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The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of

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The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2003, 05:15
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A
B
C
D
E

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The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?


A. The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.

B. The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

C. The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.

D. Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.

E. Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.
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"If true" on questinos  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2014, 18:17
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The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.
The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.
The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.
Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.
Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.

From Kaplan

States that B is incorrect because birds can be shot and thus be interrupted.
But questions state "if true", meaning if it's true that birds cannot be shot down...

Isnt answer shouuld be B...!?
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Re: The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2003, 00:53
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praetorian123 wrote:
Kaplan CR


The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.

The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.

Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.

Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.


The passage says that carrier pigeons are still being used today IN SPITE of the availability of modern communication and often in preference to such. Hence, C is not a conclusion that makes sense. (C night be true in fact, but it is not best supported by the passage).

However, the stimulus states that pigeon are valuable when there is a need to avoid the interception of signals, which electronic systems are prone to allow. Hence, it is implied that communications via pigeons are more secure that electronic communications. It follows that A is a valid conclusion, because it stands to reason that if pigeons are more secure, they would be preferrable for transmitting classified messages.

B is too strong. Nowhere is it implied that pigeons cannot be intercepted at all.

IMO, E is tempting, but not correct because while the passage implies that there are uses for the pigeons (such as sending classified information), it does not tell us whether such use is "extensive" or "occasional".
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Re: The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2004, 16:53
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anand--

You lost me there. Are you saying that I should explain myself? Or that I should change my answer? Or that I provided the correct answer to a stupid question?

a. The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable
electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified
military information.


There's no reason to believe that this is true in the strong form in which it is stated.

From the argument: use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

It's a little nuanced, but the argument does not state:
use of portable electronic devices, whose signals can be intercepted.

In other words, the argument does not claim that all portable electronic device signals can be intercepted. It states that some can be intercepted.
And it sates that pigeons can be "valuable". Not that they're preferable.

b. The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

Too strong of an inference, though not a terribly bad choice, IMO.

c. The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices
became practical in warfare.

We know that pigeons showed up in the earliest records. We know that they were used "extensively" in WWI and WWII. Today, they're merely "valuable" as an alternative. That seems like declining use to me.

d. Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest
known record of wartime activity.

The argument did not state this! No reason to assume this. They were used at the date of first record, but it could be (for example) that only when literacy began to become widely held that people recorded of wars, and that you can only send written messages if you know how to write...

e. Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.
We all know that this is wrong.
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Re: "If true" on questinos  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2014, 22:14
i can explain as why as B is not the answer
B says: The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted------>B is a huge deviation from the premise : Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted---------> the fact that portable electronic devices are are being shunned because of the possibility that their signals might be intercepted is no testimony to the fact that messages that pigeons carry cannot be intercepted .

however i feel that even D cannot be the answer
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"If true" on questinos  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2014, 05:52
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The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information.

it states that earliest known records details the history..i.e history always states of the past.hence its D.
but tough one though.even i got it wrong.good 1.

KUDOS please if you find it helpful..
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Re: "If true" on questinos  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2014, 21:22
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I think this is a good question.

Hard MBT-Inference arguments usually follow this pattern:

Passage provides with a lot of information. In this case:
- About the history of the use of carrier pigeons
- The pigeons in wars during the 20th century
- Modern military units
- Portable electronic devices.

But the answer will focus on just one portion of all this stuff. In this case, the first element. All the other stuff is just put there to pollute our minds.

In this type of questions you should ask yourself: "If all the elements in the passage are true, then which answer should be true a- regardless of how duh it sounds and b- regardless whether it refers to an important part of the passage or to a minor detail of the passage."

Answer choices are tricky as well. But D does the work.

The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information

So let´s say the earliest known records of wartime activities were in the year 1000 AD (just making this up... I have no idea). And the records discuss the history (some time in the past, before 1,000 AD: maybe 900 AD) of the use of carrier pigeons.

Answer choice D fairly rephrases this: Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.

Yes, it sounds pretty duh, but that´s how Inference questions work. Fair enough for me. Click and move on.

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Re: "If true" on questinos  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2015, 23:47
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tae808 wrote:
The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.
The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.
The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.
Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.
Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.

From Kaplan

States that B is incorrect because birds can be shot and thus be interrupted.
But questions state "if true", meaning if it's true that birds cannot be shot down...

