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The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone

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The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 07 Oct 2018, 12:40
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The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, signed in 1987 by more than 150 nations, has attained its short-term goals: it has decreased the rate of increase in amounts of most ozone-depleting chemicals reaching the atmosphere and has even reduced the atmospheric levels of some of them. The projection that the ozone layer will substantially recover from ozone depletion by 2050 is based on the assumption that the protocol's regulations will be strictly followed. Yet there is considerable evidence of violations, particularly in the form of the release of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are commonly used in the refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning industries. These violations reflect industry attitudes; for example, in the United States, 48% of respondents in a recent survey of subscribers to Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration News, an industry trade journal, said that they did not believe that CFCs damage the ozone layer. Moreover, some in the industry apparently do not want to pay for CFC substitutes, which can run five times the cost of CFCs. Consequently, a black market in imported illicit CFCs has grown. Estimates of the contraband CFC trade range from 10,000 to 22,000 tons a year, with most of the CFCs originating in India and China, whose agreements under the Protocol still allow them to produce CFCs. In fact, the United States Customs Service reports that CFC-12 is a contraband problem second only to illicit drugs.

1. The passage suggests which of the following about the illicit trade in CFCs?

(A) It would cease if manufacturers in India and China stopped producing CFCs.
(B) Most people who participate in such trade do not believe that CFCs deplete the ozone layer.
(C) It will probably surpass illicit drugs as the largest contraband problem faced by the United States Customs Service.
(D) It is fostered by people who do not want to pay the price of CFC substitutes.
(E) It has grown primarily because of the expansion of the refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning industries in foreign countries.

Spoiler: :: OE
This question asks what the passage implies about the illicit trade in CFC's. The best answer is D.

The passage states that some industry members appear not to want to pay the price of CFC substitutes, and that consequently a black market in cheaper CFC's has emerged. This implies that the black market is fostered at least in part by those industry members who are unwilling to pay the higher price of CFC substitutes.

Choice A can be eliminated because the passage states that only that most contraband CFC's originate in India and China. This does not imply that the illicit trade in CFC's could not continue without manufacturers in those countries.

Choice B is not correct because the passage does not provide information about the beliefs of participants in the illicit CFC trade.

Choice C is incorrect because the passage states only that the United States Customs Service considers the illicit CFC trade to be a problem second only to the illicit drug trade; there is no suggestion in the passage that the illicit CFC trade is expected to develop into a larger problem than the illicit drug trade.

Choice E is incorrect because the passage attributes the growth of the illicit trade in CFC's to the high cost of CFC substitutes, not to an expansion of refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning industries in foreign countries.


2. According to the passage, which of the following best describes most ozone-depleting chemicals in 1996 as compared to those in 1987?

(A) The levels of such chemicals in the atmosphere had decreased.
(B) The number of such chemicals that reached the atmosphere had declined.
(C) The amounts of such chemicals released had increased but the amounts that reached the atmosphere had decreased.
(D) The rate of increase in amounts of such chemicals reaching the atmosphere had decreased.
(E) The rate at which such chemicals were being reduced in the atmosphere had slowed.

This question asks you to identify a claim that is made in the passage about ozone-depleting chemicals. The best answer is D. The passage, written in 1996, states that the rate of increase in amounts of most ozone-depleting chemicals reaching the atmosphere had been reduced since 1987. Choice A can be eliminated because the passage states that the atmospheric levels of some ozone-depleting chemicals has been reduced, not that the levels of most had been reduced. Choice B is incorrect because the actual number of different chemicals reaching the atmosphere is not provided in the passage, nor is it claimed that the number had declined. Choice C is not correct because the passage does not claim that there was an increase in the amounts of ozone-depleting chemicals released between 1987 and 1996. Choice E is incorrect because there is no indication in the passage that the rate of reduction of atmospheric chemicals had slowed between 1987 and 1996.



3. The author of the passage compares the smuggling of CFC’s to the illicit drug trade most likely for which of the following reasons?

