. The policy analysts suggest that solution because the single parent family with low income is headed by men too. So, it may be inferred that Govt. might have that policy, but only for women headed family. So E.
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New post 08 Apr 2016, 07:58
Hey guys, about the third question, why it is not C ?
It is quite clear with A, but I'm not satisfied.

In the passage:
"Some economists believe that rigorous enforcement of existing equal pay laws would substantially decrease this wage inequity.............................Since gender concentration exists......, other economists argue that a comparable worth standard , which..............., should be applied instead."
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New post 10 Sep 2016, 04:28
can anyone please explain question number 2?
regards,
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New post 10 Sep 2016, 04:32
1
khv wrote:
can anyone please explain question number 2?
regards,
Harsh Vardhan


It would be great Harsh if you can share your analysis of Q2 first. Also, it'd be great if you can tell us what choices are bothering you!
Thanks
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New post 10 Sep 2016, 06:10
1
khv wrote:
can anyone please explain question number 2?
regards,
Harsh Vardhan


Question is asking should these policy analysts were to create a action plan, what will it be?

policy analysts assert that, although comparable
worth would virtually equalize male and female wages, many single parent families headed by women would remain in poverty because many men earn wages that are below the poverty line. These policy analysts believe that the problem is not caused primarily by wage inequity but rather by low wages coupled with single parent hood, regardless of sex. As a
solution, they challenge the governent’s assumption that a family’s income should depend primarily on wages and urge the government to provide generous wage supplements
(child and housing allowances) to single parents whose wages are low.


They( Policy analysts) urge the government to provide supplements which complements Ans E
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New post 10 Sep 2016, 07:17
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khv

Which of the following is most clearly an example of the policy ( regardless of sex, provide supplements so that they may not have to rely solely on wages) advocated by the policy analysts mentioned in the highlighted portion?

A. A government provides training to women who wish to move out of occupations in which women are concentrated
the policy has nothing to do with the desires of anyone … moreover it is for both men and women WHO are single parents
B. A government supports research that analyzes the connection between wage inequality and poverty among single-parent families headed by women
the policy in the passage has everything to do with implementation and little to do with research
C. A government surveys wages annually to make certain that women and men in the same jobs receive the same pay
the policy is more about supplements rather than addressing inequity
D. A government analyzes jobs in terms of the education and responsibility they require and publishes a list of jobs that should be considered equivalent for wage purposes
again the policy is more about supplements rather than doing away with inequity … education as a measure of judging jobs to be equivalent wage wise is not confirmed from the passage which mentions ‘training and responsibility'
E. A government provides large rent subsidies to single parents whose wages are less than half the average worker’s wage …
a supplement (additional source of income) to single parents regardless of sex … perfect match … CORRECT
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New post 11 Sep 2016, 07:14
I do not understand why Q1 isn't B. I ruled out E because they mention the potential of men being below the poverty line in the passage when suggesting a comparable worth standard being established.

Can someone please shed some light on this for me??

Thanks!!! :-D
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New post 13 Sep 2016, 18:55
1
1. The passage suggests that the United States government’s policy towards providing wage supplements to parents whose wages are low is
A. considered ill advised by most economists who have studied the issue
No such mention in the passage
B. based on assumptions about the appropriate sources of family income
"As a solution, they challenge the government's assumption that a family’s income should depend primarily on wages and urge the government to provide generous wage supplements
(child and housing allowances) to single parents whose wages are low."

C. under revision in response to criticism from some policy analysts
The passage mentions that Analysts have urged government to provide wage supplements. No mention whether givernment has already accepted the proposal and revising the policy.
D. capable of eliminating wage inequality but not of raising incomes for both women and men
" These policy analysts believe that the problem is not caused primarily by wage inequity but rather by low wages coupled with single parent hood, regardless of sex. As a
solution, they challenge the government's assumption that a family’s income should depend primarily on wages and urge the government to provide generous wage supplements
(child and housing allowances) to single parents whose wages are low."

E. applicable to single-parent families headed by women but not to single-parent families headed by men
"urge the government to provide generous wage supplements (child and housing allowances) to single parents whose wages are low."
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Re: Research data indicate that there is a great deal of poverty  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2017, 03:11
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Took 6 mins 40 seconds , including 2 mins 40 seconds to read . All correct

1. The passage suggests that the United States government’s policy towards providing wage supplements to parents whose wages are low is
As a solution, they challenge the governent’s assumption that a family’s income should depend primarily on wages and urge the government to provide generous wage supplements
(child and housing allowances) to single parents whose wages are low.
B. based on assumptions about the appropriate sources of family income - Correct



2. Which of the following is most clearly an example of the policy advocated by the policy analysts mentioned in line 8 ?
But some policy analysts assert that, although comparable worth would virtually equalize male and female wages, many single parent families headed by women would remain in poverty because many men earn wages that are below the poverty line. These policy analysts believe that the problem is not caused primarily by wage inequity but rather by low wages coupled with single parent hood, regardless of sex.
E. A government provides large rent subsidies to single parents whose wages are less than half the average worker’s wage. - Correct


