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The general density dependence model can be applied to explain the fou

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The general density dependence model can be applied to explain the fou  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 09 Sep 2019, 03:56
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The general density dependence model can be applied to explain the founding of specialist firms (those attempting to serve a narrow target market). According to this model, specialist foundings hinge on the interplay between legitimation and competitive forces, both of which are functions of the density (total number) of firms in a particular specialist population. Legitimation occurs as a new type of firm moves from being viewed as unfamiliar to being viewed as a natural way to organize. At low density levels, each founding increases legitimation, reducing barriers to entry and easing subsequent foundings. Competition occurs because the resources that firms seek--customers, suppliers, and employees--are limited, but as long as density is low relative to plentiful resources, the addition of another firm has a negligible impact on the intensity of competition. At high density levels, however, competitive effects outweigh legitimation effects, discouraging foundings. The more numerous the competitors, the fiercer the competition will be and the smaller will be the incentive for new firms to enter the field.

While several studies have found a significant correspondence between the density dependence model and actual patterns of foundings, other studies have found patterns not consistent with the model. A possible explanation for this inconsistency is that legitimation and competitive forces transcend national boundaries, while studies typically restrict their analysis to the national level. Thus a national-level analysis can understate the true legitimation and competitive forces as well as the number of foundings in an industry that is internationally integrated. Many industries are or are becoming international, and since media and information easily cross national borders, so should legitimation and its effects on overseas foundings. For example, if a type of firm becomes established in the United States, that information transcends borders, reduces uncertainties, and helps foundings of that type of firm in other countries. Even within national contexts, studies have found more support for the density dependence model when they employ broader geographic units of analysis--for example, finding that the model's operation is seen more clearly at the state and national levels than at city levels.


Question #1. According to the passage, which of the following may account for the inconsistency between the general density dependence model and the evidence provided by certain studies of foundings?

(A) Such studies have overemphasized the impact of preexisting firms on the establishment of new firms.
(B) Such studies have not focused strongly enough on the role of competition among newly established firms operating at the city and state levels.
(C) Such studies fail to differentiate among specialist firms with regard to the degree to which they deviate from familiar forms of organization.
(D) Such studies have not taken into account the fact that many industries are internationally integrated.
(E) Such studies have neglected to investigate firms that attempt to serve only a narrow target market.



Question #2. In the second paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with

(A) noting various exceptions to a certain general finding
(B) examining the impact of one type of industry on another
(C) proposing a possible explanation for an inconsistency
(D) providing specific examples of a particular phenomenon
(E) defending the validity of a particular study's conclusions



Question #3.The passage suggests that when a population of specialist firms reaches a high density level, which of the following is likely to occur?

(A) Foundings will decline despite legitimation that has occurred in these industries.
(B) Increasing competition will encourage many firms to broaden their target market.
(C) Competition for resources will become stabilized and thus foundings will be encouraged.
(D) Many customers will abandon their loyalty to older firms as more innovative firms enter the market.
(E) Firms will begin to cross national borders in an attempt to gain a competitive advantage.



Question #4.The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) question the validity of an economic model
(B) point out some inconsistencies within an economic model
(C) outline an economic model and suggest revisions to it
(D) describe an economic model and provide specific examples to illustrate its use
(E) explain why an economic model remains valid despite inconsistent research results


Originally posted by eybrj2 on 30 May 2012, 18:53.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 09 Sep 2019, 03:56, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The general density dependence model can be applied to explain the  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2014, 12:51
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JarvisR wrote:
Hi Piyush,
I took around 9:20 mins. P1 stumped me and I was not very clear about the topic until i reached last of 1 para.And by 2nd Para, I was comfortable with wht i was reading :)
All correct except last question Q4.
Could you please help me to understand how to infer E. [I am more inclined toward B and C but none of them are completely true.]
Regards.


Hi JarvisR,

Answer of last question lies in the last paragraph of the passage.

"A possible explanation for this inconsistency is that legitimation and competitive forces transcend national boundaries, while studies typically restrict their analysis to the national level. "

"Many industries are or are becoming international, and since media and information easily cross national borders, so should legitimation and its effects on overseas foundings. For example, if a type of firm becomes established in the United States, that information transcends borders, reduces uncertainties, and helps foundings of that type of firm in other countries. Even within national contexts, studies have found more support for the density dependence model when they employ broader geographic units of analysis--for example, finding that the model's operation is seen more clearly at the state and national levels than at city levels."


