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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu

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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or
sun drying, they are laid [they can point to ways or walls]
B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, to lay them [forming … and … to – not parallel]
C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or
sun drying, they were laid [ method has been having --- awkward]
D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, to lay them [ to form … and to lay – parallel - hold]
E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air
drying or sun drying, were laid [which incorrectly points clay]

Answer: D

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2009, 17:45
Hi, all. Please look at the following questions. I am having problems with the answer

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks our of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or
sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid.

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

OA: D






Why is 'D' the answer? Doesn't the 'and' after the comma create a sentence fragment as it lacks a subject and a verb?

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2010, 20:23
I've read the explaination of the below question, but I still don't understand it. If D is the correct answer, the sentence will look like this:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just
mud or clay, but the most extensively used method
has been to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them
in the wall in mud mortar.

Is the phrase "has been to form" correct? I think after "has been" should be a participle verb, shouldn't it?

Please help me crack this question!

Thanks,

Tuan.


=======================================================================
Question & explaination
11. There are several ways to build solid walls using just
mud or clay, but the most extensively used method
has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay,
and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

(A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid

(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them

(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they were laid

(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them

(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay,
which, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, were laid

Parallelism; Verb form
The purpose of the sentence is to describe the
historically most popular method of building
walls. Th e fi rst clause announces this topic and
the second clause describes the particular method.
The clearest, most effi cient way to accomplish
these two pieces of business is to use a parallel
structure. Th e ways to build in the fi rst clause is
narrowed to the single way to form and to lay in
the second clause. Th ere is no need to alternate
the verb phrases between active and passive voice
or to shift tenses.
A The active gerund phrase the forming of bricks
does not fi t with the passive verb phrase that
follows (they are laid).
B The verb phrases forming the mud … and to
lay them are not parallel.
C In addition to faulty parallelism between
having bricks formed and they were laid, the
tense in the second half of the sentence
unaccountably shifts from present to past.
D Correct. The phrases to form and to lay in
the second clause are parallel to to build in
the first clause.
E The relative clause beginning with which
apparently (but nonsensically) describes the
closest nouns, mud or clay, rather than bricks.

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2010, 08:55
-- Since the verb form used in the underlined sentence (first half) is 'has been' i.e. present participle, the another verb should be in consistent to that. Hence we can eliminate all the answer choices with 'laid' (simple past tense). We are left with B and D. B cannot be a correct answer choice because - 'forming mud and clay into bricks' is modifying mud and clay rather than bricks. That's why D is a correct answer choice which satisfies all the requirements.

The question can also be solved with help of parallel structure.


Thank You.

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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the forming - awkward (A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

forming will take laying as parallel(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

They were laid is incorrect, since it starts with - There are(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

parallelism and Tense(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

They were laid is incorrect, since it starts with - There are(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay,which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2012, 09:45
mlsbbe wrote:
Hi, all. Please look at the following questions. I am having problems with the answer

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks our of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or
sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid.

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

OA: D






Why is 'D' the answer? Doesn't the 'and' after the comma create a sentence fragment as it lacks a subject and a verb?



Strike 1 => Verb Tense => There are several ways => C & E out
Strike 2 => Parallelism => A ,B
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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There's a lot of fluff in this original sentence.

BUT - if you "cut the fluff" - it's a lot easier to read. You should read the sentence as:

"There are several ways to build solid walls using [method1], but the most extensively used method has been [method2], and [method3].

(A) is wrong because method1 cannot be "the forming" - the extraneous "the" needs to be removed. "Forming" in (B) is ok - but "forming" is not consistent with "to lay them"

Only in (D) is "to form" consistent with "to lay" -see video explanation for more details:

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2013, 08:20
daagh wrote:
The simple rule of coordinate conjunctions is that they join
1. two words ; e.g.: ‘Jack and Jill’ went up the hill
2. two phrases: e.g. : Jack wants ‘to eat the cake and(to) keep it too’, and
3. two ICs. E.g:Jack wants to play football with a hockey ball and Jill wants to play basketball with a hockey ball

The topic in context belongs to the second category of joining two phrases – ‘to form’ the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, ‘to lay’ them – to form and to lay – two infinitive phrases


Hi daagh,

One query pertains to the concepts you explained:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just
mud or clay
, but the most extensively used method
has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay
,
and,after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.


Three Independent Clauses Marked above in GREEN. Here "AND" is connecting clauses(2,3).

Clause2: Subject - method Verb-has been
Clause3: Subject - They Verb - are laid

My query is how on earth we can see "AND" as a parallel marker in this question when it connects two independent clauses.

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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mstfkvs wrote:
Although I did this question correct, I have a doubt on the usage of COMMA. The question is as follow:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.


A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid



My question is that in choice D, what is the role of the comma after "bricks". I can understand that the the red part is giving extra info about time, but I really did not understand the comma before "and". It seemed to me the sentence structure like this:



IC, Fanboys (But in this case) IC, AND to Verb


to verb // to verb seems OK, but what about the comma before and? The list is: to form X, and to lay Y



Hi Mustafa,

Let us see how the sentence looks when Option D is used.

