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Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jan 2015, 18:10
Hi Meghna,


Please help me by resolving the conflict in my assumption in this question-

Profit depends on cost and selling price. Here the author is saying that the switching would unlikely increase profit. Hence the assumption could be that the selling price of both genetically modified feed corn and ordinary corn is same. Hence the answer can be (B).

However, I don't challenge GMAT :). But I am not able to establish linkages between premises to come up with an assumption to arrive at (D) in e-gmat way. Because the premise clearly says that savings in using less insecticide cannnot offset the cost of seed. So even if we use even less insecticide its not going to make too much difference. Plus how can we challenge/change premise.

Can you please guide.

Thanks,
Pritisha

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2015, 03:31
MarketingGuru wrote:
Hi Meghna,


Please help me by resolving the conflict in my assumption in this question-

Profit depends on cost and selling price. Here the author is saying that the switching would unlikely increase profit. Hence the assumption could be that the selling price of both genetically modified feed corn and ordinary corn is same. Hence the answer can be (B).

However, I don't challenge GMAT :). But I am not able to establish linkages between premises to come up with an assumption to arrive at (D) in e-gmat way. Because the premise clearly says that savings in using less insecticide cannnot offset the cost of seed. So even if we use even less insecticide its not going to make too much difference. Plus how can we challenge/change premise.

Can you please guide.

Thanks,
Pritisha


For (B) vs (D), check this link: scientists-have-modified-feed-corn-genetically-increasing-94161-20.html#p1382766

Ask if anything remains unclear.
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 06 Apr 2015, 01:19
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
MarketingGuru wrote:
Hi Meghna,


Please help me by resolving the conflict in my assumption in this question-

Profit depends on cost and selling price. Here the author is saying that the switching would unlikely increase profit. Hence the assumption could be that the selling price of both genetically modified feed corn and ordinary corn is same. Hence the answer can be (B).

However, I don't challenge GMAT :). But I am not able to establish linkages between premises to come up with an assumption to arrive at (D) in e-gmat way. Because the premise clearly says that savings in using less insecticide cannnot offset the cost of seed. So even if we use even less insecticide its not going to make too much difference. Plus how can we challenge/change premise.

Can you please guide.

Thanks,
Pritisha


For (B) vs (D), check this link: scientists-have-modified-feed-corn-genetically-increasing-94161-20.html#p1382766

Ask if anything remains unclear.



Hi Karishma,
If option B was something like:
Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn would fluctuate in future.

Will it be a contender then?

Regards,
SR

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 06 Apr 2015, 20:24
solitaryreaper wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
MarketingGuru wrote:
Hi Meghna,


Please help me by resolving the conflict in my assumption in this question-

Profit depends on cost and selling price. Here the author is saying that the switching would unlikely increase profit. Hence the assumption could be that the selling price of both genetically modified feed corn and ordinary corn is same. Hence the answer can be (B).

However, I don't challenge GMAT :). But I am not able to establish linkages between premises to come up with an assumption to arrive at (D) in e-gmat way. Because the premise clearly says that savings in using less insecticide cannnot offset the cost of seed. So even if we use even less insecticide its not going to make too much difference. Plus how can we challenge/change premise.

Can you please guide.

Thanks,
Pritisha


For (B) vs (D), check this link: scientists-have-modified-feed-corn-genetically-increasing-94161-20.html#p1382766

Ask if anything remains unclear.



Hi Karishma,
If option B was something like:
Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn would fluctuate in future.

Will it be a contender then?

Regards,
SR


No, it wouldn't be. The price farmers receive for feed corn is the same - whether they use genetically modified seeds or ordinary seeds. What we need to figure out is whether the profits will increase if they switched to genetically modified seeds i.e. if one farmer uses ordinary seeds this year and another uses genetically modified seeds this year, whose profit will be higher? Since revenue earned by both will the same, the question is which farmer's cost will be lower?
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2015, 10:28
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No, it wouldn't be. The price farmers receive for feed corn is the same - whether they use genetically modified seeds or ordinary seeds. What we need to figure out is whether the profits will increase if they switched to genetically modified seeds i.e. if one farmer uses ordinary seeds this year and another uses genetically modified seeds this year, whose profit will be higher? Since revenue earned by both will the same, the question is which farmer's cost will be lower?



Thanks Karishma !!
Now I got it.It's true that Selling price is not a concern here. It will be same for corn grown through modified seeds or through ordinary seeds.
The concern is how the profits would be impacted - something that is directly related to the cost incurred in the growth of corn.

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 21 Apr 2015, 05:58
gmatpunjabi - Could you please help us know the answer you found for the question shrive555 asked? I also have the same question actually.
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2015, 11:57
jai1902 wrote:
Of course, we know the OA and we also know the reasoning. Still let us see the logical flow of the argument.

