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# The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in

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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
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The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in that a single tree, depending on both its size and on climate and altitude, could produce enough berries to make between one and twelve pounds of dried beans a year.
A. enormously in that a single tree, depending on both its size and on climate and altitude, could produce
B. enormously in that a single tree, dependent on its size and also on climate and altitude, is able to produce
C. enormously, because a single tree, depending on its size and on climate and altitude, is able to produce
D. enormously, because a single tree, being dependent on its size, climate, and altitude, is capable of producing
E. enormously, because a single tree, dependent both on its size as well as on climate and altitude, could produce

1. I know that punctuation is not an important issue evaluated by the GMAT, but I have a doubt with the comma after "because" in OA choice. I know that, when a main clause is followed by a subordinate clause, both clauses are not separated by a comma. In other words: Main clause + subordinator + (subordinate clause). Why in this case is there a comma?, or is "because " an exception?, in which cases?
2. Is there a difference between "capable of v-ing" and "able to"?
3. How could we know that we should use "because" instead of "in that"?
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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
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In matters of speculation, ‘could produce’ is the preferred usage over the categorical ‘is able to, and ‘is capable of’ Hence B, C and D are out. Between A and E, in E, dependent on is inferior to depending on; Also both and as well as cannot go together. Both…. and is the correct usage.

Why there is a comma after tree? The phrase introduced by' depending on' is a modifier modifying the tree and hence is rather inessential to the main theme of the text tht the tree could produce widely ranging yields. That is perhaps the reason the authors chose to parenthesize the phrase between two commas.

2. Is there a difference between "capable of v-ing" and "able to"? Yes, some kind of technical differences. Capable of is preposition and hence the verb+ing will always be a gerund. Able to is an infinitive and hence the ‘to’ will always be followed by a verb.
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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
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PiyushK wrote:
NEW PROJECT!: Back to basic => Give your explanation- Get Kudos Point for best explanation

The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in that a single tree, depending on both its size and on climate and altitude, could produce enough berries to make between one and twelve pounds of dried beans a year.

A. enormously in that a single tree, depending on both its size and on climate and altitude, could produce
In that a single tree is awkward and doesn't convey the same meaning as because.
on both x and y NOT on both x and on Y.

B. enormously in that a single tree, dependent on its size and also on climate and altitude, is able to produce
In that a single tree is awkward and doesn't convey the same meaning as because.
on X and Y NOT on X and also Y.

C. enormously, because a single tree, depending on its size and on climate and altitude, is able to produce
correct.
D. enormously, because a single tree, being dependent on its size, climate, and altitude, is capable of producing
Being is wordy.
Climate and altitude seems to be characteristics of tree which is wrong.
is capable of producing is wordy.

E. enormously, because a single tree, dependent both on its size as well as on climate and altitude, could produce
The sentence seems to convey that tree itself is dependent on its size and ...
could produce changes the intended meaning.We are sure that tree is producing
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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
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The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in that a single tree, depending on both its size and on climate and altitude, could produce enough berries to make between one and twelve pounds of dried beans a year.
A. enormously in that a single tree, depending on both its size and on climate and altitude, could produce
B. enormously in that a single tree, dependent on its size and also on climate and altitude, is able to produce
C. enormously, because a single tree, depending on its size and on climate and altitude, is able to produce
D. enormously, because a single tree, being dependent on its size, climate, and altitude, is capable of producing
E. enormously, because a single tree, dependent both on its size as well as on climate and altitude, could produce

Note:
1:Dependent here changes here intended meaning.Sentence here means following:
Depending on blah blah, a single tree is able to ...

2:Here we need cause and effect to show the intended meaning so because is preffered.
[Effect]The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously. Why? Bec. a single tree could produce enough berries .... [Cause]

In that Vs Because:[By Ron]

X because Y means that there is an actual CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP, in which Y is/was the actual CAUSE of X.
X in that Y is a LIMITING STATEMENT. in these statements, x is usually something very general, but then the sentence LIMITS that statement to the scope of whatever Y is.

here are a couple of examples.

joe is a typical teenager in that he likes to watch a great deal of television.
--> MEANING: joe shares one thing with typical teenagers: namely, he likes to watch a lot of tv.

joe is a typical teenager because he likes to watch a great deal of television.
--> MEANING: joe's tv shows have actually CAUSED him to BECOME LIKE other teenagers.
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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
Hi sairam595, as I mentioned, there are couple of officially correct questions that use in that. Reiterating, when there is a straight causal connection (as is the case in the sentence under consideration), because is the way to go.