(A) To qualify a previous claim
(B) To emphasize the extent of a problem
(C) To provide an explanation for an earlier assertion
(D) To suggest that the illicit CFC trade, likely the illicit drug trade, will continue to increase
(E) To suggest that the consequences of a relatively little-known problem are as serious as those of a well-known one






(The following is based on material written in 1996.)

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Originally posted by Bunuel on 23 Jun 2014, 09:07.
Last edited by bb on 07 Oct 2018, 12:40, edited 4 times in total.
Added Q3 and OA
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Re: The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2014, 09:08
1
Bunuel wrote:

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The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, signed in 1987 by more than 150 nations, has attained its short-term goals: it has decreased the rate of increase in amounts of most ozone-depleting chemicals reaching the atmosphere and has even reduced the atmospheric levels of some of them. The projection that the ozone layer will substantially recover from ozone depletion by 2050 is based on the assumption that the protocol's regulations will be strictly followed. Yet there is considerable evidence of violations, particularly in the form of the release of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are commonly used in the refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning industries. These violations reflect industry attitudes; for example, in the United States, 48% of respondents in a recent survey of subscribers to Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration News, an industry trade journal, said that they did not believe that CFCs damage the ozone layer. Moreover, some in the industry apparently do not want to pay for CFC substitutes, which can run five times the cost of CFCs. Consequently, a black market in imported illicit CFCs has grown. Estimates of the contraband CFC trade range from 10,000 to 22,000 tons a year, with most of the CFCs originating in India and China, whose agreements under the Protocol still allow them to produce CFCs. In fact, the United States Customs Service reports that CFC-12 is a contraband problem second only to illicit drugs.

Question
The passage suggests which of the following about the illicit trade in CFCs?

A. It would cease if manufacturers in India and China stopped producing CFCs.
B. Most people who participate in such trade do not believe that CFCs deplete the ozone layer.
C. It will probably surpass illicit drugs as the largest contraband problem faced by the United States Customs Service.
D. It is fostered by people who do not want to pay the price of CFC substitutes.
E. It has grown primarily because of the expansion of the refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning industries in foreign countries.

OA:


This question asks what the passage implies about the illicit trade in CFC's. The best answer is D. The passage states that some industry members appear not to want to pay the price of CFC substitutes, and that consequently a black market in cheaper CFC's has emerged. This implies that the black market is fostered at least in part by those industry members who are unwilling to pay the higher price of CFC substitutes.

Choice A can be eliminated because the passage states that only that most contraband CFC's originate in India and China. This does not imply that the illicit trade in CFC's could not continue without manufacturers in those countries.

Choice B is not correct because the passage does not provide information about the beliefs of participants in the illicit CFC trade.

Choice C is incorrect because the passage states only that the United States Customs Service considers the illicit CFC trade to be a problem second only to the illicit drug trade; there is no suggestion in the passage that the illicit CFC trade is expected to develop into a larger problem than the illicit drug trade.

Choice E is incorrect because the passage attributes the growth of the illicit trade in CFC's to the high cost of CFC substitutes, not to an expansion of refridgeration, heating, and air-conditioning industries in foreign countries.

Answer: D.
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Re: The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2017, 07:48
It is taken here.
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Re: The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2018, 07:12
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Question 1. The passage suggests which of the following about the illicit trade in CFCs?

(A) It would cease if manufacturers in India and China stopped producing CFCs.
Nowhere does it imply that the manufacture will cease worldwide if the two countries mentioned were to stop CFC production.
(B) Most people who participate in such trade do not believe that CFCs deplete the ozone layer.
We do not know what do these people think. We have no evidence of their opinion.
(C) It will probably surpass illicit drugs as the largest contraband problem faced by the United States Customs Service.
No comparison of rates of increase of illicit drugs and CFCs presented in the passage.
(D) It is fostered by people who do not want to pay the price of CFC substitutes.
Clearly implied in the passage.
(E) It has grown primarily because of the expansion of the refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning industries in foreign countries.
No reason for growth of CFCs is mentioned.