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them in the wall in mud mortar.

Let us now look at the structure of this sentence.

    There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay,
    • but the most extensively used method has been
      o to form the
         mud or
         clay
      o into bricks, and
      o , after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them in the wall in mud mortar.


As you can see, the “and” in this sentence is connecting two entities in a list.

The entities are:
a. To form the mud or clay into bricks.
b. To lay them in the wall in mud mortar.

As you can see, the entities in the list are a bit longer than usual. Moreover, the first entity has another list embedded in it (mud or clay). So a comma is put before the “and” for a breathing pause.

So the comma before "and" is only to help us in identifying the main list.

Note that the presence of a “comma + and” in a sentence doesn’t necessarily indicate that two or more Independent Clauses are connected. (The above sentence, for instance)

However, if two or more Independent Clauses are present in a sentence, they are always connected by “comma + FANBOYS”.

Hope this helps :)

Regards,
Krishna
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2015, 18:30
here are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid
Incorrect. They logically is referring to "bricks", but grammatically it should be parallel to "the forming".
B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
Incorrect. forming is not parallel to "to lay".
C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid
Incorrect. No need of the past tense "were".
D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
Correct.
E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
Incorrect. which is referring to clay, but logically it should be referring to bricks.

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2015, 21:07
joemama142000 wrote:
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid




Could someone please explain why D.
I want to know which was the triggered word for parallelism, i guess it was "BUT".
If i'm right then,

There are X ways to build A By B&C, BUT the most extensively used method has been to form the A&B into Y, and , after something getting done....,to lay them.

I understood the above story, but what i couldn't understood how to spot the trigger word,
secondly, after have been could we use to form, it looks awakward, could some explain it.
Thank you in advance. :thanks

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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jaspreets wrote:
joemama142000 wrote:
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid




Could someone please explain why D.
I want to know which was the triggered word for parallelism, i guess it was "BUT".
If i'm right then,

There are X ways to build A By B&C, BUT the most extensively used method has been to form the A&B into Y, and , after something getting done....,to lay them.

I understood the above story, but what i couldn't understood how to spot the trigger word,
secondly, after have been could we use to form, it looks awakward, could some explain it.
Thank you in advance. :thanks




Q) There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay -------- Main Clause with Subject and verb

but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar ------ Dependent Clause

the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid----- Underlined portion



The parallelism trigerring word ....... AND (the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid)

What to make parallel---- To X and to Y i.e. To form and to lay

Guess it helps

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2015, 15:37
dlee156 wrote:
I think the answer could be D or E.

bricks were formed ..... bricks were laid (parallel?)

Please correct me if i'm wrong. Can someone tell me why E is incorrect? i thought the OA is E


As has been previously mentioned, choice E is not the credited response. However, others have just said things such as "it feels awkward." Accordingly, I wanted to take a few moments to really criticize choice E.

Choice E would be:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid in the wall in mud mortar.

One important criticism I wish to make of E is the ", which." Comma which (hereinafter "cw") forms a modifier. Look at the following sentence:

"Last year I visited India in the autumn, which is a great country."

This sentence seems to indicate that the autumn is a great country. What you mean to indicate is that India is a great country. It would be far better to say:

"Last autumn I visited India, which is a great country."
---------------

In sentence E, the cw seems to modify the word "clay" and that the clay "were laid in the wall in mud mortar."

Clearly what we mean to say is that the bricks were laid in the wall, not the clay.

I urge you, and all prospective GMAT test takers, to be very suspicious of the cw. Statistically it is used wrongly in the GMAT far more often than it is used correctly.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2016, 04:30
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid - Incorrect Comparison

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them -Incorrect Comparison

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid - Incorrect Comparison

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid -Incorrect - 'that' is a relative clause/ 'were' changes the tense "extensively used method has been"

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2017, 17:48
Please, follow the rules when posting and merging topics!
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2017, 18:02
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid
--> article the is redundant. out of is wrong.

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
--> forming is not parallel to to lay them.

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid
--> having bricks formed is awkward. There is no proper reason to use past tense here.

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
--> correct.

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay , which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
--> There is no proper reason to use past tense here. , which, wrongly modifies mud or clay.

Hope it makes clear!
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2017, 20:05
joemama142000 wrote:
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid


A The "and" conjunction connects a complex infinitive with an independent clause.
B The simple gerund in this phrase is not parallel with the infinitive "to lay them"
C The past tense "they were laid" doesn't make sense with the present progressive, a tense which implies the action has continued up to the present.
D Correct.
E "Which" modifies the clay, but in fact the brings were the ones that "were laid."

Kudos [?]: 12 [0], given: 21

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2017, 08:25
I selected D because: "to form" parallel to "to lay"
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NOTE: I am not an expert, therefore my analysis answering the questions may be incorrect and may not be relied upon. However I will appreciate if you can correct the mistakes I may have made in my analysis.

Kudos [?]: 8 [0], given: 1

Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu   [#permalink] 22 Jun 2017, 08:25
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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu

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