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Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre

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Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that prevents direct observation of its surface. For years, surface telescopes on Earth could glean no information about the surface of Venus. In 1989, the Magellan probe was launched to do a five-year radar-mapping of the entire surface of Venus. The data that emerged provided by far the most detailed map of the Venusian surface ever seen.

The surface shows an unbelievable level of volcanic activity: over one hundred large shield volcanoes, many more than Earth has, and a solidified river of lava longer than the Nile. The entire surface is volcanically dead, with not a single active volcano. This surface is relatively young in planetary terms, about 300 million years old. The whole surface, planet-wide, is the same age: the even pattern of craters, randomly distributed across the surface, demonstrates this.

To explain this puzzling surface, Turcotte suggested a radical model. The surface of Venus, for a period, is as it is now, a surface of uniform age with no active volcanism. While the surface is fixed, volcanic pressure builds up inside the planet. At a certain point, the pressure ruptures the surface, and the entire planet is re-coated in lava in a massive planet-wide outburst of volcanism. Having spent all this thermal energy in one gigantic outpouring, the surface cools and hardens, again producing the kind of surface we see today. Turcotte proposed that this cycle repeated several times in the past, and would still repeat in the future.

To most planetary geologists, Turcotte's model is a return to catastrophism. For two centuries, geologist of all kinds fought against the idea of catastrophic, planet-wide changes, such as the Biblical idea of Noah's Flood. The triumph of gradualism was essential to the success of geology as a serious science. Indeed, all features of Earth's geology and all feature of other moons and planets in the Solar System, even those that are not volcanically active, are explained very well by current gradualist models. Planetary geologists question why all other objects would obey gradualist models, and only Venus would obey a catastrophic model. These geologists insist that the features of Venus must be able to be explained in terms of incremental changes continuously over a long period.

Turcotte, expecting these objections, points out that no incremental process could result in a planet-wide surface all the same age. Furthermore, a slow process of continual change does not well explain why a planet with an astounding history of volcanic activity is now volcanically dead. Turcotte argues that only his catastrophic model adequately explains the extremes of the Venusian surface.
Q1 The author implies which of the following about Geology as a science?
A. its legitimacy as a scientific discipline is not well established

B. its proper field is Earth, and therefore its analyses of other planets and moons is more speculative

C. it did not find, in previous religious models of the Earth, a sound basis for analytical theories

D. it can deduce everything about the surface of Mercury purely from Earth-based observations

E. its success derives from surviving exposure to major catastrophes





Q2 Which of the following does the passage imply about the surface of Earth's Moon
A. it is not a proper object for geological investigation

B. volcanic activity in the past caused sudden changes

C. most of the features can be best explained by a single all-encompassing event

D. the uneven pattern of cratering indicates different regions of surface are different ages

E. the core of the Moon has no accumulated thermal pressure



Q3 In the context of the passage as a whole, the purpose of the second paragraph is
A. provide substantial support for Turcotte's model

B. suggest systematic flaws in the data provided by the Magellan probe

C. call into question geologist's understanding of how volcanoes develop

D. argue for the presence of several incremental changes over time

E. present a seemingly incongruous set of scientific observations




Q4 Which of the following would constitute evidence against Turcotte's model?
A. the success of gradualist models explaining the surface of Mars

B. an even more detailed map of the surface of Venus

C. an even longer river of lava on Io, a moon of Jupiter

D. a few active volcanoes on Ishtar Terra, a continent on Venus

E. a volcano on Earth releasing a massive burst of thermal energy all at once


[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA

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Last edited by broall on 01 Jun 2017, 08:30, edited 8 times in total.
Reformatted question

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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2015, 00:03
Please post OA and OE.

I got: A D A E

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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2015, 00:30
my take

C D E E

what are the OA and OE.

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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2015, 07:55
my ans are--- B D D A.
please provide oa n oe.

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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2015, 22:40
honchos please provide the answers and explanations.

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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2015, 08:35
My answers are A D E D ... please provide OAs ...

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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2015, 10:20
Hey Honchos,

My take A D E A.

Please post OA.....

honchos wrote:
Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that prevents direct observation of its surface. For years, surface telescopes on Earth could glean no information about the surface of Venus. In 1989, the Magellan probe was launched to do a five-year radar-mapping of the entire surface of Venus. The data that emerged provided by far the most detailed map of the Venusian surface ever seen.

