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# V21-36

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Manager
Joined: 19 May 2015
Posts: 128

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16 Feb 2018, 14:20
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Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

20% (01:12) correct 80% (01:28) wrong based on 41 sessions

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In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala, archaeologists have been unable to utilize satellite imagery, which is taken by satellites that orbit 500 or more kilometers above the Earth's surface and cannot penetrate the dense tree canopy of the jungles. However, using new infrared imaging technology, which translates heat signatures into distinct colors, archaeologists have recently been able to discern some Mayan ruins in photographs taken from helicopters flown just above the tree canopy. If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology, the discovery of Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala will surely be expedited. The conclusion above logically depends on each of the following assumptions EXCEPT:

A. All of the Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala have not already been discovered.
B. The new infrared imaging technology is compatible with satellites currently used to photograph the Earth from space.
C. Some of the heat signatures of undiscovered Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala are different from those of the surrounding jungle.
D. The effectiveness of the new infrared imaging technology is not limited to photographs taken at heights just above the tree canopy.
E. Funds will be available to cover the cost of launching at least one satellite with the new infrared imaging technology into orbit.
Manager
Joined: 19 May 2015
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16 Feb 2018, 14:20
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Official Solution:

In their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala, archaeologists have been unable to utilize satellite imagery, which is taken by satellites that orbit 500 or more kilometers above the Earth's surface and cannot penetrate the dense tree canopy of the jungles. However, using new infrared imaging technology, which translates heat signatures into distinct colors, archaeologists have recently been able to discern some Mayan ruins in photographs taken from helicopters flown just above the tree canopy. If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology, the discovery of Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala will surely be expedited. The conclusion above logically depends on each of the following assumptions EXCEPT:

A. All of the Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala have not already been discovered.
B. The new infrared imaging technology is compatible with satellites currently used to photograph the Earth from space.
C. Some of the heat signatures of undiscovered Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala are different from those of the surrounding jungle.
D. The effectiveness of the new infrared imaging technology is not limited to photographs taken at heights just above the tree canopy.
E. Funds will be available to cover the cost of launching at least one satellite with the new infrared imaging technology into orbit.

The conclusion of this passage is clearly stated in the last sentence: "If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology, the discovery of Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala will surely be expedited." Why does the author believe that this will expedite the discovery of Mayan ruins

Currently, satellite imagery, which is taken by satellites that orbit 500 or more kilometers above the Earth's surface, cannot penetrate the dense tree canopy of the jungles. We can infer that if satellite imagery could penetrate the canopy of the jungles, it WOULD expedite the discovery of Mayan ruins

We cannot currently use satellite imagery to expedite the discovery of Mayan ruins, BUT archaeologists have recently been able to discern Mayan ruins in photographs taken from helicopters flown ABOVE the canopy. This was done using new infrared imaging technology

So, we can't use satellite imagery because it can't penetrate the canopy. Now we have new technology that can penetrate the canopy, at least from just above the canopy. Can that same technology be used to penetrate the canopy when used with satellites that orbit 500 or more kilometers above the Earth's surface

Drawing the author's conclusion from the information in the passage depends on each of the following assumptions EXCEPT (cross off any required assumptions)

(A) All of the Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala have not already been discovered

If this is true, then there will be nothing left to discover, even if we can penetrate the canopy using satellite imagery. Thus, the discovery of Mayan ruins would not be expedited. (A) is a required assumption, so it can be eliminated

(B) The new infrared imaging technology is compatible with satellites currently used to photograph the Earth from space

At first, choice (B) sounds tempting. If the new technology isn't compatible with the satellites, how can we use it to take satellite images that penetrate the canopy? However, who says we need to use the satellites that are currently used to photograph the Earth from space? We might need to employ new/different satellites to take advantage of the new technology, but that would not conflict with the author's argument. Choice (B) is not a required assumption, so hang on to this one

(C) Some of the heat signatures of undiscovered Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala are different from those of the surrounding jungle