Isnt answer shouuld be B...!?


Responding to a pm:

You need to find the conclusion i.e. something which MUST BE TRUE according to the given argument.

Here is why (D) MUST BE TRUE:

(D) Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.

The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information.

The earliest know records tell about the "history" of the use of carrier pigeons. So carrier pigeons were used prior to the date of the "earliest known records". These records actually tell us about the history of the use of carrier pigeons for military information.

Here is why both (B) and (C) are incorrect.

(B) The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

The argument doesn't say that the pigeon msgs cannot be intercepted. It just says that pigeons are useful when electronic messages can be intercepted. Perhaps there is a much lower probability of pigeon messages getting intercepted. Perhaps, people do not try to intercept because they don't know that pigeons are still used and hence the pigeons are useful etc. The argument doesn't say that "messages CANNOT be intercepted". It just says that pigeons are useful when electronic messages can be intercepted.

(C) The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.

Again, we don't have enough information in the argument to say that. Perhaps the use of carrier pigeons stayed the same but portable electronic devices started getting used as well. Perhaps for a very long time after portable electronic devices became practical, they were not used because people were not comfortable with them and they till used pigeons. We don't know.
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Re: "If true" on questinos  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2015, 19:29
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
tae808 wrote:
The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.
The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.
The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.
Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.
Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.

From Kaplan

States that B is incorrect because birds can be shot and thus be interrupted.
But questions state "if true", meaning if it's true that birds cannot be shot down...

Isnt answer shouuld be B...!?


Responding to a pm:

You need to find the conclusion i.e. something which MUST BE TRUE according to the given argument.

Here is why (D) MUST BE TRUE:

(D) Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.

The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information.

The earliest know records tell about the "history" of the use of carrier pigeons. So carrier pigeons were used prior to the date of the "earliest known records". These records actually tell us about the history of the use of carrier pigeons for military information.

Here is why both (B) and (C) are incorrect.

(B) The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

The argument doesn't say that the pigeon msgs cannot be intercepted. It just says that pigeons are useful when electronic messages can be intercepted. Perhaps there is a much lower probability of pigeon messages getting intercepted. Perhaps, people do not try to intercept because they don't know that pigeons are still used and hence the pigeons are useful etc. The argument doesn't say that "messages CANNOT be intercepted". It just says that pigeons are useful when electronic messages can be intercepted.

(C) The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.

Again, we don't have enough information in the argument to say that. Perhaps the use of carrier pigeons stayed the same but portable electronic devices started getting used as well. Perhaps for a very long time after portable electronic devices became practical, they were not used because people were not comfortable with them and they till used pigeons. We don't know.


Hi, why not A.
Argument does mention that even today in some cases birds are used.
Thanks!
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Re: The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Jul 2016, 01:52
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atuladeupes wrote:
Answer should be B, if we want to draw conclusion from the argument.
If we are looking for infrence then D
What is OA?? please share
Praetorian wrote:
Kaplan CR


The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?


The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.

The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.

Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.

Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.


OA is D


Must be true,most support,best support,inference,draw conclusion can be used to ask same question.Here it was used for asking the same question:finding conclusion from the answer choices=finding inferred statement


May I know ,how you differentiated between draw conclusion and inference question type?

Answer Choice B is incorrect because it provides information that is outside the scope .: "the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted" does not automatically infers "The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted."

Correct Answer is D because it must be true and best supported conclusion.The use of the pigeons had happened then the record of activity happened(Must be true).
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Originally posted by AbdurRakib on 13 Jul 2016, 00:16.
Last edited by AbdurRakib on 13 Jul 2016, 01:52, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2016, 01:40
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AbdurRakib wrote:
atuladeupes wrote:
Answer should be B, if we want to draw conclusion from the argument.
If we are looking for infrence then D
What is OA?? please share
Praetorian wrote:
Kaplan CR


The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?


The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.

The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.

Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.

Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.



Must be true,most support,best support,inference,draw conclusion can be used to ask same question.Here it is used for asking the same question

May I know how you differentiated between draw conclusion and inference question type?