In the example you've quoted (parachute like membranes), if you analyze, you would realize that it's not a true causal connection.

Normally this distinction is easy. A very similar incorrect example:

The African elephant differs from Asian elephant because African elephant has larger ears.
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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in that a single tree, depending on both its size and on climate and altitude, could produce enough berries to make between one and twelve pounds of dried beans a year.

(A) enormously in that a single tree, depending on both its size and on climate and altitude, could produce Usage of "in that" is incorrect since we require a cause-effect marker such as "because". The items following "both" ie; "its size" and "on climate..." are not parallel. Eliminate.

(B) enormously in that a single tree, dependent on its size and also on climate and altitude, is able to produce Same error of using "in that" as in (A). Usage of "also" is redundant. Usage of "dependent" (which implies X depends on Y for support and not Y causes X) is incorrect. Eliminate.

(C) enormously, because a single tree, depending on its size and on climate and altitude, is able to produce Correct answer.

(D) enormously, because a single tree, being dependent on its size, climate, and altitude, is capable of producing Same error of using "dependent" as in (B). Eliminate.

(E) enormously, because a single tree, dependent both on its size as well as on climate and altitude, could produce Same error of using "dependent" as in (B) and (D). Eliminate.

Hope this helps.
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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
Hi!

Regarding the correct use of Able/Capable
I read here that we shouldn't "Able-Ability/Capable" for things

https://gmatclub.com/forum/artificial-i ... 91193.html

Is it a 100% true rule? since here the tree is able to produce .....

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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
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jcerdae wrote:
Hi!

Regarding the correct use of Able/Capable
I read here that we shouldn't "Able-Ability/Capable" for things

https://gmatclub.com/forum/artificial-i ... 91193.html

Is it a 100% true rule? since here the tree is able to produce .....

Hi jcerdae,

No, that is not a rule. We should view this as a meaning call. For example, even something like the battery is able to deliver 10 amperes of current is fine. Similarly, we would not have a problem with trees are able to produce oxygen/leaves/fruit.
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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
EducationAisle wrote:
Hi sairam595, as I mentioned, there are couple of officially correct questions that use in that. Reiterating, when there is a straight causal connection (as is the case in the sentence under consideration), because is the way to go.

In the example you've quoted (parachute like membranes), if you analyze, you would realize that it's not a true causal connection.

Normally this distinction is easy. A very similar incorrect example:

The African elephant differs from Asian elephant because African elephant has larger ears.

@EducatioAisle so you do believe that "in that" how is incorrect? I believe a "causal connection" as well as a "in the sense that" depiction both work out here
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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
Hoozan wrote:
@EducatioAisle so you do believe that "in that" how is incorrect? I believe a "causal connection" as well as a "in the sense that" depiction both work out here

Hi Hoozan, when I read this sentence, the sentence is answering the question why (the yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously?)

Hence, the usage of because is justified here.
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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
noboru wrote:
The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in that a single tree, depending on both its size and on climate and altitude, could produce enough berries to make between one and twelve pounds of dried beans a year.

(A) enormously in that a single tree, depending on both its size and on climate and altitude, could produce
(B) enormously in that a single tree, dependent on its size and also on climate and altitude, is able to produce
(C) enormously, because a single tree, depending on its size and on climate and altitude, is able to produce
(D) enormously, because a single tree, being dependent on its size, climate, and altitude, is capable of producing
(E) enormously, because a single tree, dependent both on its size as well as on climate and altitude, could produce

Hi! In C part, there is an ing modifier after comma. whenever ing modifier comes after comma it has to either modify the subject or show the result. but here it is doing nothing instead its modifying tree. Can you explain how this option is correct in light of the above doubt. AndrewN GMATNinja
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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
Hi! In C part, there is an ing modifier after comma. whenever ing modifier comes after comma it has to either modify the subject or show the result. but here it is doing nothing instead its modifying tree. Can you explain how this option is correct in light of the above doubt.
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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
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pk6969 wrote:
Hi! In C part, there is an ing modifier after comma. whenever ing modifier comes after comma it has to either modify the subject or show the result. but here it is doing nothing instead its modifying tree. Can you explain how this option is correct in light of the above doubt.

