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The English who in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries inhabited

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The English who in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries inhabited  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2019, 09:41
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 128, Date : 05-APR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


The English who in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries inhabited those colonies that would later become the United States shared a common political vocabulary with the English in England. Steeped as they were in the English political language, these colonials failed to observe that their experience in America had given the words a significance quite different from that accepted by the English with whom they debated; in fact, they claimed that they were more loyal to the English political tradition than were the English in England.

In many respects the political institutions of England were reproduced in these American colonies. By the middle of the eighteenth century, all of these colonies except four were headed by Royal Governors appointed by the King and perceived as bearing a relation to the people of the colony similar to that of the King to the English people. Moreover, each of these colonies enjoyed a representative assembly, which was consciously modeled, in powers and practices, after the English Parliament. In both England and these colonies, only property holders could vote.

Nevertheless, though English and colonial institutions were structurally similar, attitudes toward those institutions differed. For example, English legal development from the early seventeenth century had been moving steadily toward the absolute power of Parliament. The most unmistakable sign of this tendency was the legal assertion that the King was subject to the law. Together with this resolute denial of the absolute right of kings went the assertion that Parliament was unlimited in its power: it could change even the Constitution by its ordinary acts of legislation. By the eighteenth century the English had accepted the idea that the parliamentary representatives of the people were omnipotent.

The citizens of these colonies did not look upon the English Parliament with such fond eyes, nor did they concede that their own assemblies possessed such wide powers. There were good historical reasons for this. To the English the word “constitution” meant the whole body of law and legal custom formulated since the beginning of the kingdom, whereas to these colonials a constitution was a specific written document, enumerating specific powers. This distinction in meaning can be traced to the fact that the foundations of government in the various colonies were written charters granted by the Crown. These express authorizations to govern were tangible, definite things. Over the years these colonials had often repaired to the charters to justify themselves in the struggle against tyrannical governors or officials of the Crown. More than a century of government under written constitutions convinced these colonists of the necessity for and efficacy of protecting their liberties against governmental encroachment by explicitly defining all governmental powers in a document.
1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

(A) The colonials and the English mistakenly thought that they shared a common political vocabulary.
(B) The colonials and the English shared a variety of institutions.
(C) The colonials and the English had conflicting interpretations of the language and institutional structures that they shared.
(D) Colonial attitudes toward English institutions grew increasingly hostile in the eighteenth century.
(E) Seventeenth-century English legal development accounted for colonial attitudes toward constitutions.


2. The passage supports all of the following statements about the political conditions present by the middle of the eighteenth century in the American colonies discussed in the passage EXCEPT:

(A) Colonials who did not own property could not vote.
(B) All of these colonies had representative assemblies modeled after the British Parliament.
(C) Some of these colonies had Royal Governors.
(D) Royal Governors could be removed from office by colonial assemblies.
(E) In these colonies, Royal Governors were regarded as serving a function like that of a king.


3. The passage implies which one of the following about English kings prior to the early seventeenth century?

(A) They were the source of all law.
(B) They frequently flouted laws made by Parliament.
(C) Their power relative to that of Parliament was considerably greater than it was in the eighteenth century.
(D) They were more often the sources of legal reform than they were in the eighteenth century.
(E) They had to combat those who believed that the power of Parliament was absolute.


4. The author mentions which one of the following as evidence for the eighteenth-century English attitude toward Parliament?

(A) The English had become uncomfortable with institutions that could claim absolute authority.
(B) The English realized that their interests were better guarded by Parliament than by the King.
(C) The English allowed Parliament to make constitutional changes by legislative enactment.
(D) The English felt that the King did not possess the knowledge that would enable him to rule responsibly.
(E) The English had decided that it was time to reform their representative government.


5. The passage implies that the colonials discussed in the passage would have considered which one of the following to be a source of their debates with England?