The surface shows an unbelievable level of volcanic activity: over one hundred large shield volcanoes, many more than Earth has, and a solidified river of lava longer than the Nile. The entire surface is volcanically dead, with not a single active volcano. This surface is relatively young in planetary terms, about 300 million years old. The whole surface, planet-wide, is the same age: the even pattern of craters, randomly distributed across the surface, demonstrates this.

To explain this puzzling surface, Turcotte suggested a radical model. The surface of Venus, for a period, is as it is now, a surface of uniform age with no active volcanism. While the surface is fixed, volcanic pressure builds up inside the planet. At a certain point, the pressure ruptures the surface, and the entire planet is re-coated in lava in a massive planet-wide outburst of volcanism. Having spent all this thermal energy in one gigantic outpouring, the surface cools and hardens, again producing the kind of surface we see today. Turcotte proposed that this cycle repeated several times in the past, and would still repeat in the future.

To most planetary geologists, Turcotte's model is a return to catastrophism. For two centuries, geologist of all kinds fought against the idea of catastrophic, planet-wide changes, such as the Biblical idea of Noah's Flood. The triumph of gradualism was essential to the success of geology as a serious science. Indeed, all features of Earth's geology and all feature of other moons and planets in the Solar System, even those that are not volcanically active, are explained very well by current gradualist models. Planetary geologists question why all other objects would obey gradualist models, and only Venus would obey a catastrophic model. These geologists insist that the features of Venus must be able to be explained in terms of incremental changes continuously over a long period.

Turcotte, expecting these objections, points out that no incremental process could result in a planet-wide surface all the same age. Furthermore, a slow process of continual change does not well explain why a planet with an astounding history of volcanic activity is now volcanically dead. Turcotte argues that only his catastrophic model adequately explains the extremes of the Venusian surface.

Q1 The author implies which of the following about Geology as a science?
A. its legitimacy as a scientific discipline is not well established

B. its proper field is Earth, and therefore its analyses of other planets and moons is more speculative

C. it did not find, in previous religious models of the Earth, a sound basis for analytical theories

D. it can deduce everything about the surface of Mercury purely from Earth-based observations

E. its success derives from surviving exposure to major catastrophes



Q2 Which of the following does the passage imply about the surface of Earth's Moon
A. it is not a proper object for geological investigation

B. volcanic activity in the past caused sudden changes

C. most of the features can be best explained by a single all-encompassing event

D. the uneven pattern of cratering indicates different regions of surface are different ages

E. the core of the Moon has no accumulated thermal pressure



Q3 In the context of the passage as a whole, the purpose of the second paragraph is
A. provide substantial support for Turcotte's model

B. suggest systematic flaws in the data provided by the Magellan probe

C. call into question geologist's understanding of how volcanoes develop

D. argue for the presence of several incremental changes over time

E. present a seemingly incongruous set of scientific observations



Q4 Which of the following would constitute evidence against Turcotte's model?
A. the success of gradualist models explaining the surface of Mars

B. an even more detailed map of the surface of Venus

C. an even longer river of lava on Io, a moon of Jupiter

D. a few active volcanoes on Ishtar Terra, a continent on Venus

E. a volcano on Earth releasing a massive burst of thermal energy all at once

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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2017, 07:43
A D A D.
Please post the OAs.

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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2017, 09:35
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My take is C,D,E,D..OA Please

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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2017, 11:08
shuzy wrote:
OA please. I got AEED

Sent from my Lenovo A7020a48 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app

Sorry I got CEED

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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2017, 12:37
sobby wrote:
My take is C,D,E,D..OA Please

Dear sobby,

I'm happy to respond. :-) I am the author of this question and I just posted the OAs. All four of your answers are correct. Congratulations.