Hi pk6969, as you rightly mentioned, the present participial phrase ("depending on its size...") modifies a single tree. So, why do you say that it does nothing :).

I think you might be getting confused with the scenario wherein a present participial phrase (preceded by a comma) appears after a clause.

Here, this is not the case. In the sentence under consideration, present participial phrase follows a phrase ("a single tree") and hence modifies that phrase.

Another official example:

The completion in 1925 of the Holland Tunnel, linking Manhattan with New Jersey’s highways and permitting 2,000 cars to pass through each tube every hour, was hailed as the decade’s \$48 million engineering masterpiece.

In this case as well, the present participial phrase ("linking Manhattan with...") follows a phrase ("The completion in 1925 of the Holland Tunnel"). Again, as is very evident, this present participial phrase modifies Holland Tunnel.
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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
We can eliminate the choices with 'dependent' -- dependent is an adjective describing a single tree. However, it makes no sense to say a tree relies on its size for support.

We're looking for the participle 'depending': "...a single tree, depending on its size and on climate and altitude, is able to produce"

A has faulty parallelism:

depending on both its size and on climate and altitude

C fixes the parallelism issue:

depending on its size and on climate and altitude

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The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in that a single tree, depending on both its size and on climate and altitude, could produce enough berries to make between one and twelve pounds of dried beans a year.

(A) enormously in that a single tree, depending on both its size and on climate and altitude, could produce
(B) enormously in that a single tree, dependent on its size and also on climate and altitude, is able to produce
(C) enormously, because a single tree, depending on its size and on climate and altitude, is able to produce
(D) enormously, because a single tree, being dependent on its size, climate, and altitude, is capable of producing
(E) enormously, because a single tree, dependent both on its size as well as on climate and altitude, could produce

Hi Experts

Hi Experts

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In option B & C Verbed Modifier(dependent) and Verbing Modifier (depending) Both modifier modify the "Single tree" .
My doubt is is there any modifier difference between B and C?

And what exactly is wrong with option B (Please ignore "in that" and "Because" difference)

Originally posted by Vatsal7794 on 14 Mar 2023, 23:16.
Last edited by Vatsal7794 on 15 Mar 2023, 00:00, edited 1 time in total.
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The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
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Vatsal7794 wrote:
Hi Experts

In option B & C Verbed Modifier(dependent) and Verbing Modifier (depending) Both modifier the "Single tree" .
My doubt is is there any modifier difference between B and C?

And what exactly is wrong with option B (Please ignore "in that" and "Because" difference)

Here's (B).

(B) enormously in that a single tree, dependent on its size and also on climate and altitude, is able to produce

"A single tree, dependent on its size and also on climate and altitude" conveys that the tree is dependent on, in other words depends on, its size and also on climate and altitude.

So, the (B) version conveys that a tree, which depends on its size and also on climate and altitude, is able to produce enough berries to make between one and twelve pounds of dried beans a year.

Since it doesn't make sense that the tree depends on its size and also on climate and altitude and since there's no reason to drop information on what the tree depends on in the middle of the idea that the tree is able to produce enough berries to make between one and twelve pounds of dried beans a year, the meaning conveyed by the (B) version doesn't make sense.

Here's (C).

(C) enormously, because a single tree, depending on its size and on climate and altitude, is able to produce enough berries to make between one and twelve pounds of dried beans a year.

In this context "depending on" is used to convey that the quantity of berries, and thus the quantity of dried beans, the tree is able to produces depends on the size of the tree and on climate and altitude. In other words quantity of berries is a dependent variable that depends on those other variables. Since this meaning makes sense, the (C) version is correct.

That said, the (C) version could be worded better. To a degree it seems to convey that the tree is depending its size and on climate and altitude, a meaning that doesn't make sense. So, (C) is not worded ideally, but it's worded well enough to be the correct version.
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Re: The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in [#permalink]
Vatsal7794 wrote:
In option B & C Verbed Modifier(dependent) and Verbing Modifier (depending) Both modifier modify the "Single tree" .
My doubt is is there any modifier difference between B and C?

Hi Vatsal7794,

I agree that depending on introduces some ambiguity, but dependent is just plain wrong in this context.

We must keep in mind that such structures can sometimes be used to mean something different from what we'd normally expect. Have a look at the meaning of depending on and check whether you're more comfortable with option C.
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