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The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of

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The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.


(A) having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it

(B) having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they

(C) with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they

(D) with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it

(E) with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it

Originally posted by macjas on 11 May 2012, 23:45.
Last edited by Bunuel on 25 Jan 2019, 04:08, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2012, 08:34
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A case of SV mismatch and pronoun ambiguity and reference. The subject is the singular structure and the verb therefore should be helps, which is three in B, C and E. In B. the plural pronoun, they refer to anything plural but what is in issue is the singular insect eye that is compared with vertebrate eye. C also has the same pronoun mis - reference as in B. E remains with the use of the singular verb helps and singular pronoun it
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2013, 08:51
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gmatter0913 wrote:
Could somebody please clarify me how "with" is different from "having" here.

How is it that "having" is modifying "structure", while "with" is modifying "compound insect eye". Kindly help me understand the usage of with here.

Thanks a lot GmatClub.


hi

having = have + ing = verb + ing.
verb-ing modifiers are very versatile modifiers.
there are two case


if verb-ing modifiers appear after a clause and is preceeded by comma ,then it modifies the entire preceeding clause.It
a) either presents additional information about the preceeding clause or
b) result of the preceeding clause.


if verb-ing modifiers appears without a comma==>it modifies the immediate noun.

now in our question:

The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

so according to rule HAVING is modifying the entire preceeding clause....
so in this sentence ...meanig coming out: intricate structure are having hundreds of miniature eyes==> this is illogical as structure cant have eyes...
hence we can eliminate all the option using HAVING


please refre to this also.

usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html


hope it makes sense now.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2012, 10:18
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A having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it (SV error)
B having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they (Pronoun error)
C with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they(Pronoun error)
D with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it (SV error)
E with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it (Correct Answer)
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2012, 14:55
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First split : The intricate structure......... HELP/HELPS explain........

The intricate structure ( singular )..... must be paired with Helps ( singular verb )

A,D disappears, Left with B, C, E

2nd Split : Scientists assumed that....... THEY / IT........

The pronoun refers back to the EYE ( Singular )........ So the Pronoun should be IT ( SINGULAR ) and not THEY.

Thus B n C get back to their cocoon.

Leading to E, my take
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2013, 02:58
I figured out the errors with each answer choice much similar to the ways listed above. I was looking at one point in OG answer explanation that "using 'assuming' with possesive 'scientists'' form" is incorrect. Say, if i change answer (C) as below, will it be correct.

(C) with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' ASSUMPTION that IT
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2013, 23:26
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mamathak wrote:
I figured out the errors with each answer choice much similar to the ways listed above. I was looking at one point in OG answer explanation that "using 'assuming' with possesive 'scientists'' form" is incorrect. Say, if i change answer (C) as below, will it be correct.

(C) with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' ASSUMPTION that IT


Hi mamthak

Even you change assuming to assumption, the sentence is still wrong because:

- Structure: "assumption that + clause" is not as good as "assume that + clause"
(1) Scientists have the assumption that whale evolved from elephant
(2) Scientists assume that whale evolved from elephant
Which one is better. Definitely, GMAT likes the latter, it's more concise and has clear meaning.
Remember the order V-A-N (verb-adjective-noun). If you can use verb, use verb, do not use noun form.

- Idiom: assumption that ==> incorrect. Correct idiom is "assumption of/about"

Hope it' clear.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2013, 08:35
Could somebody please clarify me how "with" is different from "having" here.

How is it that "having" is modifying "structure", while "with" is modifying "compound insect eye". Kindly help me understand the usage of with here.

Thanks a lot GmatClub.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2013, 10:57
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Could you help me on how "with" modifies the "eye" and not the "structure"?
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 18 Jul 2013, 12:00
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gmatter0913 wrote:
Could you help me on how "with" modifies the "eye" and not the "structure"?



WITH ...will modify eye.....according to context of the sentence)

it cannot modify intricate structure as that will be illogical....to say intricate structure have hundreds of miniature eyes.


The intricate structure of the compound insect eye,withits hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye


HOPE IT IS CLEAR.

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Originally posted by blueseas on 18 Jul 2013, 11:03.
Last edited by blueseas on 18 Jul 2013, 12:00, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2013, 21:49
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I thought I understood the usage of "with" until I saw this official sentence.

I believe that if I am changing the rules of using a concept every time so as to match the correct answer, then I am sure that I didn't understand the concept well. I believe that is exactly what is happening in this case in understanding the usage of "with" on the GMAT.

In our previous conversation, we thought "with" modifies the preceding noun or the clause. But, it looks like we're missing something here. Below is an official sentence from the GMAT Prep.

Sentence: (This is the correct option in the question. But, the stress here is to understand how is it correct?)

Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and saw monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging like socks on a clothesline.

The official explanation says "with" is modifying "monkeys" correctly and it is not modifying "branches".

I don't understand why is it so? According to our understanding, "with" should modify the preceding noun "branches".

I understand that branches cannot have arms and legs and hence it modifies monkeys. I think this explanation doesn't solve the problem. Because, there has to be a better explanation to this usage. Else, we're saying that "with" is always correct on the GMAT as it can be associated to modify anything as desired by the context of the sentence.

I believe we need to understand this better.

I request the experts on this forum to please help us on this.

Thanks a lot!!
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2013, 23:37
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gmatter0913 wrote:
I thought I understood the usage of "with" until I saw this official sentence.

Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and saw monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging like socks on a clothesline.

The official explanation says "with" is modifying "monkeys" correctly and it is not modifying "branches".

I don't understand why is it so? According to our understanding, "with" should modify the preceding noun "branches".

I understand that branches cannot have arms and legs and hence it modifies monkeys. I think this explanation doesn't solve the problem. Because, there has to be a better explanation to this usage. Else, we're saying that "with" is always correct on the GMAT as it can be associated to modify anything as desired by the context of the sentence.


