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# The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig

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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]

Thanks for your response, however I am still confused in associating verb exhibits which is singular, with list.
Let me elaborate my query:
Prepositions list and animals are two nouns, joined by preposition of
As a thumb rule, to identify verb, I need to ignore prepositional phrase. Correct?
So here if I ignore of animals, I am left with main subject - List
Now you you already mentioned that list is singular subject, then did we use plural verb
exhibit since we took list of animals as plural subject?

Let me also try to separate clauses/ phrases:
Clause 1: The list of animals
that exhibits a preference of either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot)
(here, that modifies noun animals and is followed by verb - exhibits)

(remaining part of clause 1): has been expanded to include the lower vertebrates.
here, like you mentioned SV no agreement is correct verb is singular and the list (of animals) is singular
I am purposely putting prepositional phrase in bracket to lay stress that the list - subject.
Also present perfect tense correctly suggests an event, whose effect is still continuing.

The only way I see to resolve confusion is if that acts as subject for exhibits,
then it makes sense since modifers that refers to plural noun animals.
Let me know gaps in my understanding.
WR,
Arpit.

Hello Arpit,

Thank you for the query.

Yes indeed that acts as a subject for the verb exhibits. The word list takes the singular verb has been expanded.

The sentence has two clauses:

Cl. 1: The list of animals

Cl. 2: that exhibits a preference of either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot)

Cont. of Cl. 1: has been expanded to include the lower vertebrates.

Please bear in mind that a relative pronoun modifier always starts a dependent clause. In the above-mentioned official sentence, that acts as the subject of the clause that it starts. The usage of Relative Pronoun Modifiers has been covered elaborately with pertinent examples in the concept named Relative Pronoun Modifiers in the Modifiers block in our Sentence Correction course.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]

Have you came across any OG examples where in THAT can jump over a noun.

I know the other relative pronoun modifier - which definitely can.

WR,
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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]

Have you came across any OG examples where in THAT can jump over a noun.

I know the other relative pronoun modifier - which definitely can.

WR,
Arpit

Hello Arpit,

Yes of course. If which can jump, then why can't that?

Take a look at the following correct official sentence:

The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological response.

In the above-mentioned official sentence, that modifies emotional reactions.

But in the official question that we are discussing in this thread, that does not jump over the preceding noun. It modifies the immediate preceding noun animals.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
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I doubt that anybody here is interested in the actual substance of the sentence, but this is kind of interesting: it turns out that most blue whales are right-handed, but some species of kangaroo tend to be left-handed. Some cats are lefties and others are righties, but about 10% of cats are "just cats." I don't know what that means.

Anyway, if you need a break from grammar and want to read about "handedness" in animals, here you go: https://www.cnn.com/2017/11/21/world/wha ... index.html
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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
Guys sorry for asking a really dumb question but in option A why is the subject animals because i read that if a noun is in a prepositional phase it cannot be a subject.
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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
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Arunesh
Guys sorry for asking a really dumb question but in option A why is the subject animals because i read that if a noun is in a prepositional phase it cannot be a subject.
adkikani is correct in his spoiler! "Animals" is NOT the subject of the entire sentence, but it is the noun that "performs" the verb following "that": "animals that exhibit" is correct, not "animals that exhibits." See my explanation above for more: https://gmatclub.com/forum/qotd-the-lis ... l#p1861953.

And welcome to GMAT Club!!!
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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
Hello abhimahna ,

I often get confused when to use singular or when to use plural verb in such type of structure i.e "noun phrase that verb" or "Noun+Prep Phrase that verb"

for example of "One of the cars that are" this is always plural. Is it same for prep phrase or is it meaning that decide for such questions?

For ex "List of animals that exhibit a preference " here list cannot exhibit a preference so it would be animals only.

But whats your opinion regarding the same to solidify one's understanding.

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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
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Prashant10692

A context from this post might be useful.

When that is used a noun modifier, it can refer to a singular as well as a plural noun entity as we saw in the case of the two official sentences that you solved.

When that is used just as a pronoun, then it only refers to a singular noun entity.
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The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
In (B) and (E),
the list has been expanded and includes... how does this change the meaning?
if we ask '' the list has been expanded and what?
we can say --> ''the list has been expanded and includes another item (the lower vertebrates)''
the meaning seems okay. is my reasoning okay? please tell me more about on this issue. generis EducationAisle
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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
soxy_topacio
The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include the lower vertebrates.

A. exhibits a preference of wither using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include

B. exhibits the preference to use either the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded and includes

C. exhibit a preference in either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include

D. exhibit a preference for using either the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include

E. exhibit the preference as to either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded and includes

subject verb

The list of animals that exhibit or exhibits
list = singular
animals close to verb and plural so exhibit will be used

prallelism
either x or y used
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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include the lower vertebrates.