Question 2. According to the passage, which of the following best describes most ozone-depleting chemicals in 1996 as compared to those in 1987?

(A) The levels of such chemicals in the atmosphere had decreased.
Not mentioned in the passage.
(B) The number of such chemicals that reached the atmosphere had declined.
Not mentioned in the passage and what number?
(C) The amounts of such chemicals released had increased but the amounts that reached the atmosphere had decreased.
Passage failed to provide evidence for this answer choice.
(D) The rate of increase in amounts of such chemicals reaching the atmosphere had decreased.
Clearly mentioned in the passage: it has decreased the rate of increase in amounts of most ozone-depleting chemicals reaching the atmosphere.
(E) The rate at which such chemicals were being reduced in the atmosphere had slowed.
Not mentioned in the passage.


Question 3. The author of the passage compares the smuggling of CFC’s to the illicit drug trade most likely for which of the following reasons?

(A) To qualify a previous claim
No evidence for this answer choice is presented by the passage.
(B) To emphasize the extent of a problem.
Actually this is what it was intended for, it does imply the extent of the problem as it is compared with a known menace and ranks next to it.
(C) To provide an explanation for an earlier assertion.
No, no earlier assertion was explained by this comparison.
(D) To suggest that the illicit CFC trade, likely the illicit drug trade, will continue to increase.
No such increase is either indicated by the passage or implied by the author.
(E) To suggest that the consequences of a relatively little-known problem are as serious as those of a well-known one
No, this is not what was the intended purpose of the comparison.


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Re: The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2018, 20:36
workout Can you please explain question 3 ?
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Re: The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2018, 22:35
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MG1105 wrote:
workout Can you please explain question 3 ?


MG1105 Following is my analysis. Let me know what you think.

3. The author of the passage compares the smuggling of CFC’s to the illicit drug trade most likely for which of the following reasons?

(A) To qualify a previous claim

INCORRECT "Qualify a claim" means put more conditions/constraints on a claim. The mention of drug trade doesn't put any such conditions on the claim.

(B) To emphasize the extent of a problem

Correct Generally, we rank things to know the importance of each. The author ranks CFC-12 contraband problem to convey the extent of the CFC-12 problem. The words "only after" tells us the importance of the extent of the problem.

(C) To provide an explanation for an earlier assertion

INCORRECT No explanation was provided by mentioning drug trade

(D) To suggest that the illicit CFC trade, likely the illicit drug trade, will continue to increase

INCORRECT "will continue to increase" is problematic. There are no projections specified for either CFC-12 or drug trade.

(E) To suggest that the consequences of a relatively little-known problem are as serious as those of a well-known one

INCORRECT The presence of words "relatively little known" is problematic. There is no comparison presented and the consequences are not mentioned.
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Re: The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2018, 00:38
Thanks workout. I was confused between B & E. Now I understood the reason behind E being wrong.
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Re: The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2018, 05:49
1. The passage suggests which of the following about the illicit trade in CFCs?

Moreover, some in the industry apparently do not want to pay for CFC substitutes, which can run five times the cost of CFCs. Consequently, a black market in imported illicit CFCs has grown.

(D) It is fostered by people who do not want to pay the price of CFC substitutes.

------------------------------------------

2. According to the passage, which of the following best describes most ozone-depleting chemicals in 1996 as compared to those in 1987?

it has decreased the rate of increase in amounts of most ozone-depleting chemicals reaching the atmosphere and has even reduced the atmospheric levels of some of them.

(D) The rate of increase in amounts of such chemicals reaching the atmosphere had decreased.

-------------------------------------------------

3. The author of the passage compares the smuggling of CFC’s to the illicit drug trade most likely for which of the following reasons?

(B) To emphasize the extent of a problem - seems the best of the lot.
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Re: The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2018, 00:38
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fairly easy passage ... 4:52 Secs , all 3 correct.
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Re: The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone &nbs [#permalink] 11 Oct 2018, 00:38
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The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone

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