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# Sea turtles, reptilian amphibians that are classified

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Sea turtles, reptilian amphibians that are classified  [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2018, 19:26
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Question 4
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Sea turtles, reptilian amphibians that are classified into seven distinct sub-species, are quickly beginning to rank among some of the most endangered species on the planet. These ancient reptiles are vital to Earth’s ecosystem because they feed on botanical life that grows on sea beds and thereby help maintain the natural habitat of several other marine life forms. Further, unhatched sea turtle eggs provide nutrients for plants that grow beneath the surface of the sea, which in turn strengthen sand dunes through their root systems and help prevent beaches from eroding.

Ironically, human attempts to preserve the marine environment in which sea turtles live are causing the species’ numbers to dwindle even faster. In an effort to protect sea turtles that nest on the beaches, in some popular fishing areas local authorities have placed restrictions on the amount of fishing in order to protect the turtles from being caught in fishing nets and drowning. However, the reduction in the amount of fishing in these areas has led to an increase in the numbers of the giant cuttlefish, which feed on the same underwater plants as the sea turtles do. The subsequent decrease in the turtles’ food source, particularly the sea grass that is part of the turtles’ staple diet, has not only led to an alarming reduction in the number of sea turtles in these areas but also affected the balance of the marine ecosystem in these regions.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. questioning certain human activities that are causing damage to not only the local fishing communities but also to a vital endangered species
B. outlining the reasons behind the importance of a certain species to the Earth’s ecosystem
C. establishing the relevance of a species and analyzing how a solution to protect it might be defeating its very purpose
D. arguing that sometimes plans to rectify situations may actually cause more harm than good
E. explaining how some attempts to reduce fishing have not been successful

A. Incorrect: Out of Scope

The passage does not really question these activities as much as it presents their effects, which are counter to what was expected. Also, there is no mention of any damage caused to the local fishing communities.
B. Incorrect: Partial Scope

This is the scope of only the first paragraph and not of the entire passage.
C. Correct

This choice matches the result of our passage analysis and our pre-thinking.
D. Incorrect: Out of Scope

This choice is too broad in scope. The author does not argue for any such generalized opinion. The author does analyze one situation in which the results have been the opposite of what they were expected to be, but that’s not to make any broad statement. Also, this choice does not even mention the relevance of the species that forms the essence of the first paragraph.
E. Incorrect: Inconsistent

The fact that there have been some attempts to reduce fishing is not the main point of the passage. Also, since the number of cuttlefish has increased, the attempts to reduce fishing in some areas were probably successful.

2. The author suggests which of the following about sea turtles?
A. An increase in the number of sea turtles will probably lead to a decrease in the number of giant cuttlefish.
B. Restrictions in the amount of fishing in some areas have led to an increase in illegal poaching of sea turtles.
C. In some areas, sea turtles would probably be less endangered if giant cuttlefish populations were lower in number.
D. The plants that form part of the diet of sea turtles are found only on the seabed.
E. Sea turtles are more endangered than turtle species that live on land.

A. Incorrect: Out of Scope

No information is provided about the possible results of an increase in the number of ST. According to the passage, the number of GC has increased because of reduction in fishing. We do not know if GC would be affected by an increase in the number of ST.
B. Incorrect: Out of Scope

No information is provided to deduce anything about the poaching of sea turtles.
C. Correct

Since the passage states that increased giant cuttlefish (GC) numbers have led to a decrease in ST numbers, this choice can be inferred.
D. Incorrect: Out of Scope

We cannot infer that these plants are found only on the sea bed.
E. Incorrect: Out of Scope

The passage does not make any comparison between ST and land turtles.

3. Which of the following CANNOT be inferred from the passage?
A. The habitat of some marine organisms is impacted by the existence of the sea turtles.
B. The staple diet of two marine organisms can be the same.
C. Even without feeding on plants, sea turtles can be useful to the environment they are born in.
D. Some attempts to help the endangered species of sea turtle have had effects that had not been predicted.
E. The giant cuttlefish were being caught in greater numbers before certain restrictions on fishing were placed in some areas.