Author is raising question on the studies that, in current scenario in which many companies operating internationally, information or impact of their international operations were not included in these studies. Author is taking side of dependence model.

4. The primary purpose of the passage is to
E. explain why an economic model remains valid despite inconsistent research results.

Further we can outline entire passage per paragraph:
1. (GDDM) General density dependence model's importance to specialized firms and how legitimation and competitive forces react to density.
2. Defending GDDM and justifying that it works fine.

4. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. question the validity of an economic model --- no author is not questioning, instead s/he is defending.
B. point out some inconsistencies within an economic model --- narrow scope -- s/he is also defending.
C. outline an economic model and suggest revisions to it --- not suggesting revision.
D. describe an economic model and provide specific examples to illustrate its use -- no examples illustrated
E. explain why an economic model remains valid despite inconsistent research results --- so we left with E.

I hope it helps.
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New post 30 May 2012, 19:08
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OA is DCAE

I have a question regarding Q7.
How can E be an answer?

I googled this Q and found some people said that you should look at the beginning and the ending when you solve "primary purpose" questions.

I can see why E is an answer if I look at the last sentence of the passage, but what I don't understand is that where is the transition point.

The first paragraph just explains what the GDD model is, so the second paragraph has the main point of the passage.

The second paragraph starts with "While several studies have found a significant correspondence between the density dependence model and actual patterns of foundings, other studies have found patterns not consistent with the model."
And then, the passage explains a possible reason for the inconsistency.

I can understand up to this point.
However, I don't understand the following part. How can the following part be connected with the preceding part, which is the explanation for the possible reason for the inconsistency.
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New post 30 May 2012, 19:49
2
Hi eybrj2, Let me try to explain how I selected the E for the last question.

A) question the validity of an economic model - This has been mainly raised in the second paragraph also author belives that model is correct. so ruled out.

(B) point out some inconsistencies within an economic model - Inconsistencies are not with model but with the results of research which has been done to prove this model. Also author not only point out these inconsistencies but also expalined them.
So ruled out.


(C) outline an economic model and suggest revisions to it - Author never wants to revise the model. so ruled out.

(D) describe an economic model and provide specific examples to illustrate its use - Clearly ruled out.


(E) explain why an economic model remains valid despite inconsistent research results
- This is the answer. Author clearly defended his model and wants to say that there are some inconsistencies but there are flaw in the research not in model.

Hope it will help !!
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New post 13 Jun 2012, 15:59
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1
DCAE.

Q5: (E) is incorrect because the author does not defend the validity of a particular study's conclusions, he defends the validity of the whole theory. In fact, the only study he cites is one that runs counter to his viewpoint.

Q7: (B) is tempting here, but look at this sentence:

Quote:
Thus a national-level analysis can understate the true legitimation and competitive forces as well as the number of foundings in an industry that is internationally integrated.


The subtext of this sentence is that the author believes that the theory itself is consistent, but the application of the theory (limited to national analysis) is faulty, making (E) a better answer.
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New post Updated on: 13 Aug 2014, 21:30
1

1. According to the passage, which of the following may account for the inconsistency between the general density dependence model and the evidence provided by certain studies of foundings?
A. Such studies have overemphasized the impact of preexisting firms on the establishment of new firms.
B. Such studies have not focused strongly enough on the role of competition among newly established firms operating at the city and state levels.
C. Such studies fail to differentiate among specialist firms with regard to the degree to which they deviate from familiar forms of organization.
D. Such studies have not taken into account the fact that many industries are internationally integrated.
E. Such studies have neglected to investigate firms that attempt to serve only a narrow target market.

2. In the second paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with
A. noting various exceptions to a certain general finding
B. examining the impact of one type of industry on another
C. proposing a possible explanation for an inconsistency
D. providing specific examples of a particular phenomenon
E. defending the validity of a particular study's conclusions


3. The passage suggests that when a population of specialist firms reaches a high density level, which of the following is likely to occur?
A. Foundings will decline despite legitimation that has occurred in these industries.
B. Increasing competition will encourage many firms to broaden their target market.
C. Competition for resources will become stabilized and thus foundings will be encouraged.
D. Many customers will abandon their loyalty to older firms as more innovative firms enter the market.
E. Firms will begin to cross national borders in an attempt to gain a competitive advantage.


4. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. question the validity of an economic model
B. point out some inconsistencies within an economic model
C. outline an economic model and suggest revisions to it
D. describe an economic model and provide specific examples to illustrate its use
E. explain why an economic model remains valid despite inconsistent research results

Originally posted by bb61 on 12 Aug 2014, 09:46.
Last edited by PiyushK on 13 Aug 2014, 21:30, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 15 Aug 2014, 09:54
1
Hi Piyush,
I took around 9:20 mins. P1 stumped me and I was not very clear about the topic until i reached last of 1 para.And by 2nd Para, I was comfortable with wht i was reading :)
All correct except last question Q4.
Could you please help me to understand how to infer E. [I am more inclined toward B and C but none of them are completely true.]
Regards.
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New post 26 Sep 2015, 08:15
3
Timing: 9 minutes for this passage
Results: 3 rights ( #4,5,6) one wrong (#7)
Approach: spending 3 minutes for taking note and paraphasing ( 1st paragraph)
- General density dependence model ( DDM) => key interplay bw legitimation and competitive forces
+ legitimation occurs ( new type of firms from viewing unfamiliar to natural way)
+ Competition occurs b/c limited seeking (customers, suppliers,..) of firms
=> both depend on density level
if low density
if high density (competitive effects > legitimation effects)=> more numerous competitors
Paragraph 2: studies -> correspondence bw DDM and actual patterns of foundings -> found not consistent
exp: b/c legitimation and competitive force actually laying on international boundaries while studies limit their analysis at the national level ->understate
That's all enough for brief things in this passage
Back to Question 4:
According to the passage, which of the following may account for the inconsistency between the general density dependence model and the evidence provided by certain studies of foundings?
(A) Such studies have overemphasized the impact of preexisting firms on the establishment of new firms. ( not mention over emphasized the impact)
(B) Such studies have not focused strongly enough on the role of competition among newly established firms operating at the city and state levels. ( studies limit their analysis at the national level, not because of insufficient new competitors)
(C) Such studies fail to differentiate among specialist firms with regard to the degree to which they deviate from familiar forms of organization.( not mention)
(D) Such studies have not taken into account the fact that many industries are internationally integrated. ( Correct)
(E) Such studies have neglected to investigate firms that attempt to serve only a narrow target market.( not mention)

Question 5
In the second paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with

(A) noting various exceptions to a certain general finding ( there are no exception here )
(B) examining the impact of one type of industry on another ( nowhere can indicate the impact of one industry on another )
(C) proposing a possible explanation for an inconsistency ( looking 1st sentence of 2nd paragraph, they talk about correlation bw this model and patterns -> inconsistency and a detail explanation after that) -> correct answer
(D) providing specific examples of a particular phenomenon ( there is an example here, but it does not the primary concern )
(E) defending the validity of a particular study's conclusions ( tone of this paragraph not like defending)

Question 6
The passage suggests that when a population of specialist firms reaches a high density level, which of the following is likely to occur?
Hint: high density level -> more competitors ( b/c competitive effects > legitimation effects), less new comers ( founding will be decline)
=> A correct
(A) Foundings will decline despite legitimation that has occurred in these industries.
(B) Increasing competition will encourage many firms to broaden their target market.
(C) Competition for resources will become stabilized and thus foundings will be encouraged.
(D) Many customers will abandon their loyalty to older firms as more innovative firms enter the market.
(E) Firms will begin to cross national borders in an attempt to gain a competitive advantage.

Question 7 ( I did select C for my answer, and had no idea why OA is E)
The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) question the validity of an economic model
(B) point out some inconsistencies within an economic model
(C) outline an economic model and suggest revisions to it
(D) describe an economic model and provide specific examples to illustrate its use
(E) explain why an economic model remains valid despite inconsistent research results
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New post 27 Nov 2015, 07:34
3
Outline:
// GDD model
Low density level
High density level
// inconsistence
explaination



Question #4. According to the passage, which of the following may account for the inconsistency between the general density dependence model and the evidence provided by certain studies of foundings?

A possible explanation for this inconsistency is that legitimation and competitive forces transcend national boundaries, -- keywords: transcend national boundaries

(A) Such studies have overemphasized the impact of preexisting firms on the establishment of new firms.
(B) Such studies have not focused strongly enough on the role of competition among newly established firms operating at the city and state levels.
(C) Such studies fail to differentiate among specialist firms with regard to the degree to which they deviate from familiar forms of organization.
(D) Such studies have not taken into account the fact that many industries are internationally integrated. --okie
(E) Such studies have neglected to investigate firms that attempt to serve only a narrow target market.