3.According to the passage, some economists believe that, in the United States, there would be smaller differences between the wages of women and men who do the same jobs if
This problem could result from the fact that women’s wages are only 60 percent of men’s. Some economists believe that rigorous enforcement of existing equal pay laws would substantially decrease this wage inequity.
A. equal pay laws were enforced more fully
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New post 17 Dec 2017, 23:44
The answer to Question 3 is option B, I think, because according to the passage more "rigorous enforcement of equal pay laws" means more stringent (of regulations, requirements, or conditions) strict, precise, and exacting.

Could you please clarify this?
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Re: Research data indicate that there is a great deal of poverty  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2017, 18:19
ADiCR7 wrote:
The answer to Question 3 is option B, I think, because according to the passage more "rigorous enforcement of equal pay laws" means more stringent (of regulations, requirements, or conditions) strict, precise, and exacting.

Could you please clarify this?

Quote:
3.According to the passage, some economists believe that, in the United States, there would be smaller differences between the wages of women and men who do the same jobs if
A. equal pay laws were enforced more fully
B. more stringent equal pay laws were passed
C. a more rigorous comparable worth standard were developed and applied
D. more men entered the occupations in which women are concentrated
E. women received the same kind and amount of job training that men receive

We don't need to pass new laws to decrease this wage difference. We already have laws requiring that women and men doing the same jobs be paid the same. Thus, some economists believe that rigorous enforcement of EXISTING laws would substantially decrease this wage inequity. New laws are not needed.

I hope that helps!
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New post 31 May 2018, 07:31
Titir wrote:
B. based on assumptions about the appropriate sources of family income
"As a solution, they challenge the government's assumption that a family’s income should depend primarily on wages and urge the government to provide generous wage supplements
(child and housing allowances) to single parents whose wages are low."

Got confused with this. I thought "appropriate sources of family income" was too generic and I didn't know what to infer from this :?
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New post 01 Jun 2018, 10:54
Lets breakdown the passage:
Research data says that single headed families led by women are poor.
women's wages << men's
Some eco believe : inequality can be sorted if men=women=same jobs
But, other PA's view: wages should be regardless of gender bcz sometimes, men also earn less, so single headed families led by those men are also poor.


1. The passage suggests that the United States government’s policy towards providing wage supplements to parents whose wages are low is

A. considered ill advised by most economists who have studied the issue
--> passage mentiones some economists. Eliminate

B. based on assumptions about the appropriate sources of family income
--> Correct. See last few lines on assumption.

C. under revision in response to criticism from some policy analysts
--> PA's are not critising anything

D. capable of eliminating wage inequality but not of raising incomes for both women and men
--> Extreme. This is no where discussed concretely.

E. applicable to single-parent families headed by women but not to single-parent families headed by men
--> Extreme.



2. Which of the following is most clearly an example of the policy advocated by the policy analysts mentioned in line 8 ?
---> As per PA's. the wages should be irrespective of gender.

A. A government provides training to women who wish to move out of occupations in which women are concentrated.
--> talks only about women. Also, what training will do ?

B. A government supports research that analyzes the connection between wage inequality and poverty among single-parent families headed by women.
--> same as A. What the research will do ?

C. A government surveys wages annually to make certain that women and men in the same jobs receive the same pay.
--> this is "Some economists" view. Anyways, surveys will do no better.

D. A government analyzes jobs in terms of the education and responsibility they require and publishes a list of jobs that should be considered equivalent for wage purposes.
--> what after analysing ? :p

E. A government provides large rent subsidies to single parents whose wages are less than half the average worker’s wage.
--> an action is described here. Also it talks about single parents in general, which supports PA's view. Correct.



3.According to the passage, some economists believe that, in the United States, there would be smaller differences between the wages of women and men who do the same jobs if
A. equal pay laws were enforced more fully
--> passage talks about enforcing existing equal pay laws. Correct.

B. more stringent equal pay laws were passed
--> reasons explained in A. This means that new stringent laws to be passed, which is wrong.

C. a more rigorous comparable worth standard were developed and applied
D. more men entered the occupations in which women are concentrated
E. women received the same kind and amount of job training that men receive

C,D,E are irrelevant.


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Re: Research data indicate that there is a great deal of poverty  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2018, 07:08
Question 2 threw me off because it said line 8 and I did not know who they are referring to.
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New post 29 Oct 2018, 02:24
Experts,
In question 3, both A and C could be the answers. How do we decide?
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New post 03 Nov 2018, 09:45
ian32666 wrote:
Experts,
In question 3, both A and C could be the answers. How do we decide?

keats has received a nice pile of kudos for this great breakdown of these two choices.

If that doesn't resolve your doubts, let us know?
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