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Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste

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Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells, each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore.


(A) them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore

(B) them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore

(C) which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of taste bud

(D) which having fingerlike projections that poke through an opening, which is called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud

(E) which have fingerlike projections that are poking through an opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
March 2001
Volume 284, Issue 3

Making Sense of Taste
By David V. Smith and Robert F. Margolskee

Taste buds are onion-shaped structures of between 50 and 100 taste cells, each of which has fingerlike projections called microvilli that poke through an opening at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore. Chemicals from food termed tastants dissolve in saliva and contact the taste cells through the taste pore. There they interact either with proteins on the surfaces of the cells known as taste receptors or with porelike proteins called ion channels. These interactions cause electrical changes in the taste cells that trigger them to send chemical signals that ultimately result in impulses to the brain.

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Originally posted by daagh on 09 Feb 2011, 09:59.
Last edited by Bunuel on 22 Nov 2018, 01:57, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2011, 20:12
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A. them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore ---- This choice contains two independent clauses, connected only by a comma, making it a run-on.


B. them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore ---1. What is the antecedent of them? Buds or taste cells? It is unclear. 2. The reference of ‘which’ pointing to the taste bud is wrong; it should refer to the opening. (Pore means an opening)

C. which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of taste bud ------ right choice

D. which having fingerlike projections that poke through an opening, which is called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud ---- ‘ each of which having ‘ makes the subordinate clause, a fragment without out a working verb

E. which has fingerlike projections that are poking through an opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore ---each of which have—an SV disagreement

C is the best choice with no SV number error and with proper references, judiciously using appropriate participles at the required junctures
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2014, 12:03
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DesiGmat wrote:
Guys,

I'm still not clear.
I picked A instead of c.
Is there a meaning issue also?
Kindly elaborate.
Experts please help.




Hi DesiGmat,


Let’s first understand the structure and meaning of the sentence.


Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells,
o each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore.



MEANING

• So, the sentence tells us about the taste buds. It states that the taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells.
• Each of these cells has finger like projections poking through an opening.
o This opening is located at the top of the taste bud. It is called the taste pore.


There are three modifiers in the second clause of the given sentence.

1. Verb-ing Modifier ‘poking’: It modifies ‘fingerlike projections’. It tells us that the fingerlike projections poke through the opening.

2. Verb-ed Modifier ‘located’: It modifies ‘the opening’. It tells us that the opening is located at the top of the taste bud.

3. Verb-ed Modifier ‘called’: It modifies ‘the taste bud’. It tells us that the taste bud is called the taste pore. This is illogical. Why would taste bud be called ‘taste pore’? Also, the opening can be called a taste pore since that makes more sense.


Now, let's look at the options:


A.) them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore


• This option has two errors:

1.) The modifier ‘called the taste pore’ is misplaced. It is incorrectly modifying ‘taste bud’. This gives an illogical meaning that the taste bud are called the taste pore. Logically, the modifier should modify ‘the opening’.

2.) The pronoun ‘them’ has two possible antecedents: taste cells and taste buds.



B.) them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore


• This option has three errors:

1.) The pronoun ‘them’ has two possible antecedents: taste cells and taste buds.

2.) The singular subject ‘each of them’ does not agree with the plural verb ‘have’.

3.) The relative pronoun modifier ‘which’ incorrectly modifies ‘the taste bud’. The taste bud is not called taste pore. Logically the modifier should modify the opening.



C.) which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud



• This option removes both the errors from the original sentence.

1.) It replaces the pronoun ‘them’ with ‘which’. The modifier ‘which’ can only modify the immediate preceding noun. In this case it modifies ‘taste cells’.

2.) It places the modifier ‘called the taste pore’ right next to ‘the opening’. Now, the sentence conveys the meaning that the opening is called the taste pore.



D.) which having fingerlike projections that poke through an opening, which is called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud



1. The subject ‘each of which’ does not have a verb. ‘having’ cannot act as the main verb in a clause.



E.) which have fingerlike projections that are poking through an opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore


• This option has two errors:

1.) The singular subject ‘each of which’ does not agree with the plural verb ‘have’.