Question #5.In the second paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with

. A possible explanation for this inconsistency  keywords: possible explanation

(A) noting various exceptions to a certain general finding
(B) examining the impact of one type of industry on another
(C) proposing a possible explanation for an inconsistency  okie
(D) providing specific examples of a particular phenomenon
(E) defending the validity of a particular study's conclusions


Question #6.The passage suggests that when a population of specialist firms reaches a high density level, which of the following is likely to occur?

At high density levels, however, competitive effects outweigh legitimation effects, discouraging foundings --- keyword: discouraging founding

(A) Foundings will decline despite legitimation that has occurred in these industries. -> right
(B) Increasing competition will encourage many firms to broaden their target market.
(C) Competition for resources will become stabilized and thus foundings will be encouraged.
(D) Many customers will abandon their loyalty to older firms as more innovative firms enter the market.
(E) Firms will begin to cross national borders in an attempt to gain a competitive advantage.


Question #7.The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) question the validity of an economic model
(B) point out some inconsistencies within an economic model
(C) outline an economic model and suggest revisions to it
(D) describe an economic model and provide specific examples to illustrate its use
(E) explain why an economic model remains valid despite inconsistent research results --- okie
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New post 16 Aug 2016, 06:58
Took 7 mins 40 seconds , including 2 mins 20 seconds to read the passage .

1.
The Passage talks about inconsistency between the General Density Dependance model and the evidence provided by certain studies in Paragraph 2
"A possible explanation for this inconsistency is that legitimation and competitive forces transcend national boundaries, while studies typically restrict their analysis to the national level. "
. The inconsistency is attributed to the fact that the studies did not take into account the international forces that affect Legtimation and competitive forces. Hence Option (D).

2.
In the Second Paragraph, the author seeks to explain the inconsistency between the General Density Dependance model and the findings of certain studies . Hence Option (C)

3.
"At high density levels, however, competitive effects outweigh legitimation effects, discouraging foundings."
Here the author clearly mentions that when there is a high density level of firms, further foundings will be discouraged. Hence Option (A)

4. Was not very sure about main purpose answer :? . Was in a fix between B and E .
(A) question the validity of an economic model- Incorrect – The author does not question of the validity of the economic model anywhere in the passage. In fact, the first line suggests that it can be applied to explain foundings. The author is also looking to explain discrepant findings in Paragraph 2.
(B) point out some inconsistencies within an economic model -Incorrect – Though the author does point of inconsistencies between certain studies and the economic model, that is not the primary purpose of the passage as the author is consistently trying to justify the model's use.
(C) outline an economic model and suggest revisions to it- Incorrect – The author is not suggesting any revisions in his passage.
(D) describe an economic model and provide specific examples to illustrate its use- Incorrect – The author does not provide multiple examples illustrating the use of the the General Density Dependance model.
(E) explain why an economic model remains valid despite inconsistent research results - Correct – The author explains that the Economic Model can be used by justifying inconsistent results of study findings.
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New post 28 Oct 2016, 00:06
2
Time taken 6 mins.

Easy Passage.

Marked last one incorrect initially then realized E is the correct answer as per the lines
"Even within national contexts, studies have found more support for the density dependence model when they employ broader geographic units of analysis--for example, finding that the model's operation is seen more clearly at the state and national levels than at city levels."
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New post 21 Feb 2017, 09:37
rjacobsMGMAT wrote:
DCAE.

Q5: (E) is incorrect because the author does not defend the validity of a particular study's conclusions, he defends the validity of the whole theory. In fact, the only study he cites is one that runs counter to his viewpoint.

Q7: (B) is tempting here, but look at this sentence:

Quote:
Thus a national-level analysis can understate the true legitimation and competitive forces as well as the number of foundings in an industry that is internationally integrated.


The subtext of this sentence is that the author believes that the theory itself is consistent, but the application of the theory (limited to national analysis) is faulty, making (E) a better answer.



Hi Jacobs,

i do not understand how in Q7 E can be the answer. It may be true that the inconsistencies are mentioned and discussed in the second paragraph, but the first paragraph does not mention them at all. Hence, I do not know how the primary purpose of the passage can be something which is only mentioned in one paragraph .