Firstly, both the verbs "have often looked up" and "saw" are associated to "Visitors". I'd expect the second verb also to be in a a form that aligns with "have" => verb should be "have seen" .

Secondly to generalise this concept of usage of "with XXX" --> it falls into the category of prepositional phrases , which are very versatile , and everything that's said about "with" being a versatile modifier applies to all prepositional phrases

In this specific Question - i think "with arms and legs hanging like ..... " modifies the noun phrase "monkeys sleeping on the branches" . it simply cannot modify just branches or monkeys. "with ....." here describes HOW monkeys are sleeping on the branches , modifying the action denoted by the -ING modifer sleeping.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2014, 00:18
The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

A having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it
B having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they
C with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they
D with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it
E with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it


This sentence addresses why scientists have decided that the vertebrate eye arid the insect eye evolved independently of each other. The insect eye is much more intricate, with hundreds of miniature eyes. The sentence needs to be clear as to what has hundreds of miniature eyes. The structure or the insect eye? Furthermore, the singular subject intricate structure requires the singular verb helps.

A. having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it
having..modified subject of the preceding clause "The intricate structure" and meaning looks like The intricate
structure has miniature eyes(insect eye has miniature eyes).so this option is out


B. having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they
Option B is out for the same reason as given in Option A.

C. with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they
The intricate structure ...helps(correct). they(plural) is refer to back to The intricate structure(singular)..so
Incorrect


D. with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it
The intricate structure ...help(incorrect)

E. with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it
The intricate structure ...helps(correct).It refers to The intricate structure...Correct.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2018, 21:47
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The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

"having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia" modifies the entire preceding clause "The intricate structure of the compound insect eye"

The subject here in the sentence is "The intricate structure of the compound insect eye" which is singular.
Hence if we eliminate the middlemen i.e. "having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia". It clearly shows the Subject/Verb agreement issue as the first split is "help" or "helps".
With Singular subject it has to be "helps".
Hence A and D go out.

(A) having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it
Incorrect, because of the reason mentioned.

(B) having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they
(C) with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists’ assuming that they
The last split "they and it", "they" has no clear antecedent. Here "they" refers to "hundreds of miniature eyes" but this isn't the subject here. The pronoun here must refer to "The intricate structure of the compound insect eye", which is singular, so a singular pronoun is required.
Hence B and C go out.

(D) with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists’ assuming that it
Incorrect, because of the reason mentioned on the top.

(E) with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it
Correct, with no above mentioned issues.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2018, 09:02
daagh Can singular pronoun it refers to Eye which is in preposition structure?

daagh wrote:
A case of SV mismatch and pronoun ambiguity and reference. The subject is the singular structure and the verb therefore should be helps, which is three in B, C and E. In B. the plural pronoun, they refer to anything plural but what is in issue is the singular insect eye that is compared with vertebrate eye. C also has the same pronoun mis - reference as in B. E remains with the use of the singular verb helps and singular pronoun it

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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2018, 09:46
gmatbusters

Quote:
Can singular pronoun it refers to Eye which is in preposition structure?

Here are my two cents:
Yes, the rule which you are referring might be pointing that the prepositional phrase can not take subject of the verb.
Here : of the compound insect eye is the prepositional phrase can not determine the verb, but the verb is determined by:
The intricate structure of the compound insect eye. The pronoun (even modifier) can refer back to the subject in prepositional phrase.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2018, 10:28
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@gmatbustrs


https://gmatclub.com/forum/can-a-pronou ... 16982.html

Akash wrote

Can a Pronoun refer to a Noun that is a part of a prepositional phrase


Doubt- How "it" can refer to "trouble" because "trouble" is a part of a prepositional phrase that acts as an Adjective - so how a Pronoun can refer to an adjective?

Dear DAakash7,

I'm happy to respond.

With all due respect, my friend, you are strictly following a rule that simply does not exist. I don't know whether some faulty source suggested that this should be a rule, but it's not. Grammar is hard enough! Don't complicate it further by introducing rules that don't exist!

Any noun anywhere in the sentence, in any role, can be the antecedent of a pronoun, as long as the noun is not in the possessive form. It doesn't matter whether the noun is the subject, the object of a verb, or the object of a prepositional phrase.

Hadyn's symphonies are ..... and he thought .... = mistake: antecedent in the possessive

The symphonies of Haydn are ... and he thought ... = 100% correct

It doesn't matter that "of Haydn" has more or less the same logical meaning as "Haydn's." The latter is in the possessive form, and cannot be an antecedent, but the former is not in the possessive form, so it can be the antecedent.

Does all this make sense?
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2018, 11:32
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The focus is a comparison between the insect eye and the vertebrate eye. Otherwise, we may wrongly lead to the weighing of a structure with some other eye
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 30 Aug 2018, 22:05
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hi experts,

1) here i feel it is ambiguously referring to both intricate structure and compound eye,
please throw some light on how u all are assuming that it refers to compound eye ?


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Originally posted by Cheryn on 30 Aug 2018, 21:13.
Last edited by Cheryn on 30 Aug 2018, 22:05, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2018, 21:33
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Cheryn wrote:
hi experts,

here i feel it is ambiguously referring to both intricate structure and compound eye,
please throw some light on how u all are assuming that it refers to compound eye ?

thanks

Hi Cheryn
I'm not an expert, but if my 2 cents could be of some help here.
The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

"having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia" modifies the entire preceding clause "The intricate structure of the compound insect eye"

The subject here in the sentence is "The intricate structure of the compound insect eye" which is singular.

IT basically refers back to the whole main subject i.e. a noun phrase here.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of   [#permalink] 30 Aug 2018, 21:33

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