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V21-33

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V21-33  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Feb 2018, 13:12
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A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  55% (hard)

Question Stats:

29% (02:41) correct 71% (02:03) wrong based on 7 sessions

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Neuropeptide substance P is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain. Normally, this mechanism is "reset" during stages of deep sleep. If, however, the mechanism cannot be reset, this process may run out of control and cause fibromyalgia, a disorder characterized by body-wide chronic pain and fatigue. Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use, and serotonin deficiency can interfere with stages of "deep" sleep.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?


A. The simplest way to treat fibromyalgia is to control the release of neuropeptide substance P.
B. The release of neuropeptide substance P cannot be reset if a patient suffers from a condition that interferes with stages of "deep" sleep.
C. Patients who do not suffer from conditions that can interfere with stages of "deep" sleep will not develop fibromyalgia.
D. Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia.
E. Drug users who experience body-wide chronic pain and fatigue most likely suffer from fibromyalgia.
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Re V21-33  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Feb 2018, 13:12
Official Solution:


Neuropeptide substance P is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain. Normally, this mechanism is "reset" during stages of deep sleep. If, however, the mechanism cannot be reset, this process may run out of control and cause fibromyalgia, a disorder characterized by body-wide chronic pain and fatigue. Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use, and serotonin deficiency can interfere with stages of "deep" sleep.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?


A. The simplest way to treat fibromyalgia is to control the release of neuropeptide substance P.
B. The release of neuropeptide substance P cannot be reset if a patient suffers from a condition that interferes with stages of "deep" sleep.
C. Patients who do not suffer from conditions that can interfere with stages of "deep" sleep will not develop fibromyalgia.
D. Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia.
E. Drug users who experience body-wide chronic pain and fatigue most likely suffer from fibromyalgia.


Normally, I like to start analyzing a passage by identifying the conclusion. In this case, we are asked to select the best conclusion, so let's make sure we are clear on the given information

Neuropeptide substance P (NSP), as described in the first sentence, "is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain.

This mechanism is normally reset during stages of deep sleep. Notice that the passage does not say that the mechanism is always reset during stages of deep sleep or that this is the only way to reset the mechanism

If "the mechanism cannot be reset, this process may run out of control and cause fibromyalgia." - Notice the word "may"; the passage does not say that "if the mechanism cannot be reset, the process will definitely run out of control and cause fibromyalgia.

"Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use, and serotonin deficiency can interfere with stages of 'deep' sleep." - Those conditions might interfere with deep sleep, and deep sleep, as we know, normally resets the NSP mechanism. This implies that those conditions might interfere with the resetting of the NSP mechanism, which could in turn lead to fibromyalgia. However, we are not told whether those conditions will always have those effects

These statements best support which of the following conclusions

(A) The simplest way to treat fibromyalgia is to control the release of neuropeptide substance P

We have no idea if controlling the release of NSP is simple or if there are other, simpler ways to treat fibromyalgia. Eliminate choice (A)

(B) The release of neuropeptide substance P cannot be reset if a patient suffers from a condition that interferes with stages of "deep" sleep

As stated above, the NSP mechanism is normally reset during deep sleep. However, it is possible that there are other ways to reset the NSP mechanism, even in the absence of deep sleep. Thus, choice (B) cannot be properly inferred and can be eliminated

(C) Patients who do not suffer from conditions that can interfere with stages of "deep" sleep will not develop fibromyalgia

A lack of deep sleep can cause fibromyalgia, but we aren't told whether there are other ways of developing fibromyalgia. Thus, choice (C) should be eliminated

(D) Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia

This statement says that the conditions CAN aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia. It does not say that the conditions will DEFINITELY aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia. Those conditions might interfere with deep sleep, and this, in turn, might prevent the NSP process from being reset. As stated in the passage, if "the mechanism cannot be reset, this process may run out of control and cause fibromyalgia." Statement D is consistent with the information in the passage, so let's hang on to it

(E) Drug users who experience body-wide chronic pain and fatigue most likely suffer from fibromyalgia

Those drug users might experience body-wide chronic pain and fatigue for a variety of other reasons besides having fibromyalgia. Thus, choice (E) cannot be properly inferred and should be eliminated

(D) is the best choice


Answer: D
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Re: V21-33  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2018, 01:57
Great question with some confusing element
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Re: V21-33 &nbs [#permalink] 10 Sep 2018, 01:57
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