Mike :-)
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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2017, 12:41
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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2017, 13:28
Thanks for sharing this good post

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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2017, 12:21
carcass wrote:
The passage has completely different questions from the original source. You can find it here at this page. Moreover, it is LSAT passage and NOT GMAT

https://magoosh.com/lsat/2017/lsat-practice-quiz/

Dear carcass,

I'm happy to respond, my intelligent colleague. :-)

As we often do at Magoosh, we use the same content across different tests, if it's appropriate. There are math problems I have written that appear in our products for the GMAT, the GRE, the SAT, the ACT, and others. If the question is valid for more than one test, there's no reason not to use it for more than one test. This passage was written for the Magoosh GMAT product and is also used in the GRE product and the LSAT product. To tell you the truth, I don't think it's the most LSAT-like passage. We are currently in the process of improving the content in the LSAT product, and I don't know whether this passage will make the final cut, even though it performs exeptionally well in the GMAT product. I guarantee that all of these questions here are questions that are live in our GMAT product.

I don't know whether you have a Magoosh GMAT account. These questions posted above can be seen here:
Question 1
Question 2
Question 3
Question 4
In the Magoosh GMAT product, questions #1, 2, and 4 are exceptionally strong questions, in terms of the item response statistics. These are not publicly available questions, as I usually post, so if you don't have a Magoosh GMAT account, you will be locked out of access to these questions.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2017, 08:18
Hi mikemcgarry,

I got the second and the fourth question incorrect. I was hoping if you could help me understand, what did I miss out that led to the wrong answer. Ihave presented my understanding for the elimination or selection of each AC in red.

Q2
Which of the following does the passage imply about the surface of Earth's Moon
A. it is not a proper object for geological investigation Out of Scope

B. volcanic activity in the past caused sudden changes There is no information about this with regard to Venus, so cant draw an inference

C. most of the features can be best explained by a single all-encompassing event I chose this one, because this was the one which was left after eliminating all the choices

D. the uneven pattern of cratering indicates different regions of surface are different agesThough the converse is said for Venus. I am unsure as to how this was deduced for the Moon. The Gradualism Model states that all the other planets and moons keep undergoing gradual change.

E. the core of the Moon has no accumulated thermal pressureCant be inferred for the moon

Q4

Which of the following would constitute evidence against Turcotte's model?
A. the success of gradualist models explaining the surface of MarsI chose this one as this would go against the catastrophic model which is being advocated by TC

B. an even more detailed map of the surface of VenusDoes not really help in proving TC Model is wrong

C. an even longer river of lava on Io, a moon of JupiterDoes not really help in proving TC Model is wrong

D. a few active volcanoes on Ishtar Terra, a continent on VenusCan you please explain how this would go against the TC Model. I can not seem to wrap my head around this one

E. a volcano on Earth releasing a massive burst of thermal energy all at onceInconclusive in proving the TC model as incorrect.

Regards

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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2017, 11:28
Dear targetharvard,

I'm happy to respond. :-) You have a most intriguing screenname. :-)

For #2, you correctly eliminated (A), (B), and (E). Let's talk about (C) & (D). Of course, the passage itself says virtually nothing about Earth's Moon.
C. most of the features can be best explained by a single all-encompassing event
The idea of a "single all-encompassing event" sounds a lot like "catastrophic, planet-wide changes, such as the Biblical idea of Noah's Flood." This is precisely what geologists have fought most vigorously--the catastrophist model. We are told that, besides possible the special case of Venus, everything else in the Solar System can be explained with the gradualist model. Thus, we know quite clearly this answer is incorrect.

D. the uneven pattern of cratering indicates different regions of surface are different ages
Your comment: Though the converse is said for Venus. I am unsure as to how this was deduced for the Moon. The Gradualism Model states that all the other planets and moons keep undergoing gradual change.
First of all, yes, clearly this is converse for what was said for Venus: same cratering over whole surface means the surface is all the same age, so different patterns of cratering in different places means different areas of surface are different ages.
I would say: be very careful about what assumptions you impose on the reading. Consider these two view of Gradualism:
(a) All changes in geology can be explained by gradual changes, and all these changes are still happening at the same rate
(b) All changes in geology can be explained by gradual changes, even if most changes have come to an end
Notice that the passage doesn't address this difference, so we can't say that it definitely means one or the other. In fact, it suggests that both can be true, depending on the planet or moon. (In scientific fact, (a) is true for Earth and (b) is true for the Moon.)
Furthermore, why would different surfaces of different ages not be due to gradual changes? Let's say that at some point in the far distant past, the Moon had some surface that was pock-marked by craters during a period when cratering was heavy. Then, the rate of cratering abated. Then the Moon had some big volcanos, that spilled a bunch of lava over some places, covering the craters there. All of these are gradual changes--that is changes dependent on specific local events (one crater, one volcano) happening at different times rather than catastrophic all-at-once events that involve the entire planet or moon.
(BTW, in our best understand of astrophysics, this is more or less what happened to the Moon: the darker "seas" of lava and the lighter cratered areas is what is responsible for the dark & light regions that create the "man in the moon" appearance.)
Attachment:
Moon.png
Moon.png [ 101.93 KiB | Viewed 1463 times ]

Overall, (D) is the strongest answer for #2.