2.) The modifier ‘called the taste pore’ is misplaced. It is incorrectly modifying ‘taste bud’. Logically it should modify ‘the opening’. (Same error as option A has)




Hope this helps! :)
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2011, 17:07
Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells, each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore.


A. them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore - is "each" or "them" conjuction ? we have two independent clauses ! above that what "called the tase pore" modifies, should it modify taste bud , i dont think so


B. them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore - has

C. which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of taste bud - which conjuction ! and "called the taste pore" is nearer to what it modifies - opening

which having fingerlike projections that poke through an opening, which is called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud - having wrong

E. which have fingerlike projections that are poking through an opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore
Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells, each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore.


A. them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore


B. them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore

C. which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of taste bud

D. which having fingerlike projections that poke through an opening, which is called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud

E. which have fingerlike projections that are poking through an opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore - has
Posted: Wed Feb 09, 2011 9:59 am
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Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Feb 2011, 19:21
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Hi,
Thanks for the reply.
But In my view, the participle 'located at the top of the taste bud' is correctly pointing (touching) the gerund 'opening'. Also the participle 'called the test pore' is near to test bud as in A.

Could you please stress on the placings of the past participles as I could be wrong. whether past participles should be placed next to the noun they are modifying.

Thanks
-Amit
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2011, 04:00
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If I use my ear, I think

'each of them' refers to taste buds
'each of which' refers to taste cells - which fits with the intended reference

Along with this the position of "called the taste pore" is also determining the correctness of any sentence.

So I'll also go with 'C'
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Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2013, 11:38
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amitanand wrote:
Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells, each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore.


(A) them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore

(B) them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore

(C) which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of taste bud

(D) which having fingerlike projections that poke through an opening, which is called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud

(E) which have fingerlike projections that are poking through an opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore


I'm happy to help with this. :-)

In my understanding, the OA = (C). Here's why.

We have what MGMAT calls a "subgroup modifier" in this problem. We have two major options for the grammatical organization of the sentence.
(a) we could have [independent clause][subordinate clause]
.... taste cells, each of which has ...
OR
(b) we could have [independent clause][absolute phrase]
.... taste cells, each of them having ...
See this post for more on absolute phrases, with a practice question that presents the same kind of choice:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/absolute-p ... -the-gmat/
Notice, we cannot have the pronoun "them" with the subordinate clause, nor can we have the relative pronouns "which" or "that" with the absolute phrase. BTW, the GMAT loves to test this, and stir in these incorrect possibilities among the four incorrect answer choices.

(A) is a run-on sentence ---- if we changed the comma to a period, we would have two independent clauses. This makes (A) 100% wrong. For more on run-on sentences, see:
http://gmat.magoosh.com/lessons/916-run-on-sentences
(B) has the odd noun phrase "some of them" loose in the sentence, not connected to anything, a free-floating noun. That's always wrong.
Both (A) & (B) attempt to use the pronoun "them" with something other than an absolute phrase. That leads to their inevitable mistakes.

(C) Perfect

(D) this makes the opposite mistake, opposite to (A) & (B) ---- now, they are trying to use the relative pronoun "which" with the absolute phrase, which is also a disaster.
(E) This gets the basic structure correct, relative pronoun introducing a subordinate clause, but now we have a S-V Agreement problem. The pronoun "each" is singular, so we need a singular verb "each ... has", not "each .. have". Therefore, this is incorrect.

The only possible correct answer is (C).

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: SC: Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2013, 11:54
amitanand wrote:
Hi,
Thanks for the reply.
But In my view, the participle 'located at the top of the taste bud' is correctly pointing (touching) the gerund 'opening'. Also the participle 'called the test pore' is near to test bud as in A.

Could you please stress on the placings of the past participles as I could be wrong. whether past participles should be placed next to the noun they are modifying.