Meaning Analysis: There is a list. This list consists of animals that show a preference of using the right or the left hand (and by hand we mean claw, paw, or foot). This list has now been expanded so as to include the lower vertebrates (animals that law eggs in water)

Sentence Structure:
The list (Subject)
of animals (Prepositional phrase modifying the previous noun "the list")
that (relative pronoun referring to "animals")
exhibits (singular verb to plural noun "animals")
a preference (object of the sentence)
of either (parallelism marker "either...or")
using the right (element 1 of parallelism)
or (end of parallelism marker "either...or")
the left hand (element 2 of parallelism marker)
(i.e. claw, paw, or foot) (examples/definition of "hand")
has been expanded (verb of subject "the list")(present perfect tense)
to include (infinitive - showing purpose of expanding this list)
the lower vertebrates. (explains what was included in the list)

Quote:
A. exhibits a preference of either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include
We clearly have a SV error. The plural subject "animals" has the singular verb "exhibits". This error is a deterministic one. We also notice that the parallelism out here is not quite right as well. Either X or Y, in this construction X and Y both MUST be parallel. However, the first element is "using the right (hand)" and the other is "the left hand". The ideal way of writing it would be "using either the right or the left hand"

Note - we cannot assume "using" to be elipsed. i.e. we cannot assume the sentence to be "either using the right hand or (using) the left hand". WHY? Because what comes after "either" MUST come after "or" as well.

Quote:
B. exhibits the preference to use either the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded and includes
We again have the SV error of choice (A). The meaning of this choice is altered. Now the sentence essentially says that the list is expanded and the list includes. The cause (to include lower vertebrates) and the effect (expansion of list) is now lost.

I am also not sure why have we used the article the instead of a before "preference. "The" as an article is used to express something definite. E.g. "The book on the table is mine" Here I am talking about a specific book. But if we say "a book is made of paper" we are talking about books in general and not anything specific. Again, this probably isn't a deterministic error but it certainly makes this choice less desirable.

Quote:
C. exhibit a preference in either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include.
The parallelism error has been repeated.

Quote:
D. exhibit a preference for using either the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include
All errors have been rectified and no new errors are made. Let us hold on to it.

Quote:
E. exhibit the preference as to either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded and includes
The parallelism error and the meaning error has been repeated. We also see (the less important) article error.

I believe "as to" out here is correct. The idiom "so as to" means in order to and that would be incorrect out here. BUT "as to" by itself means "concerning" and it makes complete sense to say "preference concerning..."

Correct Choice: (D)
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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
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The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include the lower vertebrates.

A. exhibits a preference of either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include

B. exhibits the preference to use either the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded and includes

C. exhibit a preference in either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include

D. exhibit a preference for using either the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include

E. exhibit the preference as to either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded and includes

If we use “either” before a verb, we need to use a verb after “or”.

Ex- I will either go out or spend time at home.

We cannot say I will go either out or spend time at home.

We use “either” after the verb if the verb is common to both objects.

Ex- I will go either to the mall or to the park.

(the verb “go” is common to both the objects- mall and park)

In the given question, we are talking about the “use” of either the right hand or the left. Hence A, C, and E can be eliminated.

It is not the list but the animals that exhibit a preference. Eliminate all options that use the singular verb “exhibits”. Eliminate options A and B.

Option D corrects all the errors stated above. Hence, D is correct.
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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include the lower vertebrates.

A. exhibits a preference of wither using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include -> that modifies the closet noun, which is "animals". We need a plural verb. Incorrect.

B. exhibits the preference to use either the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded and includes -> Same as A. Incorrect.

C. exhibit a preference in either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include -> either X or Y used here. X and Y must be parallel. "using the right" and "the left hand" are not parallel. Incorrect.

D. exhibit a preference for using either the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include -> This is better. Let's keep it.

E. exhibit the preference as to either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded and includes -> Same error as C. Incorrect.

So, I think D.
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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include the lower vertebrates.
that - Vital noun modifier - that exhibits .... follows touch noun rule . that means it always modifies the touching noun. In this case , 'that' modifies animals. So, animals (plural) that exhibit ... is a right approach

A. exhibits a preference of either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include
Errors : exhibits -wrong , either using the right or the left hand - wrong. we should follow either X or Y.So, A is out

B. exhibits the preference to use either the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded and includes
B is out . It should be 'exhibit'.

C. exhibit a preference in either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include
Either using - wrong . We should follow 'either the right or the left hand'. C is out

D. exhibit a preference for using either the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded to include
Perfect

E. exhibit the preference as to either using the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded and includes
Same error as in C. e is out
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The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
If we change option E to : - exhibit the preference for using either the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded and includes, then will it be right?
Some experts please put your input here. I think it will be right as now the list includes vertebrates too.

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
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If we change option E to : - exhibit the preference for using either the right or the left hand (i.e. claw, paw, or foot) has been expanded and includes, then will it be right?
Some experts please put your input here. I think it will be right as now the list includes vertebrates too.

Posted from my mobile device

Hello AbhishekDhanraJ72,

We hope this finds you well.

To answer your query, the modified version of Option E is still incorrect.

The use of the phrase "and includes" incorrectly implies that the list has been expanded, and as a separate action includes the lower vertebrates; the intended meaning is that the list has been expanded for the purpose of including the lower vertebraes; remember, the infinitive verb form ("to + base form of verb" - "to + include" in this sentence) is the preferred construction for referring to the purpose/intent of an action.

We hope this helps.
All the best!
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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
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Re: The list of animals that exhibits a preference of either using the rig [#permalink]
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