Now, #4, evidence against Turcotte's model:
A. the success of gradualist models explaining the surface of Mars
your comment: I chose this one as this would go against the catastrophic model which is being advocated by TC
It seems reasonably clear that Turcotte knew that what he was proposing for Venus was an entirely different model that what was explained everything else. Certainly since this was the primary objection to his model, he would have been aware that he was saying, essentially, that the way Venus works is different from the way anything else works. People who propose ideas & models are usually made aware, quite quickly, of the principal objections to that model.
Thus, Mars, like everything else in the solar system except Venus, follows the gradualist model. That's no surprise to Turcotte. He is quite specific proposing that Venus is different from everything else, so the fact that Mars is different from Venus is entirely expected.

D. a few active volcanoes on Ishtar Terra, a continent on Venus
your comment: Can you please explain how this would go against the TC Model. I can not seem to wrap my head around this one
Once again, let's get clear on the two models.
Catastrophist = geological features are shaped by planet-wide, all-at-once events, big events that act everywhere at the same time
Gradualist = geological features are shaped by individual events, different things happening in different places at different times, each affecting only one small part of the surface at a time.
Turcotte's theory is that Catastrophism 100% explains Venus' surface. If we have a few volcanos in one particular place on Venus, that's not a planet-wide event, but instead a local event--that would show that the gradualist model is required to explain at least that part of the surface. That's a contradiction.
Also, consider this part of the passage:
While the surface is fixed, volcanic pressure builds up inside the planet. At a certain point, the pressure ruptures the surface, and the entire planet is re-coated in lava in a massive planet-wide outburst of volcanism.
Thus, his model is that no heat escapes during the "fixed surface" phase, and then a lot escapes all at once during the "planetary meltdown" phase--in other words, 0% planet-wide heat-release, and then 100% planet-wide heat release, a catastrophist model. Well, if there are a few volcanoes, they are letting out a small amount of heat at a particular place--in other words, the heat is being released gradually at these sides, rather than all-at-once on the planet-wide scale. That would be a big contradiction of Turcotte's model.
Overall, (D) is the strongest answer for #4.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2017, 03:50
All correct in 8 mins 30 sec , including 2 mins 30 seconds to read .
Second question was tricky -- was stuck between C and D
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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2017, 04:55
I encountered another question for this passage in Magoosh

The passage implies which of the following about volcanoes on Mars?

A. many of them remain active to the present day
B. the lava from these volcanoes would rarely flow in long rivers
C. different volcanoes, active at different times, slowly transformed the surface
D. most of them were not impacted by craters
E. they typically did not release a large amount of thermal energy at once

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
OA is C. But I found E. equally make sense. Gradualism implies that volcanoes do not release large amount of energy all at once. Can anyone explain why E. is not applicable? Thanks

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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2017, 01:27
I encountered another question for this passage in Magoosh

The passage implies which of the following about volcanoes on Mars?

A. many of them remain active to the present day
B. the lava from these volcanoes would rarely flow in long rivers
C. different volcanoes, active at different times, slowly transformed the surface
D. most of them were not impacted by craters
E. they typically did not release a large amount of thermal energy at once

My Reasoning: Mars follows conventional Gradualist models because from the passage:"Indeed, all features of Earth's geology and all feature of other moons and planets in the Solar System, even those that are not volcanically active, are explained very well by current gradualist models."

So our answer shall give us anything about Mars, showing that the surface may have formed gradually and not in the catastrophic event.Choice C gives just that. Choice E considers that fact that the release of thermal energy may or may not be catastrophic.

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Re: Unlike Mercury and Mars, Venus has a dense, opaque atmosphere that pre   [#permalink] 16 Sep 2017, 01:27

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