Anyone ?
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New post 06 Nov 2017, 07:40
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eybrj2 wrote:
Question #7.The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) question the validity of an economic model
(B) point out some inconsistencies within an economic model
(C) outline an economic model and suggest revisions to it
(D) describe an economic model and provide specific examples to illustrate its use
(E) explain why an economic model remains valid despite inconsistent research results



Adding my 2 cents:

passage excerpt : " Many industries are or are becoming international, and since media and information easily cross national borders, so should legitimation and its effects on overseas foundings. "

The author suggests that since media& information are easily expanding to reach international boundaries, the foundings and legitimation can also be expected to expand to reach international boundaries; this would mean the same economic model can be applied to the industries that are becoming international. Saying that author contends to explain why an economic model remains valid despite inconsistent research results.
"E"
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New post 01 Jun 2018, 11:22
Passage Breakdown in my simplest way:
Para 1: The application of a model is discussed. (GDDM --> SF )
2 main forces: LE and CF (density dependent)
at low density--> LE >> CF
at high density--> CF >> LE , foundings go down.

Para 2: inconsistencies in model GDDM.
Explanation for incons.
GDDM till national, but industries moving international. Example.
Still Support for GDDM.


1. According to the passage, which of the following may account for the inconsistency between the general density dependence model and the evidence provided by certain studies of foundings?
--> incons are described in Para 2. National and international factors are discussed. Only Option D deals with that. D is correct.

A. Such studies have overemphasized the impact of preexisting firms on the establishment of new firms.
B. Such studies have not focused strongly enough on the role of competition among newly established firms operating at the city and state levels.
C. Such studies fail to differentiate among specialist firms with regard to the degree to which they deviate from familiar forms of organization.
D. Such studies have not taken into account the fact that many industries are internationally integrated.
E. Such studies have neglected to investigate firms that attempt to serve only a narrow target market.


2. In the second paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with
--->Obvious inconsistencies. Pick C.

A. noting various exceptions to a certain general finding
B. examining the impact of one type of industry on another
C. proposing a possible explanation for an inconsistency
D. providing specific examples of a particular phenomenon
E. defending the validity of a particular study's conclusions


3. The passage suggests that when a population of specialist firms reaches a high density level, which of the following is likely to occur?
--> See para1 notes for high density. Pick A.

A. Foundings will decline despite legitimation that has occurred in these industries.
B. Increasing competition will encourage many firms to broaden their target market.
C. Competition for resources will become stabilized and thus foundings will be encouraged.
D. Many customers will abandon their loyalty to older firms as more innovative firms enter the market.
E. Firms will begin to cross national borders in an attempt to gain a competitive advantage.


4. The primary purpose of the passage is to
---> read out the notes and try to make a map. E is the only possible winner.

A. question the validity of an economic model
B. point out some inconsistencies within an economic model
C. outline an economic model and suggest revisions to it
D. describe an economic model and provide specific examples to illustrate its use
E. explain why an economic model remains valid despite inconsistent research results


Easy passage if you understand the map. I took 7.5 mins, all correct. Could have done before 6 mins, I am working on my accuracy first.


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New post 17 Dec 2018, 13:00
Questions are easy except the last one. I got wrong for the last one, but when I looked back at the very first sentence in the first paragraph, I figured out that the author supports the model. The lesson I learned was that always pay special attention to the first sentence because normally it points out author's standpoint of
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New post 09 Mar 2019, 23:11
total time 8:25 all correct
4. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. question the validity of an economic model. The author never questions the given economic model. He clarifies the patterns not consitent with this model.
B. point out some inconsistencies within an economic model One word wrong. There is only one type of inconsistency given
C. outline an economic model and suggest revisions to itfirst part is correct but the author nowhere suggests revisions
D. describe an economic model and provide specific examples to illustrate its usefirst part is correct but the author doesn't give examples to illustrate its use
E. explain why an economic model remains valid despite inconsistent research resultsCovers both the para
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Re: The general density dependence model can be applied to explain the fou  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2019, 00:48
First Para is About Density Dependence Model and explain two factors that effects it :
1. Legitmation
2. Competition

Second Para is about how some studies are inconsistent with Model and author provides explanation for those inconsistencies in research.

Thus, as a whole it describes density Dependence Model and try to provide explanation for inconsistent studies about Model

In Q7, option B implies inconsistency with Model which is not the case, instead inconsistencies were in research. Hence Incorrect.

Option E is correct because Author is explaining inconsistencies in research that implies Model is valid

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Re: The general density dependence model can be applied to explain the fou  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2019, 23:01
PRIMARY PURPOSE

'Even within national contexts, studies have found more support for the density dependence model when they employ broader geographic units of analysis--for example, finding that the model's operation is seen more clearly at the state and national levels than at city levels.'