For same yield,

Premise 1: Conventional Corn-- uses X kg of Pesticide but seed is less expensive.
Premise 2: GM Corn-- uses 'less than X kg' of Pesticide but seed is expensive.
Conclusion: Though 'less than X kg' of Pesticide but seed is expensive. So, No profit INCREASE.


Assumption: Profit = Selling Price - Total Cost (pesticide + seed)

Option D introduces a new information which states that 'less than X kg' is still very high than 'actually necessary'. So, if we accept the info provided by Option D, Total Cost will reduce if we use only 'necessary' qty of pesticide.

For those, who still find Option A and Option B convincing, read below:

A. (I am not very happy with Official explanation given in the book but there is still another big flaw)
Insects SOMETIMES might infest the crop and neither pesticide or genetic modification will save it. So what, it might infest the crop once in a century. These unavoidable apocalyptic events might happen sometime. We should not take SOMETIMES occurring events to affect our decisions.

Take for example a situation:
Mayor: We should build a high rise building to accommodate people living in slums, which occupy large city area. The area saved can be used to build schools and hospitals.
Citizen: In every 10000 years, one earthquake hits the city. So, we should not build the high rise building because an earthquake might occur SOMETIME.

You know how dumb that citizen will sound!

B. If Selling Price increases, Profit will increase same for both types of farming, unless the changes in cost in Conventional farming are different from those in GM farming.


Where does it imply that selling price is the same? The first sentence says "modified feed corn" but B says "feed corn". How would I know that feed corn means modified and original

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2015, 20:32
kedusei wrote:
jai1902 wrote:
Of course, we know the OA and we also know the reasoning. Still let us see the logical flow of the argument.

For same yield,

Premise 1: Conventional Corn-- uses X kg of Pesticide but seed is less expensive.
Premise 2: GM Corn-- uses 'less than X kg' of Pesticide but seed is expensive.
Conclusion: Though 'less than X kg' of Pesticide but seed is expensive. So, No profit INCREASE.


Assumption: Profit = Selling Price - Total Cost (pesticide + seed)

Option D introduces a new information which states that 'less than X kg' is still very high than 'actually necessary'. So, if we accept the info provided by Option D, Total Cost will reduce if we use only 'necessary' qty of pesticide.

For those, who still find Option A and Option B convincing, read below:

A. (I am not very happy with Official explanation given in the book but there is still another big flaw)
Insects SOMETIMES might infest the crop and neither pesticide or genetic modification will save it. So what, it might infest the crop once in a century. These unavoidable apocalyptic events might happen sometime. We should not take SOMETIMES occurring events to affect our decisions.

Take for example a situation:
Mayor: We should build a high rise building to accommodate people living in slums, which occupy large city area. The area saved can be used to build schools and hospitals.
Citizen: In every 10000 years, one earthquake hits the city. So, we should not build the high rise building because an earthquake might occur SOMETIME.

You know how dumb that citizen will sound!

B. If Selling Price increases, Profit will increase same for both types of farming, unless the changes in cost in Conventional farming are different from those in GM farming.


Where does it imply that selling price is the same? The first sentence says "modified feed corn" but B says "feed corn". How would I know that feed corn means modified and original


Note that option (B) says:
"Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years"

The question is not trying to probe the difference in the selling price of original corn and modified corn. A steady or non-steady selling price in previous years will not help us decide whether original will give more profit or modified.

Had the question been: "Whether the farmers can receive a higher selling price for corn which uses less insecticide" or something similar, then it would have been relevant too our discussion of which corn will give more profit.
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 12 Dec 2015, 03:37
guhabhishek wrote:
Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resistance to insect pests. Farmers who tried out the genetically modified corn last season applied less insecticide to their corn fields and still got yields comparable to those they would have gotten with ordinary corn. Ordinary corn seed, however, costs less, and what these farmers saved on insecticide rarely exceeded their extra costs for seed. Therefore, for most feed-corn farmers, switching to genetically modified seed would be unlikely to increase profits.

Which of the following would it be most useful to know in order to evaluate the argument?