(A) their changed use of the English political vocabulary
(B) English commitment to parliamentary representation
(C) their uniquely English experience
(D) their refusal to adopt any English political institutions
(E) their greater loyalty to the English political traditions


6. According to the passage, the English attitude toward the English Constitution differed from the colonial attitude toward constitutions in that the English regarded their Constitution as

(A) the legal foundation of the kingdom
(B) a document containing a collection of customs
(C) a cumulative corpus of legislation and legal traditions
(D) a record alterable by royal authority
(E) an unchangeable body of governmental powers


7. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) expose the misunderstanding that has characterized descriptions of the relationship between seventeenth- and eighteenth-century England and certain of its American colonies
(B) suggest a reason for England’s treatment of certain of its American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
(C) settle an ongoing debate about the relationship between England and certain of its American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
(D) interpret the events leading up to the independence of certain of England’s American colonies in the eighteenth century
(E) explain an aspect of the relationship between England and certain of its American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 9 (October 1993)
  • Difficulty Level: Will update after 30+ timers attempts

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Re: The English who in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries inhabited  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2019, 10:34
got 6/7 but i wanted to know the about question 5 . Could you please explain
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Re: The English who in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries inhabited  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2019, 17:55
aaggarwal191 wrote:
got 6/7 but I wanted to know the about question 5. Could you please explain


Even I got incorrect, but when I read the passage again, I understand why my answer was incorrect.

The last sentence of the passage states
Steeped as they were in the English political language, these colonials failed to observe that their experience in America had given the words a significance quite different from that accepted by the English with whom they debated; in fact, they claimed that they were more loyal to the English political tradition than were the English in England."

The latter part of the sentence clearly mentions the reason about the debate "they claimed that they were more loyal to the English political tradition than were the English in England."

I hope you got the reasoning.
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Re: The English who in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries inhabited  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2019, 17:56
Can anyone please explain the passage in simple words.
Thanks in advance.
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Re: The English who in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries inhabited  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Apr 2019, 03:37
jaisrajat wrote:
aaggarwal191 wrote:
got 6/7 but I wanted to know the about question 5. Could you please explain


Even I got incorrect, but when I read the passage again, I understand why my answer was incorrect.

The last sentence of the passage states
Steeped as they were in the English political language, these colonials failed to observe that their experience in America had given the words a significance quite different from that accepted by the English with whom they debated; in fact, they claimed that they were more loyal to the English political tradition than were the English in England."

The latter part of the sentence clearly mentions the reason about the debate "they claimed that they were more loyal to the English political tradition than were the English in England."

I hope you got the reasoning.
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thankyou for the explanation. Could you please tell what will be difficulty of this passage
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Re: The English who in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries inhabited  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Apr 2019, 09:11
2
Mapping of the Passage:[u][/u]

P1: Same Language shared in English habiting US colonies.
Political vocabulary, Difference in the way they spoke
US people did it better.

P2: Pol institutions were produced in US colonies
middle 18th century
except 4,
Gov-people = King-people
Rep assembly
only prop holders vote

P3: attitude difference - institutions
Eng, absolute power
legal assertion, King<Law
Parliment=unlimited power
18th cen end, Parliment=all power

P4: US col no like
Constitution different meaning
charters,Crown, Eng justify themselves,
struggle of US col-governers
Lot of paperwork
US col=conviencedn(doc)


1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

(A) The colonials and the English mistakenly thought that they shared a common political vocabulary. - Incorrect, Did not think mistakenly.would later become the United States shared a common political vocabulary with the English in England
(B) The colonials and the English shared a variety of institutions.- Incorrect, okay, but a lot of other things also happened, like King<Law, Charter document thing happening
(C) The colonials and the English had conflicting interpretations of the language and institutional structures that they shared. - Correct, It mentioned everything language, institutions, attitude differences, why?, sort of solution
(D) Colonial attitudes toward English institutions grew increasingly hostile in the eighteenth century. - Incorrect, Hostile? The passage did not convey that message anywhere.
(E) Seventeenth-century English legal development accounted for colonial attitudes toward constitutions. - Incorrect, Okay,true. But that is 4th para focus. This becomes a specific answer, not a general one.

Answer-C


2. The passage supports all of the following statements about the political conditions present by the middle of the eighteenth century in the American colonies discussed in the passage EXCEPT:
Mapping helps in this type of questions

(A) Colonials who did not own property could not vote. - Correct, In both England and these colonies, only property holders could vote.
(B) All of these colonies had representative assemblies modeled after the British Parliament. - Correct, Moreover, each of these colonies enjoyed a representative assembly, which was consciously modeled, in powers and practices, after the English Parliament.
(C) Some of these colonies had Royal Governors. - Correctby the middle of the eighteenth century, all of these colonies except four were headed by Royal Governors appointed by the King
(D) Royal Governors could be removed from office by colonial assemblies. - InCorrect, So this is the Answer. It is not mentioned in the passage.
(E) In these colonies, Royal Governors were regarded as serving a function like that of a king. - Correct perceived as bearing a relation to the people of the colony similar to that of the King to the English people.

