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# Scientists have recently found evidence

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Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2015, 03:42
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OG16 SC128
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.

(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2015, 03:44
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Basically I was confused between B and C I rejected B because of usage of That of can anyone explain how usage of that of is correct in B and why C is wrong

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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2015, 04:20
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(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to ---- the comparison should be between the mass of the black hole and the mass of the its host galaxy and not the galaxy itself. 'That of' stands for 'the mass of' Secondly the 'introducer ‘that ‘is’ missing, turning the clause unparallel. That is why this choice is wrong
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of --- This corrects the comparison error. 'That' parallelism is also maintained
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to -- same error as in A.
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of -- -holes –exists- SV error
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of--- – 1. ‘Holes –exists’ is SV error 2. That parallelism is missing
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2015, 04:28
2
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amatya wrote:
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

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C is wrong because it compares "mass of black hole" to "the parent galaxy" (instead of comparing to the parent galaxy's mass). Invalid comparison.

B all the way!
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2016, 12:12
obvi between B&C. "that of" sounds extraneous at first, but gotta stick to rule book versus your ear. Sounding it out in head with "the size" or some other noun you see "that of" is kinda needed.

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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2016, 20:22
I got the SV error but missed the comparison problem.

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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2016, 00:39
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amatya wrote:
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

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I suggest a split pattern approach

the core structure should be: Scientists found evidence that [clause 1] and that [clause 2]
or
Scientists found evidence that [clause 1] and [clause 2]
(Both are acceptable)

[Clause 1]: black holes, .....[modifier], probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies => plural Subject go with plural Verb => We eliminate D & E
[Clause 2]: the mass of each black hole is proportional to ........

There is a very clear patter
A - B - C with "Exist at the core of nearly all galaxies......."
D - E with "Exists at the core of ......"

From [Clause 1], as "black holes" is plural subject => need plural verb => eliminate D - E immediately as "exists" is in the singular form.

Now the case is
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(B) .......................(like A)...................... and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(C) .......................(like A)....................., and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to

The 2rd pattern to split will be:
A - C: exist at the core of nearly all galaxies(,) and (that) the mass of each black hole is proportional to
B: ...................................................................................................is proportional to that of

At this step I will question the difference between A-C and B.
When we look closer to the [Clause 2], it is clear that "the mass of each black hole" should be proportional to the mass of something else, as A proportional to B only if A and B are equally sign.

In A - C, the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy => although I'm not an astrologer, and don't know what is the "mass", it don't make sense together

While in B, the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of (that of=the mass of) its host galaxy

==> at the end, eliminate A - C,

B is the only left one.
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2016, 00:41
Remove the parenthetical stuff to get a clear idea of Subject-Verb agreement
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.

The sentence now becomes
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.

"Black holes+exist & that" will be the correct construction with respect to parallelism and SV agreement

D and E are wrong outright

Among A,B,C
A is out Wrong parallelism becauses it is missing "that"
exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to. needs a "THAT" after "and "for correct parallelism.

C is out
Wrong comparison .. compares mass of the black hole to the galaxy itself
exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to

B is correct
compares mass of the black holes to that of the parent galaxy
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

amatya wrote:
OG16 SC128
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2016, 02:10
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to-- Incorrect comparison
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of--Size of black holes must be proportional to the size of size of the galaxy-- this option has correct comparison
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to-- Incorrect comparison
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of-- Black Holes must have a plural verb[b]
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of[/b]--Black Holes must have a plural verb

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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2016, 06:03
need exist .So ABC reman

the mass needs to be compared with mass

so need that of,B does that

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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2016, 07:58
amatya wrote:
OG16 SC128
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

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'Black holes' requires plural verb ' exist'. D and E are out.

mass of each black hole is proportional to (the mass of) its host galaxy. Only option B shows that.
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2016, 09:26
1
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amatya wrote:
OG16 SC128
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

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Two concepts are tested here.