(A) Whether there are insect pests that sometimes reduce feed-corn yields, but against which commonly used insecticides and the genetic modification are equally ineffective
(B) Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years
(C) Whether the insecticides typically used on feed corn tend to be more expensive than insecticides typically used on other crops
(D) Whether most of the farmers who tried the genetically modified corn last season applied more insecticide than was actually necessary
(E) Whether, for most farmers who plant feed corn, it is their most profitable crop




We have -

Cost of Seeds : Genetically Modified > Ordinary Seeds
Yield : Genetically Modified = Ordinary Seeds


guhabhishek wrote:
Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resistance to insect pests. Farmers who tried out the genetically modified corn last season applied less insecticide to their corn fields


Scientists have modified the seeds to be insect resistant still the farmers are using less insecticides ,it may be such that

1. Insecticides are not required at all

2. or a very insignificant amount might be required ( Since the seeds itself are resistant to the diseases)


Thus IMHO (D)

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2016, 01:01
ykaiim wrote:
Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resistance to insect pests. Farmers who tried out the genetically modified corn last season applied less insecticide to their corn fields and still got yields comparable to those they would have gotten with ordinary corn. Ordinary corn seed, however, costs less, and what these farmers saved on insecticide rarely exceeded their extra costs for seed. Therefore, for most feed-corn farmers, switching to genetically modified seed would be unlikely to increase profits.

Which of the following would it be most useful to know in order to evaluate the argument?

(A) Whether there are insect pests that sometimes reduce feed-corn yields, but against which commonly used insecticides and the genetic modifi cation are equally ineffective
(B) Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years
(C) Whether the insecticides typically used on feed corn tend to be more expensive than insecticides typically used on other crops
(D) Whether most of the farmers who tried the genetically modifi ed corn last season applied more insecticide than was actually necessary
(E) Whether, for most farmers who plant feed corn, it is their most profi table crop


Situation-
The yields from the insect resistant feed corn are same as the ones from the ordinary cotton.
GM Feed corn is expensive.
Cost of GM feed corn + Less insecticide cost > Cost of ordinary feed corn + More cost of Insecticide


Conclusion-
For most feed-corn farmers, switching to genetically modified seed would be unlikely to increase profits.


Evaluation-

In order to conclude about the profit= SP-CP, we need information about SP but there is not any.We have no information about the selling price of the GM Feed corn vs ordinary feed corn. The argument must assume or forces us to assume that the SP for GM feed corn is equal to ordinary feed corn.

How do we increase profits ?(Note the yields are same from both types of corn feed)
1. Decrease cost of production.
2. Increase selling price


POE-

(A) Whether there are insect pests that sometimes reduce feed-corn yields, but against which commonly used insecticides and the genetic modification are equally ineffective

This information is of no help. If there are such insects then they will affect both the crops equally.But this information does not help us to increase profits.

(B) Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years

Past is dead and does not gurantee future. Even if the price were steady, that does not ensure that price will be steady now or in the future.We do not have any information about the price differentiation, if any, between the two types of the corn feed.

(C) Whether the insecticides typically used on feed corn tend to be more expensive than insecticides typically used on other crops

This affects the comparison equally.Same as option A does.So what if the insecticides are expensive, we are just instersted in profit comparison between the two types of corn feed and not between corn feed and other crops.


(D) Whether most of the farmers who tried the genetically modifi ed corn last season applied more insecticide than was actually necessary

If the farmers appplied more insecticide on the GM feed corn then there might be a way to reduce the cost of production and hence INCREASE profits.

Cost of GM feed corn + Less insecticide cost > Cost of ordinary feed corn + More cost of Insecticide

The option gives us a reason to suspect that there might be a way to increase profits.

A yes answer to option D will give us a reason that profits might be increase and may be the conclusion is wrong.
A no answer to option D will give us a reason that the situation is unlikely to change and the conclusion stands correct.

It is good to remind ourselves that all we need to do is to check-
1.The conclusion may be not true or is doubtful.A yes answer to option D would do exactly this.
2. The conclusion is true without doubt.


(E) Whether, for most farmers who plant feed corn, it is their most profi table crop

This information is immaterial as it directs the comparison towards other crops and not between the two types of feed corn.


Hope the above is helpful!

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2016, 10:29
Pretty obvious. It's D.

Because they can save on the insecticide if they have used more than required.
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2017, 18:27
Generalize:
gmod-more resistant to insects - expensive
regular-less resistant to insects - cheap
---------------
The gap in cost after purchasing corn seeds and applying insecticide is not substantial and hence will not yield profits.

Any question that answers whether or not this gap in cost is substantial and hence drive up profits is our pick. Answer D does this beautifully.
If the farmers who used g-mod seeds sprayed more fertilizer than required, then they spent more money than required. If we find that only a fraction of the amount of fertilizer used is enough, the farmers will spend a fraction of the cost to produce the same yield and hence the profits will increase.