Answer- E


3. The passage implies which one of the following about English kings prior to the early seventeenth century?

(A) They were the source of all law. - Incorrect, They were the source of law, previously. but all, becomes an extreme language as it is not given verbatm in the passage.
(B) They frequently flouted laws made by Parliament. - Incorrect, Not mentioned in the passage
(C) Their power relative to that of Parliament was considerably greater than it was in the eighteenth century. - Correct, Yes, then they made Parliment having all the power.
(D) They were more often the sources of legal reform than they were in the eighteenth century. - Incorrect, Not mentioned in the passage
(E) They had to combat those who believed that the power of Parliament was absolute. Incorrect, Not mentioned in the passage. Combat???

Answer- C

4. The author mentions which one of the following as evidence for the eighteenth-century English attitude toward Parliament?

As far as the passage is concerned the US colonies had a pos/neg views on Parliment. The English merly went with the flow of changes- neutral (my POV)

(A) The English had become uncomfortable with institutions that could claim absolute authority. - Incorrect, Not mentioned in the passage.
(B) The English realized that their interests were better guarded by Parliament than by the King. - Incorrect Not mentioned in the passage. No such POV given by the English
(C) The English allowed Parliament to make constitutional changes by legislative enactment. - Correct - Parliament was unlimited in its power: it could change even the Constitution by its ordinary acts of legislation. By the eighteenth century the English had accepted the idea that the parliamentary representatives of the people were omnipotent.
(D) The English felt that the King did not possess the knowledge that would enable him to rule responsibly. - Incorrect, where on Earth is this even written in the passage. So, Not mentioned in the passage.
(E) The English had decided that it was time to reform their representative government. -Incorrect, Not mentioned in the passage.

Answer- C

5. The passage implies that the colonials discussed in the passage would have considered which one of the following to be a source of their debates with England?

It's a futuristic question.

(A) their changed use of the English political vocabulary -Incorrect, Not mentioned in the passage.
(B) English commitment to parliamentary representation -Incorrect, Not mentioned in the passage. US col didn't show any oppression towards the English commitment
(C) their uniquely English experience -Incorrect, Not mentioned in the passage.
(D) their refusal to adopt any English political institutions - Incorrect, Not mentioned in the passage.
(E) their greater loyalty to the English political traditions - Correct, become the United States shared a common political vocabulary with the English in England. hey claimed that they were more loyal to the English political tradition than were the English in England. So, maybe this could be a reason. Who knows?

Answer- E

6. According to the passage, the English attitude toward the English Constitution differed from the colonial attitude toward constitutions in that the English regarded their Constitution as

(A) the legal foundation of the kingdom - Incorrect, Trap question by throwing some random words in the passage to form a sentence -
(B) a document containing a collection of customs - Incorrect, Another major trap question as, To the English the word “constitution” meant the whole body of law and legal custom formulated since the beginning of the kingdom, Where is legal? nExt, answer choice.
(C) a cumulative corpus of legislation and legal traditions. - Correct, To the English the word “constitution” meant the whole body of law and legal custom formulated since the beginning of the kingdom,
(D) a record alterable by royal authority - Incorrect, King<Law.
(E) an unchangeable body of governmental powers - Incorrect, Both had this POV.

Answer- C

7. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) expose the misunderstanding that has characterized descriptions of the relationship between seventeenth- and eighteenth-century England and certain of its American colonies - Incorrect, There was no misunderstanding
(B) suggest a reason for England’s treatment of certain of its American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries - Incorrect, the treatment is not mentioned in the passage.
(C) settle an ongoing debate about the relationship between England and certain of its American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries- Incorrect, Debate?? was not mentioned, There was no conflicting points in the passage.
(D) interpret the events leading up to the independence of certain of England’s American colonies in the eighteenth century - Incorrect, Independence??? Not mentioned in the passage.
(E) explain an aspect of the relationship between England and certain of its American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries- Correct, Okay, yes that was there mentioned about the relationship.
Answer- E

I am struggling with RC, right now and I hope to improve. I am open to all suggestions.
1. I am trying to improve my mapping
2. I need help as I miss out terms in the passage and thus, I choose wrong answers. Let me know what I should do to improve it.
I want to score above 700+. I don't have people around me to advise me on GMAT. I would be grateful for any sort of help.
Thank you in advance.
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Re: The English who in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries inhabited   [#permalink] 06 Apr 2019, 09:11
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