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# To decrease the number of crimes in city Y, the city's

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Manager
Joined: 28 Mar 2009
Posts: 68
To decrease the number of crimes in city Y, the city's  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 08 Aug 2013, 22:25
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Question Stats:

80% (00:53) correct 20% (00:48) wrong based on 456 sessions

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To decrease the number of crimes in city Y, the city's Police Commissioner proposed taking some police officers from low-crime districts of the city and moving them to high-crime districts of the city. His proposal is based on city Y crime data that show that the number of crimes in any district of the city decreases when additional police officers are moved into that district.

The Police Commissioner's proposal depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) City X experienced a drastic reduction in crime after implementing a proposal similar to that proposed by the Police Commissioner of city Y.

(B) The severity of crimes committed in any district of the city decreases when additional police officers are moved into that district.

(C) The number of crimes committed in all high-crime districts of city Y is more than triple the number of crimes committed in all low-crime districts of city Y.

(D) There are more low-crime districts than high-crime districts in city Y.

(E) Districts of the city from which police officers are removed do not experience significant crime increases shortly after the removal of those officers.

Originally posted by skim on 27 Jun 2009, 22:39.
Last edited by pqhai on 08 Aug 2013, 22:25, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: NUmber of crimes in City Y  [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2009, 00:05
I would go with "E".

We know: (1) Police are trying to decrease crimes. (2) Propose to take police from low crime areas and move to high crime areas. (3) Study shows that additional police = decrease in crimes.

From the given info we can sort of guess that the issue with the plan is that by taking police away from low crime areas, they may in fact see an increase in crimes (b/c the new plan would take additional police away).
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Re: NUmber of crimes in City Y  [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2009, 00:07
skim wrote:
To decrease the number of crimes in city Y, the city's Police Commissioner proposed taking some police officers from low-crime districts of the city and moving them to high-crime districts of the city. His proposal is based on city Y crime data that show that the number of crimes in any district of the city decreases when additional police officers are moved into that district.
The Police Commissioner's proposal depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) City X experienced a drastic reduction in crime after implementing a proposal similar to that proposed by the Police Commissioner of city Y.
(B) The severity of crimes committed in any district of the city decreases when additional police officers are moved into that district.
(C) The number of crimes committed in all high-crime districts of city Y is more than triple the number of crimes committed in all low-crime districts of city Y.
(D) There are more low-crime districts than high-crime districts in city Y.
(E) Districts of the city from which police officers are removed do not experience significant crime increases shortly after the removal of those officers.

I would have to go with (E). The goal is to decrease overall crime levels. If low-crime districts will become high-crime districts following the redeployment of cops, then there is no sense moving cops around, because the overall crime level will be unlikely to decrease.

Now a look at the the other answers:
(A) It certainly helps that there is precedence for success in this type of operation, but this particular plan's success does not depend on this assumption. The plan will automatically fall apart if it wasn't successful in city X.
(B) We're talking about the number of crimes, so I don't think severity has much relevance.
(C) Again, using the negation test (or whatever its called), if this wasn't true, the argument doesn't fall apart.
(D) Again, negation test suggests this doesn't necessary make the argument succeed or fail.

(E) is stronger than any other argument available.
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Re: To decrease the number of crimes in city Y, the city's  [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2013, 03:06
(A) City X experienced a drastic reduction in crime after implementing a proposal similar to that proposed by the Police Commissioner of city Y

if we negate these option choice

City X does not experienced a drastic reduction in crime after implementing a proposal similar to that proposed by the Police Commissioner of city Y

still argument will fall apart because argument clearly states that

"the number of crimes in any district of the city decreases when additional police officers are moved into that district. "

argument clearly uses term "any"
so how can option "A" be wrong..
it also plays a good role of strengthen question.
but after negating it is destroying conclusion as well.
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Re: To decrease the number of crimes in city Y, the city's  [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2013, 21:37
WarriorGmat wrote:
(A) City X experienced a drastic reduction in crime after implementing a proposal similar to that proposed by the Police Commissioner of city Y

if we negate these option choice

City X does not experienced a drastic reduction in crime after implementing a proposal similar to that proposed by the Police Commissioner of city Y

still argument will fall apart because argument clearly states that

"the number of crimes in any district of the city decreases when additional police officers are moved into that district. "

argument clearly uses term "any"
so how can option "A" be wrong..
it also plays a good role of strengthen question.
but after negating it is destroying conclusion as well.

if you negate option A:
City X does not experienced a drastic reduction in crime after implementing a proposal similar to that proposed by the Police Commissioner of city Y

CONCLUSION is there will be reduction in crime and not drastic reduction.
thats why this doesnt shatters the conclusion.

hope this helps
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Re: To decrease the number of crimes in city Y, the city's  [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2013, 23:15
WarriorGmat wrote:
argument clearly uses term "any"
so how can option "A" be wrong..
it also plays a good role of strengthen question.
but after negating it is destroying conclusion as well.