A. Incorrect: Can be Inferred

The author states in the first paragraph that the sea turtles feed on botanical life that grows on sea beds and thereby help maintain the natural habitat of several other marine life forms. Hence, the information given in this choice can be inferred.
B. Correct: Out of Scope

The passage states that GC feeds on the same plants as ST and one of these plants forms the staple diet of ST. However, there is no given information tosuggest that this plant is also the staple diet of GC.
C. Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This statement can be derived from the information given to us about the unhatched sea turtle eggs. These eggs, we are told, provide nutrients for certain plants that in turn prevent beaches from eroding.
D. Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This statement can be inferred as we are told in the second paragraph that the efforts to help the species have caused harm instead. It is obvious that this effect was not a part of the plan.
E. Incorrect: Can be Inferred

We are told that as result of the restrictions, the numbers of the GC increased. Therefore, we can conclude that before these restrictions, there were being caught in greater numbers.

4. The author refers to the giant cuttlefish in order to
A.explain how some species can thrive despite human activities
B. provide an example of a marine organism that forms part of the staple diet of another marine organism
C. identify a species that is highly endangered
D. describe an event that has led to more than one adverse effect
E. argue in favor of a way in which a particular species can be protected

This is a Function question. The author says that efforts to reduce fishing have increased the number of GC. GC eat the same food as ST do, and increase in GC numbers has (1) led to a reduction in ST numbers and (2) affected the balance of the ecosystem.
A.Incorrect: Opposite

GC has increased in numbers because of human activity, not despite it.
B. Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not state that GC are eaten by any other marine organism.
C. Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not identify GC as an endangered species.
D. Correct

This choice correctly identifies the function of the sentence. As stated in the pre-thinking, the increase in the number of GC has both led to a decrease in the number of ST and affected the marine ecosystem.
E. Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not argue in favor of any method of protecting a species.

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Re: Sea turtles, reptilian amphibians that are classified  [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2018, 22:29
8:45 minutes - 3/4 correct. Got last question wrong.
Not able to reduce the time
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Re: Sea turtles, reptilian amphibians that are classified  [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2018, 12:15
1
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. questioning certain human activities that are causing damage to not only the local fishing communities but also to a vital endangered species - out of scope
B. outlining the reasons behind the importance of a certain species to the Earth’s ecosystem - out of scope
C. establishing the relevance of a species and analyzing how a solution to protect it might be defeating its very purpose main idea
D. arguing that sometimes plans to rectify situations may actually cause more harm than good - out of scope
E. explaining how some attempts to reduce fishing have not been successful - Inconsistent

2. The author suggests which of the following about sea turtles?
A. An increase in the number of sea turtles will probably lead to a decrease in the number of giant cuttlefish. - Inconsistent
B. Restrictions in the amount of fishing in some areas have led to an increase in illegal poaching of sea turtles. - Out of scope
C. In some areas, sea turtles would probably be less endangered if giant cuttlefish populations were lower in number. - can be inferred from 2nd para
D. The plants that form part of the diet of sea turtles are found only on the seabed. - out of scope
E. Sea turtles are more endangered than turtle species that live on land. - out of scope

3. Which of the following CANNOT be inferred from the passage?
A. The habitat of some marine organisms is impacted by the existence of the sea turtles. - Inconsistent
B. The staple diet of two marine organisms can be the same. the word staple made the meaning of sentence totally different. cannot infer
C. Even without feeding on plants, sea turtles can be useful to the environment they are born in. - given in 1st para
D. Some attempts to help the endangered species of sea turtle have had effects that had not been predicted. - given in 2nd para
E. The giant cuttlefish were being caught in greater numbers before certain restrictions on fishing were placed in some areas. - given in 2nd para