Must be true and Resolve the paradox type questions, do not have a conclusion in the argument.
AbdurRakib - as pointed out by you -Must be true,most support,best support,inference,draw conclusion - many a times they can be used to ask the same question.
One can differentiate by figuring the difference in the argument and the structure of the question stem.
Must be true and Resolve the paradox type questions, do not have a conclusion in the argument.
Must be true question stem examples are:

"If the statement above are true, which of the following must be true?"
"Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the statements above"
"The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?"
"Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the statements above"
"Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information above"

When a statement states "The statements above, if true" .. then one should assume the argument to be true to fact.
The correct answer choice should not add new information. And any choice which adds new information is incorrect.

In My opinion, this question asks us to support the argument.
The premise of the argument build the case for - "use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information".
Option D though is right with the predate theory and inference made.
Option B is a better choice - Consider this - "The messages that carrier pigeons carry can be intercepted.", then there is no point in further discussing and carrier pigeon messages or messages from portable electronic devices have equal possibility of getting intercepted.

+1 kudos please, if the post helped.
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Re: The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2016, 02:46
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Nightfury14 wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
atuladeupes wrote:
Answer should be B, if we want to draw conclusion from the argument.
If we are looking for infrence then D
What is OA?? please share



Must be true,most support,best support,inference,draw conclusion can be used to ask same question.Here it is used for asking the same question

May I know how you differentiated between draw conclusion and inference question type?


Must be true and Resolve the paradox type questions, do not have a conclusion in the argument.
AbdurRakib - as pointed out by you -Must be true,most support,best support,inference,draw conclusion - many a times they can be used to ask the same question.
One can differentiate by figuring the difference in the argument and the structure of the question stem.
Must be true and Resolve the paradox type questions, do not have a conclusion in the argument.
Must be true question stem examples are:

"If the statement above are true, which of the following must be true?"
"Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the statements above"
"The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?"
"Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the statements above"
"Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information above"

When a statement states "The statements above, if true" .. then one should assume the argument to be true to fact.
The correct answer choice should not add new information. And any choice which adds new information is incorrect.

In My opinion, this question asks us to support the argument.
The premise of the argument build the case for - "use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information".
Option D though is right with the predate theory and inference made.
Option B is a better choice - Consider this - "The messages that carrier pigeons carry can be intercepted.", then there is no point in further discussing and carrier pigeon messages or messages from portable electronic devices have equal possibility of getting intercepted.

+1 kudos please, if the post helped.


Dear Nightfury14,


Absolutely agreed,there is no conclusion,it is a fact set stimulus ,so we have to examine each fact.

Actually my point was to identify Question type only.An must be true question may input "Conclusion" word in the question Stem because it wants you to select the conclusion from the answer choice

Additionally,


"Support" word may be used different question type:See the difference in using it to Strengthen Question and Inference question.
I think you identified it as strengthen question incorrectly.

And
this is a Must be true/inference question as below:

Please see the attachment:
Image

Please let me know if I miss any point.

Thanks
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Re: The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2016, 03:32
Quote:
Dear Nightfury14,


Absolutely agreed,there is no conclusion,it is a fact set stimulus ,so we have to examine each fact.

Actually my point was to identify Question type only.An must be true question may input "Conclusion" word in the question Stem because it wants you to select the conclusion from the answer choice

Additionally,


"Support" word may be used different question type:See the difference in using it to Strengthen Question and Inference question.
I think you identified it as strengthen question incorrectly.

And
this is a Must be true/inference question as below:

Please see the attachment:
Image

Please let me know if I miss any point.

Thanks


Dear AbdurRakib, the answer choices cannot give a clear picture of the question type as shown in the image.
Its the question stem, one can differentiate by figuring the difference in the argument and the structure of the question stem.
Must be true/ Main point/ Method of reasoning/ Flaw questions, have question statement which include metaphor's of "The statements above, if true,"

Must be true question stem examples are:

"If the statement above are true, which of the following must be true?"
"Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the statements above"
"The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?"
"Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the statements above"
"Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information above"

Where as Sterength/Weaken/ Assumption/ Resolve the Paradox question, have question statement which include metaphor's of "Which of the following, if true"
In such case the ans choice can include new information. Ans the argument is under suspicion.
Strengthen Questions Stem Examples
"Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?"
"Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the statement above?"
"Which of the following, if true, does most to justify the conclusion above?"
"Which of the following, if true, supports the claim above EXCEPT?"