These are the last three lines of the passage.....even after the inconsistencies "studies have found more support for the density dependence model when they employ broader geographic units"............so the passage takes a turn here, making E the most suitable answer among all.
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Re: The general density dependence model can be applied to explain the fou  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2019, 17:36
1
Passage: Discusses application of general density dependence model
P1: To describe the application of the GD model
P2: To discuss how some studies didn't find the same correlation, but nonetheless do not invalidate the general principles


Q1 - Detail
The difference in question is the inconsistency between studies that consider international firms and the studies that, typically, consider only national
A - incorrect because the difference lay in the national v international
B - incorrect comparison - GD model considers national, other studies international
C - this doesn't make sense as its not supported. Incorrect.
D - Correct. This is the difference described in P2
E - incorrect because the premise of specialist firms is that they serve only a narrow market.

Q2 - Main Idea/ purpose
A - Incorrect because there is really one type of inconsistency - national vs international firms
B - false. not supported.
C - True. Given by sentence 2 of P2
D - No. 1 Example is given in regards to an inconsistency
E - No. Author goes on in P2 to discuss how the GD model is still relevant, but his main intention in p2 is to describe the inconsistency

Q3 - Inference
Info to solve this question is given in P1, particularly the last few sentences.
A - is correct because we are told that as density increases, so too does competition and competition deters new foundings as "the smaller will be the incentive for new firms to enter the field"
B - not supported at all. Incorrect
C - Opposite. Foundings decrease as competition increases as the incentive to enter has declined. Incorrect
D - not supported at all. Incorrect
E - not supported at all. Incorrect

Q4 - Main Idea
A - False. Refer to passage map above.
B - Although one inconsistency is described, it is not the main purpose of the passage. False
C - No revisions are suggested. Incorrect
D - Examples are provided in regards to the inconsistency, nothing else. Incorrect
E - True. The main idea is really given in the last sentence - in which the author states his argument. "Even within...studies have found more support for the density dependence model"
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Re: The general density dependence model can be applied to explain the fou  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2019, 01:05
PiyushK wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
Hi Piyush,
I took around 9:20 mins. P1 stumped me and I was not very clear about the topic until i reached last of 1 para.And by 2nd Para, I was comfortable with wht i was reading :)
All correct except last question Q4.
Could you please help me to understand how to infer E. [I am more inclined toward B and C but none of them are completely true.]
Regards.


Hi JarvisR,

Answer of last question lies in the last paragraph of the passage.

"A possible explanation for this inconsistency is that legitimation and competitive forces transcend national boundaries, while studies typically restrict their analysis to the national level. "

"Many industries are or are becoming international, and since media and information easily cross national borders, so should legitimation and its effects on overseas foundings. For example, if a type of firm becomes established in the United States, that information transcends borders, reduces uncertainties, and helps foundings of that type of firm in other countries. Even within national contexts, studies have found more support for the density dependence model when they employ broader geographic units of analysis--for example, finding that the model's operation is seen more clearly at the state and national levels than at city levels."


Author is raising question on the studies that, in current scenario in which many companies operating internationally, information or impact of their international operations were not included in these studies. Author is taking side of dependence model.

4. The primary purpose of the passage is to
E. explain why an economic model remains valid despite inconsistent research results.

Further we can outline entire passage per paragraph:
1. (GDDM) General density dependence model's importance to specialized firms and how legitimation and competitive forces react to density.
2. Defending GDDM and justifying that it works fine.

4. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. question the validity of an economic model --- no author is not questioning, instead s/he is defending.
B. point out some inconsistencies within an economic model --- narrow scope -- s/he is also defending.
C. outline an economic model and suggest revisions to it --- not suggesting revision.
D. describe an economic model and provide specific examples to illustrate its use -- no examples illustrated
E. explain why an economic model remains valid despite inconsistent research results --- so we left with E.

I hope it helps.


thank you for great explanation. I miss question 4 too.

question 4 is relative to tone of passage. tone of passage is what we have to infer from some words in the passage. this is normally hard. but the problem is not hard or easy the problem is that we need to take a longer time for tone and main idea question.

if we see tone question, we are ready to take enough time because we know it is hard and require enough time. but when we solve questions 1,2 and 3 easily, we normally solve question 4 quickly and get it wrong.

the key is to slowdown for main idea and tone question
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Re: The general density dependence model can be applied to explain the fou   [#permalink] 09 Oct 2019, 01:05
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