1) SV agreement
2) Comparison

Subject " Black Holes " plural needs plural verb

D and E gone.

Comparison needs to be between mass of the BH and mass of host galaxy.

B uses both these concepts correctly.

Time taken : 30 sec
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2016, 10:04
amatya wrote:
OG16 SC128
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.

(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

#1. subject and verb: D&E Vs A,B&C
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes......probably exist/exists
D and E are gone.

#2. Parallelism: A Vs B&C
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to

if you write black holes exist AND the mass (subject), you need verb here to be parallel to exist. hence A is wrong. this is why setting two THAT clauses parallel with AND is correct. so we are left with B&C

#3. Comparison: B Vs C
mass needs to be compared with mass. C has wrong comparison :
the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy -- here mass is compared with galaxy. which is wrong. so C is out.

B corrects all the above erros.
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2017, 02:33
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.

(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to - "that" needed before "the mass" to maintain the parallel structure
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of - CORRECT.. mistakes in other options are removed here: "exist" for plural "black holes" .. "that" before "the mass" to maintain parallelism.. and "that" after "proportional of" to compare mass with mass
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to - "mass" of black hole compared with "galaxy"
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of - "exists" does not go with plural "black holes"
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of - "exists" does not go with plural "black holes"
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2017, 13:08
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so
concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—
probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host
galaxy.

Subject of the underlined part of the sentence is “Black Holes” (plural) so verb also need to be plural (exist) ..
Option D and E are straight out ….

A. exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
Scientists found evidence that Black holes….and that the mass ….
Please notice that the second “that” is missing in this option ..

B. exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
Eliminates the error in option A and correctly compares (or correlates) the mass of black hole to the mass (as indicated by the usage of “that of”) of its host galaxies
Correct choice

C. exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to
Illogically suggesting that mass of black hole is proportional to its host galaxy …

D. exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
Out due to plural verb “exists”

E. exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
Out due to plural verb “exists”
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2017, 21:46
Hello GMATNinja,

While Option C is incorrect because it compares dissimilar entities, can we look at the ,and construction and state that it is incorrect?

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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2017, 11:40
warriorguy wrote:
Hello GMATNinja,

While Option C is incorrect because it compares dissimilar entities, can we look at the ,and construction and state that it is incorrect?

In general, I don't think it's a good idea to overreact to commas on the GMAT, partly because style experts disagree about comma rules, and partly because the GMAT has better things to worry about. In (C), I don't see any need for the comma, since the two "that" phrases ("that black holes... probably exist" and "that the mass of each black hole is proportional...") are parallel to each other. In this case, it's basically a "list" of two subordinate clauses, so no need for a comma.

But you're very, very unlikely to see an official GMAT question in which the comma is the deciding factor.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2017, 05:01
daagh wrote:
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to ---- the comparison should be between the mass of the black hole and the mass of the its host galaxy and not the galaxy itself. 'That of' stands for 'the mass of' Secondly the 'introducer ‘that ‘is’ missing, turning the clause unparallel. That is why this choice is wrong
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of --- This corrects the comparison error. 'That' parallelism is also maintained
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to -- same error as in A.
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of -- -holes –exists- SV error
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of--- – 1. ‘Holes –exists’ is SV error 2. That parallelism is missing

Sir
it would be very kind of you, if you can differentiate between the ancedent of both that used in option B, or if i have to make sentence correct by removing that how will it look

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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2017, 08:59
Eliminate D and E on the basis of SV agreement and A and C on basis of ellipsis and parallelism......Easy B
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2017, 06:56
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.

(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to - mass is incorrectly compared to galaxy. Wrong
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of - S-V is correct and the use of 'that' correctly compares the mass of black hole to mass of galaxy. Correct
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to - Mass of black hole is incorrectly compared to galaxy. Wrong
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of - Black holes(plural) need exist(plural) verb. S-V error. Wrong
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of - Same as D.

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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence   [#permalink] 22 Sep 2017, 06:56

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