(A) Whether there are insect pests that sometimes reduce feed-corn yields, but against which commonly used insecticides and the genetic modifi cation are equally ineffective - out of scope

(B) Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years - addresses only part of the premise

(C) Whether the insecticides typically used on feed corn tend to be more expensive than insecticides typically used on other crops- Similar to A. Out of scope

(E) Whether, for most farmers who plant feed corn, it is their most profitable crop - Most profitable for most farmers? what about the rest?
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2017, 05:09
Answer should be D
If they applied more than necessary insistence, there profit is neutralized
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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2017, 02:40
ykaiim wrote:
Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resistance to insect pests. Farmers who tried out the genetically modifi ed corn last season applied less insecticide to their corn fi elds and still got yields comparable to those they would have gotten with ordinary corn. Ordinary corn seed, however, costs less, and what these farmers saved on insecticide rarely exceeded their extra costs for seed. Therefore, for most feed-corn farmers, switching to genetically modifi ed seed would be unlikely to increase profits.

Which of the following would it be most useful to know in order to evaluate the argument?

(A) Whether there are insect pests that sometimes reduce feed-corn yields, but against which commonly used insecticides and the genetic modifi cation are equally ineffective

(B) Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years

(C) Whether the insecticides typically used on feed corn tend to be more expensive than insecticides typically used on other crops

(D) Whether most of the farmers who tried the genetically modifi ed corn last season applied more insecticide than was actually necessary

(E) Whether, for most farmers who plant feed corn, it is their most profitable crop


can someone explain option E? I don't think it is irrelevant, if it is not the most profitable crop, then it doesn't matter?

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Re: Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resista [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2017, 17:28
ykaiim wrote:
Scientists have modified feed corn genetically, increasing its resistance to insect pests. Farmers who tried out the genetically modified corn last season applied less insecticide to their corn fields and still got yields comparable to those they would have gotten with ordinary corn. Ordinary corn seed, however, costs less, and what these farmers saved on insecticide rarely exceeded their extra costs for seed. Therefore, for most feed-corn farmers, switching to genetically modified seed would be unlikely to increase profits.

Which of the following would it be most useful to know in order to evaluate the argument?

(A) Whether there are insect pests that sometimes reduce feed-corn yields, but against which commonly used insecticides and the genetic modification are equally ineffective

(B) Whether the price that farmers receive for feed corn has remained steady over the past few years

(C) Whether the insecticides typically used on feed corn tend to be more expensive than insecticides typically used on other crops

(D) Whether most of the farmers who tried the genetically modified corn last season applied more insecticide than was actually necessary

(E) Whether, for most farmers who plant feed corn, it is their most profitable crop


Modified Feed Corn

Step 1: Identify the Question

The wording useful to know in order to evaluate in the question stem indicates that this is an Evaluate the Argument question.

Step 2: Deconstruct the Argument

Note: this argument uses the term “feed corn” interchangeably with the word “corn.” Both terms refer to corn that is grown specifically to feed to animals, not humans. Throughout the argument, there are two types of this corn mentioned: ordinary feed corn (OC) and genetically modified feed corn (GMC).

GMC: pest resist; use less insecticide, = yields OC

OC costs less

Savings on I for GMC not more than > costs for GMC

SO: switch to GMC not likely to > prof

The author concludes that switching from OC to GMC is unlikely to increase profits, since a group of farmers who tried switching found that the costs associated with growing GMC frequently exceeded the savings accrued from reduced use of insecticide. This conclusion assumes that there are no additional savings that could be accrued by using GMC, allowing these farmers to increase profits. It also assumes that there are no opportunities for farmers to sell GMC for a higher price, thereby increasing profits. Is that the case?

Step 3: Pause and State the Goal

On Evaluate questions, the answers will be in the form of a question or a “whether x is true” statement. The correct answer will address an issue on which the argument hinges, depending on whether that statement is true: one way, the argument will be strengthened; the other way, the argument will be weakened.

Step 4: Work from Wrong to Right

(A) This choice is confusing. Re-worded, it says “Whether there are some corn pests that can’t be stopped by either regular insecticides or the GMC.” If there are, then both the regular corn and the GMC would be equally affected. If there aren’t, then both types of corn would still be equally affected. This choice does not affect the conclusion, since it does not address the possibility that farmers could increase profits by switching to GMC.

(B) This choice references feed corn in general; it does not make a distinction between GMC and OC. If all prices have remained steady, the argument is not affected. If all prices have fluctuated, the argument is not affected, since any impact on GMC profits would also apply to OC profits.

(C) This choice references feed corn in general; it does not make a distinction between GMC and OC. The price of insecticide for corn vs. the price for other crops is not at issue in the argument.

(D) CORRECT. If the farmers did apply more insecticide than needed, they could reduce the amount of insecticide even more next season. This further reduction could allow them to save enough money to increase profits, so this opportunity weakens the conclusion. If, on the other hand, farmers applied just as much insecticide as needed, then they would have to do the same next season. This necessity would support the argument’s conclusion that the farmers are unlikely to increase profits by growing GMC.

(E) This choice references feed corn in general; it does not make a distinction between GMC and OC. Whether corn in general is more profitable than other crops is not at issue in the argument.
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