Thanks
-Amit

Amit
Normally, noun modifies of any sort (participle, prepositional phrase, subordinate clause) should touch the noun they modify. This is the Modifier Touch Rule This is an important rule, but there are some exceptions. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/modifiers- ... orrection/
What's going on in this sentence, version (C), is not at all one of the standard exceptions.

Think about the modifier here, in version (C).
... poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of taste bud ....
Yes, the participial phrase "located at the top of the taste bud" modifiers "opening". BUT, look at what comes in between. The phrase "called the taste pore" does not merely modify the word "opening" --- this is a rare instance in which the modifying phrase actually gives another name for the same thing. In other words, "opening" and "taste pore" are two ways to refer to the same identical thing, and therefore the "located" modifier can touch either of them and still be correct.

Never be mechanical with the application of grammar rules. Grammar rules always have to respond to the underlying logic of what is being said, and ultimately, grammar trumps logic. Because of the logic, the meaning, of what that phrase between the comma says, we have to change the general rule and respond to the particulars of what is being said in this individual sentence.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2014, 22:53
Guys,

I'm still not clear.
I picked A instead of c.
Is there a meaning issue also?
Kindly elaborate.
Experts please help.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2014, 00:32
2
Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells,
each of them has finger like projections
--poking through the opening
---located at the top of the taste bud
----called the taste pore.


Intended meaning:
1.Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells
2.Cell has finger like projections
--poking through the opening
---located at the top of the taste bud.
3.The opening is called the taste pore.

Analysis:
1.Each is singular.
2.Modifier needs to modify the intended noun without any ambiguity.
3.IC are not connected properly. Poosible solution: comma +and, make second clause sub clause by adding relative pronoun etc.

Correct answer C.

A. them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore
>>[Run of s two IC are connected by comma. TB are... , each of them has .....]
B. them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore
C. which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of taste bud
>>TB are... , each of which (relative pronoun) has .....]
D. which having fingerlike projections that poke through an opening, which is called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud
E. which have fingerlike projections that are poking through an opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2014, 23:54
daagh wrote:
A. them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore ---- This choice contains two independent clauses, connected only by a comma, making it a run-on.



Apart from Two IC, Is "THEM" in option is ambiguous [Taste Buds or Taste Cells]??? Is my understanding correct?
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2014, 23:22
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sowragu wrote:
daagh wrote:
A. them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore ---- This choice contains two independent clauses, connected only by a comma, making it a run-on.



Apart from Two IC, Is "THEM" in option is ambiguous [Taste Buds or Taste Cells]??? Is my understanding correct?


Hello.

In A & B, "them" is correct. "each of them" modifies the CLOSEST noun "taste cells".

A. them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore
Wrong. Misplaced modifier error.

B. them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore
Wrong. S-V agreement error + Misplaced modifier error.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2014, 01:52
Dear All,

I need one clarification regardin the subgroup modifier....please could you hlep.


In the MGMAT there is this example in page no 240.

Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, some of which were only recently discovered.

the associated example includes.,

Wrong: This model explains all known subatomic particles, some of which only recently discovered.

I understood that WERE is a must when using the which construction.

In the page no 250 MGMAT has a similar sentence that is correct according to MGMAT but the sentence is lacking WERE.

The houses on the canal street, many of which had been damaged in the storm, looked abandoned.

My question,

Is it compulsory to use the word WERE when referring to subgroup while the using the WHICH construction.

Please could you help me with this.

Thank you for your help in advance.


tuanquang269 wrote:
ugimba wrote:
Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells, each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore.

(A) them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore

(C) which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud


can some one explain the difference between option A and C? ( each of them vs each of which? )

'each of them' refers to object ( in this case, onion shaped structures?)
'each of which' referes to subjects ( in this case, taste buds?)


I remember how to use subgroup modifier in MGMAT Sentence Correction pg 236. Use "part of them" never go with verb in active voice. Only "part of which" can go with verb in active voice. I should give you example in this book.

Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF WHICH WERE only recently discovered.

Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF THEM only recently discovered.

Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME only recently discovered.


PART here can be SANAM group.

Wrong: This model explains all known subatomic particles, OF WHICH SOME WERE only recently discovered.

Wrong: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF THEM WHICH WERE only recently discovered.

Wrong: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF WHICH only recently discovered.

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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2014, 07:21
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shriramvelamuri wrote:
Dear All,

I need one clarification regardin the subgroup modifier....please could you hlep.

In the MGMAT there is this example in page no 240.

Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, some of which were only recently discovered.

the associated example includes.,

Wrong: This model explains all known subatomic particles, some of which only recently discovered.

I understood that WERE is a must when using the which construction.

In the page no 250 MGMAT has a similar sentence that is correct according to MGMAT but the sentence is lacking WERE.

The houses on the canal street, many of which had been damaged in the storm, looked abandoned.

My question,

Is it compulsory to use the word WERE when referring to subgroup while the using the WHICH construction.

Hi! While I have not heard of this term subgroup modifier , but nevertheless, whether we need to use were or are or had been is a tense issue and not a modifier issue.

For example in the sentence: The houses on the canal street, many of which had been damaged in the storm, looked abandoned .

This is a classical case of where two events happened in the past:
i) Houses looked abandoned
ii) Many of the houses were abandoned

However, ii) happened at an unspecified time before i) and so, ii) is expressed as past perfect tense.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Past perfect tense, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2015, 00:38
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Each of them has --- independent clause .

Each of which has -- dependent clause .

note : "which " -- clause marker .but , " them " --- is not .

option A : wonr because , it connects two independent clause by a comma only . - See more at: http://www.crackverbal.com/forum/thread ... Zf2kX.dpuf
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2016, 03:56
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Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells, each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore.

(A) them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore :- "each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore. " is an independent clause. They need conjunction

(B) them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore: Same as A

(C) which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud

(D) which having fingerlike projections that poke through an opening, which is called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud

(E) which have fingerlike projections that are poking through an opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2017, 09:10
Hi i am totally caught off guard by this question.
I C which refers to cells .
Am i right ?
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2017, 01:46
arvind910619, yes, the modifier "each of which . . . " will always modify the preceding noun, which in this case is "cells."

We can use either "each of which has" or "each of them having" (or even just "each having"), but we can't mix and match. "Each of which having" will never be the correct way to do this.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2017, 00:21
A - incorrect, the two clauses in the sentence are not logically related to each other and thus this sentence is a run-on(What’s a run on ---> 'them' in choice a is a big big BIG error that should jump out and scream at you.
namely, that sentence is a 'comma splice': a sentence in which two independent clauses (i.e., sentences that can stand on their own as complete sentences, not subordinated to any other main clause) are joined together by a comma. that phenomenon, which creates one type of 'run-on' sentence, is ALWAYS wrong.)

B - incorrect and awkward phrase "each of them that". Also in the second part of the sentence there is a personal pronoun "they" used that has no referent. We don't know who "they" is supposed to represent.

C - correct, this answer uses the expression "each of which" together with a singular verb form "has"

D - incorrect, the sentence includes the unconjugated verb form "having" where there should be a conjugated verb

E - incorrect, wrong use of the plural verb form "have" with the singular subject "each of which". Moreover, the progressive form "are poking" is unnecessarily used.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Oct 2017, 11:03
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I am not going to look at the question. Let me go to the choices directly. First thing is to remember that a pore means an opening and not a protrusion such as a bud.

(A) them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore --- bud called the taste pore; not the logical meaning.

(B) them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore ---same meaning muddle as in A.

(C) which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud ---- looks good enough; the singular 'each of which' tallies with its verb.

(D) which having fingerlike projections that poke through an opening, which is called a taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud -- This is a fragment ; the subordinate clause started with " each of which" has no verb

(E) which have fingerlike projections that are poking through an opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore --- meaning muddle as in A and B; Only C is correct.

(However, do not try this method, if you are still at the basics)
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste   [#permalink] 27 Oct 2017, 11:03

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