Please revert for any clarification. Thanks :-D

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Re: The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2016, 06:43
Top Contributor
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Nightfury14 wrote:
Quote:
Dear Nightfury14,


Absolutely agreed,there is no conclusion,it is a fact set stimulus ,so we have to examine each fact.

Actually my poi\sqrt{}nt was to identify Question type only.An must be true question may input "Conclusion" word in the question Stem because it wants you to select the conclusion from the answer choice

Additionally,


"Support" word may be used different question type:See the difference in using it to Strengthen Question and Inference question.
I think you identified it as strengthen question incorrectly.

And
this is a Must be true/inference question as below:

Please see the attachment:
Image

Please let me know if I miss any point.

Thanks


Dear AbdurRakib , the answer choices cannot give a clear picture of the question type as shown in the image.
Its the question stem, one can differentiate by figuring the difference in the argument and the structure of the question stem.
Must be true/ Main point/ Method of reasoning/ Flaw questions, have question statement which include metaphor's of "The statements above, if true,"

Must be true question stem examples are:

"If the statement above are true, which of the following must be true?"
"Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the statements above"
"The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?"
"Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the statements above"
"Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information above"

Where as Sterength/Weaken/ Assumption/ Resolve the Paradox question, have question statement which include metaphor's of "Which of the following, if true"
In such case the ans choice can include new information. Ans the argument is under suspicion.
Strengthen Questions Stem Examples
"Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?"
"Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the statement above?"
"Which of the following, if true, does most to justify the conclusion above?"
"Which of the following, if true, supports the claim above EXCEPT?"

Please revert for any clarification. Thanks :-D

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Dear Nightfury14 ,You missed my point but You know very good stuff & I already internalized all the stuff you shared with me :-D .

the word “supports” can be used in both a Strengthen Question Stem and an Inference Question Stem. As a general rule of thumb, think about the “direction of support” from the highlighted portion of your examples.The picture of my previous post just plotted this matters.

So,
You posted earlier,"In My opinion, this question asks us to support the argument."--->which type question you're referring by saying this is not clear here

IMO,This is a must be true question & Answer Choice B is incorrect because it provides information that is outside the scope .: "the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted" does not automatically infers "The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted."

Correct Answer is D because it must be true and best supported conclusion.The use of the pigeons had happened then the record of activity happened(Must be true).

Please see the post for more Detail explanation from VeritasPrepKarisma : if-true-on-questinos-180685.html#p1583338

Thanks,

Please let me know if I miss any point
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Re: The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2016, 08:20
AbdurRakib

I was answering with the explanations for the question you asked - "May I know ,how you differentiated between draw conclusion and inference question type?"

Must be true and Inference refer to the same question type.

Well, a good question and a good discussion though. :-D
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Re: The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2016, 09:02
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Nightfury14 wrote:
AbdurRakib

I was answering with the explanations for the question you asked - "May I know ,how you differentiated between draw conclusion and inference question type?"

Must be true and Inference refer to the same question type.

Well, a good question and a good discussion though. :-D


Yeah,you and me have the same reasoning :-D .

Actually,I quoted by asking him how he thought these two are different for him at this question while eliminating answer choice.

Definitely we are gaining by our discussion.please keep it up.

Thanks
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Re: The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2016, 07:29
Answer is a very tricky D
First of all the question being asked is kind of incorrect. It is a - "most supported/inference question"
So the correct question should have been "The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions? (remove conclusion)


The first line says - The "earliest known records" of wartime activities detail the "history" of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information.

So the earliest or the very first report is talking about "history" of use of pigeons in communications. History means something that has a past; something that happend a long time back. So this clearly shows that even before the first report about wartime activity was written, pigeons were used long before that. Thats why the act of using pigeon as courier has a HISTORY. This the only inference that matches with our options.

The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.
WRONG:-This is mentioned right in the passage. Something that is mentioned cannot be an inference.

The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.
WRONG:- The passage says that message send by portable devices can be intercepted. It says nothing about message carried by pigeon. Also common sense dictates against using such a strong language. A pigeon if shot can be captured and messages can be intercepted.

The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.
WRONG :- This cannot be inferred from the info in the passage.

Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.
CORRECT:- The earliest or the very first report is talking about "history" of use of pigeons in communications. History means something that has a past; something that happend a long time back. So this clearly shows that even before the first report about wartime activity was written, pigeons were used long before that. Thats why the act of using pigeon as courier has a HISTORY. This the only inference that matches with our options.

Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.
WRONG:- Cannot be inferred from the info in the passage.









The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?


The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.

The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.

Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.

Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.

Praetorian wrote:
Kaplan CR


The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?


The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.

The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.

Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.

Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.

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Re: "If true" on questinos  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2017, 23:06
neeraj609 wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
tae808 wrote:
The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.
The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.
The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.
Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.
Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.

From Kaplan

States that B is incorrect because birds can be shot and thus be interrupted.
But questions state "if true", meaning if it's true that birds cannot be shot down...

Isnt answer shouuld be B...!?


Responding to a pm:

You need to find the conclusion i.e. something which MUST BE TRUE according to the given argument.

Here is why (D) MUST BE TRUE:

(D) Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.

The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information.

The earliest know records tell about the "history" of the use of carrier pigeons. So carrier pigeons were used prior to the date of the "earliest known records". These records actually tell us about the history of the use of carrier pigeons for military information.

Here is why both (B) and (C) are incorrect.

(B) The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.

The argument doesn't say that the pigeon msgs cannot be intercepted. It just says that pigeons are useful when electronic messages can be intercepted. Perhaps there is a much lower probability of pigeon messages getting intercepted. Perhaps, people do not try to intercept because they don't know that pigeons are still used and hence the pigeons are useful etc. The argument doesn't say that "messages CANNOT be intercepted". It just says that pigeons are useful when electronic messages can be intercepted.

(C) The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.

Again, we don't have enough information in the argument to say that. Perhaps the use of carrier pigeons stayed the same but portable electronic devices started getting used as well. Perhaps for a very long time after portable electronic devices became practical, they were not used because people were not comfortable with them and they till used pigeons. We don't know.


Hi, why not A.
Argument does mention that even today in some cases birds are used.
Thanks!


The argument states that pigeons are used even in modern military units to avoid messages getting lost in transit --> the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

Option A states that:
The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.

This cannot be concluded from the argument. The military might still prefer devices when they need to send out information quickly. Only in one odd cases wherein the attack is possible, it prefers to use the pigeons over electronic signals. It can't be deduced that military will prefer pigeons in all cases to send secret messages to the destination. Way too extreme.
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Re: "If true" on questinos  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2018, 03:23
I thhought conclusion is kind of the main point of the passage. The reason why the author is placing his argument. option B can well make a good inference but how does this make up a good conclusion? VeritasPrepKarishma @DimitryFarber
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"If true" on questinos  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2018, 05:37
tae808 wrote:
The earliest known records of wartime activities detail the history of the use of carrier pigeons to communicate classified military information. Many people are not aware that the birds were also used extensively in the world wars of the twentieth century. Even today, their uncanny ability to fly home over great distances makes them valuable even to modern military units that need a way to deliver messages without the use of portable electronic devices whose signals can be intercepted.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

The use of carrier pigeons is usually preferable to the use of portable electronic devices when a military unit needs a way to send classified military information.
The messages that carrier pigeons carry cannot be intercepted.
The use of carrier pigeons decreased once portable electronic devices became practical in warfare.
Carrier pigeons were used in warfare prior to the date of the earliest known record of wartime activity.
Carrier pigeons are still used extensively by modern military units.

From Kaplan

States that B is incorrect because birds can be shot and thus be interrupted.
But questions state "if true", meaning if it's true that birds cannot be shot down...

Isnt answer shouuld be B...!?


Well this is a question with some interesting information :-)
This is carefully worded argument and an inference question.
A is out as we are not sure of the preference of pigeons over portable electronic devices. I may be or may not be that.

B This is not stated in the passage implicitly hence out.

C This might be true in general but nothing is indicated in the argument.

D Well this looks promising as we know from the argument pigeons were used in early time and we do have records outlining history of the use. So history may contain even more ancient records of use of pigeons.

E Well pigeons may be used even now but we do not know how extensively.

So D is the answer.

This question shows how some critical words can help in deciding out answer; We should always be on lookout for these critical words. :-)
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