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Travelers from Earth to Mars would have to endure low

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Travelers from Earth to Mars would have to endure low  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2018, 12:39
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Travelers from Earth to Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoiding large doses of radiation, plus contending with the chemically reactive Martian soil, and perhaps even ward off contamination by Martian life-forms.

A. Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoiding large doses of radiation, plus contending
B. Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, contend
C. Mars, having to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, would also have to avoid large doses of radiation, plus contending
D. Mars, having to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, plus contend
E. Mars, who would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, contend with

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Re: Travelers from Earth to Mars would have to endure low  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2018, 12:48
IMO B
Parallelism - endure, avoid, contend with
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Re: Travelers from Earth to Mars would have to endure low  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2018, 12:59
Hello Everyone!

This looks like a great example of a question that focuses on parallel structure! Whenever we see a question with a long list, parallelism is a great place to start narrowing down wrong answers.

Let's break down each answer to rule out answers that don't use parallel structure. We know that every item in the list has to be parallel to the one item on the list that isn't underlined: "ward off." Since we cannot change that part, we need to match all other items in the list to that!

A. Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoiding large doses of radiation, plus contending --> NOT PARALLEL
B. Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, contend --> PARALLEL
C. Mars, having to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, would also have to avoid large doses of radiation, plus contending --> NOT PARALLEL
D. Mars, having to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, plus contend --> PARALLEL
E. Mars, who would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, contend with --> PARALLEL

We can rule out answers A and C for lacking parallel structure!

Okay, so this narrows things down a bit! Let's break down any other problems with answer B, D, and E:

B. Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, contend

This is CORRECT! It uses parallel structure and includes a verb to make this a complete sentence.

D. Mars, having to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, plus contend

This is INCORRECT because by adding the comma and changing the verb to the gerund "having," this is now just one long run-on sentence. It is missing a verb!

E. Mars, who would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, contend with

This is also INCORRECT because the comma turns this into a long run-on sentence that is missing a verb.


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Re: Travelers from Earth to Mars would have to endure low  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2018, 21:30
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Re: Travelers from Earth to Mars would have to endure low  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2018, 00:54
Travelers from Earth to Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoiding large doses of radiation, plus contending with the chemically reactive Martian soil, and perhaps even ward off contamination by Martian life-forms.

A. Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoiding large doses of radiation, plus contending (Items in red are not parallel)
B. Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, contend (correct)
C. Mars, having to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, would also have to avoid large doses of radiation, plus contending (Items in red are not parallel)
D. Mars, having to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, plus contend (Lack of main verb)
E. Mars, who would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, contend with (Travelers would have endure low levels of gravity not mars)
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Re: Travelers from Earth to Mars would have to endure low  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2018, 20:51
Travelers from Earth to Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoiding large doses of radiation, plus contending with the chemically reactive Martian soil, and perhaps even ward off contamination by Martian life-forms.

A. Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoiding large doses of radiation, plus contending
B. Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, contend
C. Mars, having to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, would also have to avoid large doses of radiation, plus contending
D. Mars, having to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, plus contend
E. Mars, who would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, contend with

The sentence explains a Hypothetical situation, hence a "would" is appropriate. C & D are out

In the non-underlined portion, we see "and" & "ward off", signalling a parallel structure, going by the meaning of the sentence, we require the three actions

i) to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time
ii) to avoid large doses of radiation
iii) to contend with the chemically reactive Martian soil

parallel to "ward off contamination by Martian life-forms"

A does not maintain parallelism

Between B & E.

E is redundant, no need of "who".

B is more concise & hence correct.


Answer B.


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Re: Travelers from Earth to Mars would have to endure low  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2018, 06:53
BFR wrote:
Travelers from Earth to Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoiding large doses of radiation, plus contending with the chemically reactive Martian soil, and perhaps even ward off contamination by Martian life-forms.

A. Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoiding large doses of radiation, plus contending
B. Mars would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, contend
C. Mars, having to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, would also have to avoid large doses of radiation, plus contending
D. Mars, having to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, plus contend
E. Mars, who would have to endure low levels of gravity for long periods of time, avoid large doses of radiation, contend with

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Only B can be answer. avoiding can't modify previous part. A out. rest choices does not make any sense at all.
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Re: Travelers from Earth to Mars would have to endure low &nbs [#permalink] 31 Jul 2018, 06:53
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