4. The author refers to the giant cuttlefish in order to
A.explain how some species can thrive despite human activities - out of scope
B. provide an example of a marine organism that forms part of the staple diet of another marine organism - out of scope
C. identify a species that is highly endangered - out of scope
D. describe an event that has led to more than one adverse effect - given in last line of 2nd para
E. argue in favor of a way in which a particular species can be protected - Inconsistent
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Sea turtles, reptilian amphibians that are classified  [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2018, 09:39
I do not agree with Q3 . The entire purpose of second para is to show how the human activities affect the turtles even more
Humans try to save>> reduction in fishing>>increase in cuttlefish>> eating the same stuff that turtles do ...Now if what cuttlefish eat did not affect the turtles significantly then why would the author even use that fact to substantiate his main point(human activities>> turtles) ??
Additionaly, it is an inference question . The next line states that "grass" is a PART of staple food and not THE ONLY staple food. There is no purpose of adding cuttlefish to substantiate the claim if the phenomenon plays no major role.
If we are to be TOO TRUE for the word then in that sense even option D cannot be inferred as there is no explicit mention of the effects being "unprecendented" ...all we kno0w is that the phenmomenon is ironic. BUT who is to say that the effects were unpredicted??
Also how do we know that the "cuttlefish" was actually CAUGHT in high numbers. I can provide some other reason for the increase in cattlefish numbers..what if the food souce of cattlefish was in less quantity?? what if the fish we caught before actully were the food spurce of cuttlefish??
As this is an inference question , the answer choices are permissible and may not be 100% true.
In my opinion B is fairly inferable.
Also, Q4 asks us to find the purpose of providing cuttlefish example : the OA is :"D. describe an event that has led to more than one adverse effect"
"adverse EFFECT" now if the food were not staple , then how wuld turtles be affected ADVERSELY??? ... if the diet werent staple (meaning according to dictionary : basic or essential ) , then why would the increase in cuttlefish affect turtkles "adversely"??? if option B is not inferrable in Q3 , then Q4 is moot.

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Sea turtles, reptilian amphibians that are classified  [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2018, 10:35
I do not agree with Q3 . The entire purpose of second para is to show how the human activities affect the turtles even more
Humans try to save>> reduction in fishing>>increase in cuttlefish>> eating the same stuff that turtles do ...Now if what cuttlefish eat did not affect the turtles significantly then why would the author even use that fact to substantiate his main point(human activities>> turtles) ??
Additionaly, it is an inference question . The next line states that "grass" is a PART of staple food and not THE ONLY staple food. There is no purpose of adding cuttlefish to substantiate the claim if the phenomenon plays no major role.
If we are to be TOO TRUE for the word then in that sense even option D cannot be inferred as there is no explicit mention of the effects being "unprecendented" ...all we kno0w is that the phenmomenon is ironic. BUT who is to say that the effects were unpredicted??
Also how do we know that the "cuttlefish" was actually CAUGHT in high numbers. I can provide some other reason for the increase in cattlefish numbers..what if the food souce of cattlefish was in less quantity?? what if the fish we caught before actully were the food spurce of cuttlefish??
As this is an inference question , the answer choices are permissible and may not be 100% true.
In my opinion B is fairly inferable.

For question 3 -

(A) The author clearly projects the sea turtles as victims in the passage, thus this statement can be inferred.

(B) Can be negated as the 2nd paragraph explicitly states " However, the reduction in the amount of fishing in these areas has led to an increase in the numbers of the giant cuttlefish, which feed on the same underwater plants as the sea turtles do. "

(C) Can be negated as the 1st Paragraph states " Further, unhatched sea turtle eggs provide nutrients for plants that grow beneath the surface of the sea, which in turn strengthen sand dunes through their root systems and help prevent beaches from eroding."

(D) Can be negated as the 2nd Paragraph states " Ironically, human attempts to preserve the marine environment in which sea turtles live are causing the species’ numbers to dwindle even faster. " Further the 2nd paragraph clearly mentions the negative effects.

