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Since the passage of the state’s Clean Air Act ten years ago, the leve

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Since the passage of the state’s Clean Air Act ten years ago, the leve  [#permalink]

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Since the passage of the state’s Clean Air Act ten years ago, the level of industrial pollutants in the air has fallen by an average of 18 percent. This suggests that the restrictions on industry embodied in the act have worked effectively. However, during the same period the state has also suffered through a period of economic decline. The number of businesses in the state has fallen by 10 percent, and the number of workers employed has fallen by 12 percent. It is probable that the business decline, rather than the regulations in the act, is responsible for at least half of the decline in the pollution.

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn in the passage above?


(A) During the last ten years, economic conditions in the nation as a whole have been worse than those within the state.

(B) Amendments to the Clean Air Act that were enacted six years ago have substantially strengthened its restrictions on industrial air pollution.

(C) Of the businesses that ceased operating in the state during the last ten years, only 5 percent were engaged in air-polluting industries.

(D) Several large corporations left the state during the last ten years partly in order to avoid compliance with the Clean Air Act.

(E) Due to its small budget, the state office charged with enforcement of the Clean Air Act has prosecuted only two violators of the law since its passage.

Originally posted by apramanik on 30 May 2009, 03:08.
Last edited by Bunuel on 18 Dec 2018, 23:23, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Since the passage of the state’s Clean Air Act ten years ago, the leve  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2009, 03:54
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(A) During the last ten years, economic conditions in the nation as a whole have been worse than those within the state. (No discussion about economic condition in nation. Out of scope)
(B) Amendments to the Clean Air Act that were enacted six years ago have substantially strengthened its restrictions on industrial air pollution. (These is no discussion about amendments to act. Out of scope)
(C) Of the businesses that ceased operating in the state during the last ten years, only 5 percent were engaged in air-polluting industries. (Correct and weaken the conclusion, which states that because of economic decline air pollution had fallen)
(D) Several large corporations left the state during the last ten years partly in order to avoid compliance with the Clean Air Act. (Strengthen the conclusion)
(E) Due to its small budget, the state office charged with enforcement of the Clean Air Act has prosecuted only two violators of the law since its passage. (There is no talk about budget. Out of scope)
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Re: Since the passage of the state’s Clean Air Act ten years ago, the leve  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2012, 04:56
C) Of the businesses that ceased operating in the state during the last ten years, only 5 percent were engaged in air-polluting industries. --> this arguments states that the reduction is due to the act and not because of decline of business. This is a much better answer compared to D...

(D) Several large corporations left the state during the last ten years partly in order to avoid compliance with the Clean Air Act. --> this states that business decline is the reason for the reduce in pollution because the company ceased its operation.
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Re: Since the passage of the state's Clean Air Act ten years ago, the  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2017, 20:19
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let us simplify the argument -

Premise -
level of industrial pollutants has fallen by 18 percent.

Two reasons are proposed for this -

One line of reasoning
Restrictions on industry placed by the Act have been effective.

Author's reasoning
Economic decline (No. of businesses fell by 10% + No. of workers employed fell by 12%) led to reduction in pollutants' levels.

We have been asked to weaken the author's reasoning.

Option A - Incorrect.
Not relevant. We are not concerned about the economic conditions in the nation, but whether economic conditions in the state led to a decline in levels of pollutants.

Option B - Incorrect.
Not relevant. This does not deny author's line of reasoning that economic decline led to decline in pollutant levels.

Option C - Correct Answer.
this suggests that reduction in the number of businesses (10%) was not responsible for the reduction in air pollution. Because the percentage of air polluting industries that closed was only 0.5%. (5 percent of 10%).
Then a 18% reduction in pollution levels could not have been caused by the closure of just 0.5% of the industries. Some other reason must account for this decline.

Option D - Incorrect.
Strengthens the argument.

Option E - Incorrect.
Kind of strengthens the argument.
lax enforcement might imply reduced compliance.
This then weakens the opposing argument that Restrictions on industry placed by the Act led to decline in levels of pollutants.
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Re: Since the passage of the state's Clean Air Act ten years ago, the  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Feb 2017, 07:17
bestaaron55 wrote:
Since the passage of the state's Clean Air Act ten years ago, the level of industrial pollutants in the air has fallen by an average of 18 percent. This suggests that the restrictions on industry embodied in the act have worked effectively. However, during the same period the state has also suffered through a period of economic decline. The number of businesses in the state has fallen by 10 percent, and the number of workers employed has fallen by 12 percent. It is probable that the business decline, rather than the regulations in the act, is responsible for at least half of the decline in the pollution.
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn in the passage above?
(A) During the last ten years, economic conditions in the nation as a whole have been worse than those within the state.
(B) Amendments to the Clean Air Act that were enacted six years ago have substantially strengthened its restrictions on industrial air pollution.
(C) Of the businesses that ceased operating in the state during the last ten years, only 5 percent were engaged in air-polluting industries.
(D) Several large corporations left the state during the last ten years partly in order to avoid compliance with the Clean Air Act.
(E) Due to its small budget, the state office charged with enforcement of the Clean Air Act has prosecuted only two violators of the law since its passage



its C
A-Not helping in weaken .
B-Not giving any info whether economic condition or act was responsible for decline...
c- bingo -- tells only 5% business that ceased their operation were involved in air pollution....so most of the business that caused air pollution were still there but with improved air quality---weaken the conclusion that business decline was the reason for half of the decline in the pollution.
d-strengthen "use of word "partly"
e-not weakens
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Re: Since the passage of the state's Clean Air Act ten years ago, the  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Dec 2018, 21:33
a. It is not an assumption made in the passage, rather a conclusion driven from the passage.
b. It is something out of context of the passage and doesn’t deal with the decline of industrial pollutants.
c. This could be an assumption made in the passage as the results could only be derived by making this assumption.
d. Out of context of the passage and the author didn’t compare decline of industrial pollutants among various cities.
e. Passage doesn’t approve of this statement.
Hence, c is the answer.
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Re: Since the passage of the state's Clean Air Act ten years ago, the  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Dec 2018, 23:07
CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:
let us simplify the argument -

Premise -
level of industrial pollutants has fallen by 18 percent.

Two reasons are proposed for this -

One line of reasoning
Restrictions on industry placed by the Act have been effective.

Author's reasoning
Economic decline (No. of businesses fell by 10% + No. of workers employed fell by 12%) led to reduction in pollutants' levels.

We have been asked to weaken the author's reasoning.

Option A - Incorrect.
Not relevant. We are not concerned about the economic conditions in the nation, but whether economic conditions in the state led to a decline in levels of pollutants.

Option B - Incorrect.
Not relevant. This does not deny author's line of reasoning that economic decline led to decline in pollutant levels.

Option C - Correct Answer.
this suggests that reduction in the number of businesses (10%) was not responsible for the reduction in air pollution. Because the percentage of air polluting industries that closed was only 0.5%. (5 percent of 10%).
Then a 18% reduction in pollution levels could not have been caused by the closure of just 0.5% of the industries. Some other reason must account for this decline.

Option D - Incorrect.
Strengthens the argument.

Option E - Incorrect.
Kind of strengthens the argument.
lax enforcement might imply reduced compliance.
This then weakens the opposing argument that Restrictions on industry placed by the Act led to decline in levels of pollutants.



Whats wrong with option (D)...If several companies have left partly due to the clean air act then the regulations must have been instrumental in their leaving and thus reducing the pollution
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Re: Since the passage of the state's Clean Air Act ten years ago, the &nbs [#permalink] 18 Dec 2018, 23:07
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Since the passage of the state’s Clean Air Act ten years ago, the leve

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