The reason that A is wrong is because it refers to City X, which was never mentioned in the paragraph. The question stem asks us to find the necessary assumption upon which the commissioner's policy for City Y is based. We have no idea about the circumstances of City X's implementation of a "similar" policy; it could be for other reasons that the policy had the intended effect. It really doesn't matter because the circumstances of City X are not necessary for the policy to work in City Y.

The necessary assumption in this case is clearly E, because unless the removal of the police from peaceful areas does not increase the crime rate in those areas, the policy will not work because crime will rise in the originally highly policed areas. In other words, the commissioner is making the necessary assumption that crime free areas will remain crime free, despite losing policing resources to crime filled areas.

Remember, every assumption question refers to a necessary assumption. That means without this assumption the argument will not stand.

A good test for determining necessity is to ask yourself "must this be the case?" Apply this simple method to answer choice A: must it be the case that for City Y's policy to work it also worked for City X? Clearly, this doesn't have to be the case. It is perfectly possible that the policy works in City Y and does not work in City X. Having established that answer choice A is not necessary, we can confidently eliminate it from our choices. If it isn't necessary to the argument, it isn't the correct answer. Apply the same method to E and you will realize that E is necessary for the commissioner's argument to stand.
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Re: To decrease the number of crimes in city Y, the city's  [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2013, 01:52
1
The Police Commissioner's proposal hopes to decrease the number of crimes in
city Y by shifting police officers from low-crime to high-crime districts. His
proposal is based on data that demonstrate that crime decreases when
additional police officers are moved into a district. However, the data do not
mention anything about the effect on the districts from which the police officers
were removed. The commissioner's plan is based on the assumption that the
movement of police officers will not have any adverse effects on the low-crime
districts.
(A) While it is encouraging that a similar plan worked successfully in City X, this
fact is certainly not essential for the success of the plan in City Y. The cities may
be so different as to make the comparison meaningless.
(B) The police commissioner's proposal is focused solely on decreasing the
number of crimes in city Y. The severity of the crimes has no bearing on whether
the commissioner's proposal will succeed or not.
(C) The actual numerical distinction between high and low-crime areas of the city
is immaterial to the commissioner's proposal. For instance, if the number of
crimes committed in all high crime districts was only double (instead of more than
triple) the number of crimes committed in low crime districts, the proposal could
still be valid.
(D) It would be practically beneficial to the commissioner's plan if there were
more low crime than high crime districts in city Y. This would enable the
movement of police officers to every high crime district. However, this is not
necessary to achieve the commissioner's goal of decreasing the total number of
crimes in city Y. Even if there were more high-crime districts than low-crime
districts in city Y, police officers could still be shifted to some (though not all)
high-crime districts, and thereby possibly reduce the total number of crimes in
city Y.
(E) CORRECT. The police commissioner's proposal would not make sense if
districts of the city from which police officers are removed experience significant
crime increases shortly after the removal of those officers. This would at least
partially, if not fully, negate the reduction in the number of crimes in the highcrime
districts. This choice establishes that, in fact, the low-crime districts do
NOT suffer from significant crime increases after the removal of some officers--
an essential assumption upon which the commissioner's proposal depends.
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Posts: 103
Re: To decrease the number of crimes in city Y, the city's  [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2018, 03:01
Hope your preparation is going well.
To solve such questions, the first step should be to read the question.
1. The question gives you clarity about the task. In this case, it is asked to identify the assumption. The role of the assumption is to the bridge the gap that exists between premise and conclusion.
2. Next, the argument should be understood.
While reading the argument, the following pattern can be observed
Planning Pattern
Premise – There is a plan to solve the problem.
Conclusion –Do the plan!!
Assumption- there is no problem with the plan
Weakening- Identify problems with the plan
Strengthening- provide solutions to the problems
Let us see the application
The commissioner intends to decrease the number of crimes by moving the police officers from low crime to high crime districts. The proposal of the commissioner is based on the data of city Y which shows that employing additional forces helps to reduce crimes.
.However, the data do not mention anything about the effect on the districts from which the police officers were removed. This is the flaw/gap/loophole present in the argument .The role of the assumption is to bridge this gap. So, in this case it is assumed that movement of police officers will not have any negative effect on the low crime districts and the plan is going to work.
3. The next step is to predict the answer
The plan is going to work or there is no problem with the plan.
4. Eliminate the incorrect choices and reach to the right one
A –This choice is out of scope. The argument nowhere discusses about City X. This analogy is not bridging any gap.
B – The commissioner’s plan intends to reduce number of crimes in city Y .The severity of the crimes is not discussed in the argument. This choice can also be eliminated as it is out of scope.
C-The comparison drawn between high and low crime areas of the city does not influence the commissioner’s decision.
D- This answer choice has no relevance in the discussion and hence is out of scope.

Hope it helps. Please get in touch if you require further help.
Keep practicing.
All the best!!
PythaGURUS Faculty Team
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