(E) Can be negated as the 2nd paragraph states " in some popular fishing areas local authorities have placed restrictions on the amount of fishing in order to protect the turtles from being caught in fishing nets and drowning. ................However, the reduction in the amount of fishing in these areas has led to an increase in the numbers of the giant cuttlefish, " Thus earlier more number of cuttle fish were caught.

FOr Question 4.

Check the last few lines of the 2nd paragraph -

Quote:
............has not only led to an alarming reduction in the number of sea turtles in these areas but also affected the balance of the marine ecosystem in these regions.............
Thus, we understant that Cuttlefish has be mentioned by the author to describe an event that has led to more than one adverse effect
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Re: Sea turtles, reptilian amphibians that are classified  [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2018, 10:40
Abhishek009 what is your opinion ?? Could you please look at my argument and share your views.. correct me if I'm wrong.. thank you

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Re: Sea turtles, reptilian amphibians that are classified  [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2018, 10:41
Abhishek009 what is your opinion ?? Could you please look at my argument and share your views.. correct me if I'm wrong.. thank you

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Re: Sea turtles, reptilian amphibians that are classified  [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2018, 10:48
Abhishek009 I agree with Q4 , I marked it right.
The purpose of using Q4 in my argument was to substantiate my claim regarding Q3 .
What I mean to say is IF option B ( Q3) cannot be inferred from the passage then asking Q4 becomes moot . As the primary reason for providing the example of cuttlefish is to show how increase can hurt turtles.

Option B in Q3 CAN be inferred because if the common diet isn't STAPLE then how will trutles get affected ADVERSELY?? and if they don't get affected ADVERSELY then what is the point in providing the example of cuttlefish.

And if we follow that thought process asking Q4 becomes a moot.

I totally agree with Q4 . I used Q4 to substantiate my claim regarding Q3 ,which according to me is faulty. All the choices can be inferred.

As per your analysis it seems that even you agree that each choices in Q3 is inferable . Am I right??? I have no doubt in Q4 ...please share your opinion on Q3

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Re: Sea turtles, reptilian amphibians that are classified  [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2018, 11:00
Option B in Q3 CAN be inferred because if the common diet isn't STAPLE then how will trutles get affected ADVERSELY?? and if they don't get affected ADVERSELY then what is the point in providing the example of cuttlefish.

Check the extract of the 2nd Paragraph -

Quote:
However, the reduction in the amount of fishing in these areas has led to an increase in the numbers of the giant cuttlefish, which feed on the same underwater plants as the sea turtles do. The subsequent decrease in the turtles’ food source, particularly the sea grass that is part of the turtles’ staple diet, has not only led to an alarming reduction in the number of sea turtles in these areas but also affected the balance of the marine ecosystem in these regions.

Option (B) in Q3 states - The staple diet of two marine organisms can be the same.

Thus, you see, option (B) can be inferred!!!
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Re: Sea turtles, reptilian amphibians that are classified  [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2018, 11:12
Hi,

Please see this with an example. Consider that the staple food for a person is Veg. And the second person is eating more Veg food. Can I infer that the staple food for the second person is Veg. Just because the Veg food is decreasing, we cannot infer that the staple food for the second person is Veg. It can be Non veg but likes to eat Veg more or situation made him to eat more veg food.

I am sorry if the example is weird or something

So the staple food of turtles is decreasing does not mean that the staple food for the fish will be the grass.

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Sea turtles, reptilian amphibians that are classified  [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2018, 17:24
IMO Q no 3, E is not inferable. Nowhere does the passage say that cuttlefish had been caught in greater numbers. In fact, it is quite possible that some predator/ food issues/ change in environment led to increase in its numbers.
Sea turtles, reptilian amphibians that are classified &nbs [#permalink] 07 Dec 2018, 17:24
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