If the heat signatures of undiscovered Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala are NOT different from those of the surrounding jungle, then the "new infrared imaging technology, which translates heat signatures into distinct colors," will be useless in finding those ruins. Thus, choice (C) is a required assumption and should be eliminated

(D) The effectiveness of the new infrared imaging technology is not limited to photographs taken at heights just above the tree canopy

If the effectiveness of the new technology IS limited to photographs taken from just above the canopy, then the technology will not help when used with satellites that take photos from 500+ kilometers above the Earth's surface. Choice (D) is a required assumption, so it should be eliminated

(E) Funds will be available to cover the cost of launching at least one satellite with the new infrared imaging technology into orbit

The conclusion rests on the condition that "scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology." However, just because they can equip satellites with the technology, doesn't mean they actually have the money to send such a satellite into orbit. If such funding is not available and we cannot actually launch the satellites with the new technology into orbit, then we won't be able to use those satellites to search for Mayan ruins. Choice (E) is a required assumption, so it should be eliminated

All statements aside from choice (B) are required assumptions, so (B) is the best answer

Intern
Joined: 09 Aug 2017
Posts: 12
Location: Singapore
GMAT 1: 720 Q50 V36
GMAT 2: 730 Q51 V38
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06 May 2018, 00:02
I think this is a poor-quality question and I don't agree with the explanation.
Intern
Joined: 09 Aug 2017
Posts: 12
Location: Singapore
GMAT 1: 720 Q50 V36
GMAT 2: 730 Q51 V38
GPA: 4

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06 May 2018, 01:03
I don't agree with the explanation.
Intern
Joined: 07 Mar 2018
Posts: 7
Schools: Rotman '20
GMAT 1: 410 Q23 V21
GPA: 3.24

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15 May 2018, 18:34
Jeff, it's not a bad question but the explanation provided is still very subjective in its current form and for non-native English speakers is indigestable. souvik101990 or bb, what is your opinion on this one?
Director
Joined: 20 Sep 2016
Posts: 637
Location: India
Concentration: Strategy, Operations
GPA: 3.95
WE: Operations (Real Estate)

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20 Jul 2018, 04:02
I have a question here : how do you negate option A?
Original choice -
All of the Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala have not already been discovered.

Negation:
1. Some of the mayan ruins in the jungle of GUatemala have already been discovered.

2. All of the ...... HAVE already been discovered?

Which one is right?
If 1 is right then how does the negation break the conclusion?
chetan2u @
Math Expert
Joined: 02 Aug 2009
Posts: 7686

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20 Jul 2018, 20:14
I have a question here : how do you negate option A?
Original choice -
All of the Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala have not already been discovered.

Negation:
1. Some of the mayan ruins in the jungle of GUatemala have already been discovered.

2. All of the ...... HAVE already been discovered?

Which one is right?
If 1 is right then how does the negation break the conclusion?
chetan2u @

Hi
...
The negation of choice A would be...
all .....are NOT discovered
all ....are NOT discovered.

1 that is Some of..... Would be correct if the sentence was
None of the..... Has been discovered
_________________
Intern
Joined: 09 Apr 2018
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04 Aug 2018, 02:01
1
I feel something off about the Answer Choices and the Question Stem:
Conclusion: If scientists can equip satellites with this new infrared imaging technology, the discovery of Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala will surely be expedited.

Question: The conclusion above logically depends on each of the following assumptions EXCEPT
The Assumption is not required for the "discovery of Mayan ruins", but it has to be for the whole "If... then..." Clause. That is what the conclusion is.

(B) The new infrared imaging technology is compatible with satellites currently used to photograph the Earth from space
This is not an assumption, question stem says equip satellites with this technology. It never says existing satellites or new satellites explicitly. So if New Technology is not compatible with existing ones, even then altogether new satellites with new technology can be put in space. Thus not an Assumption.

But, in Case of E.
(E) Funds will be available to cover the cost of launching at least one satellite with the new infrared imaging technology into orbit.
If the funds are not available, we don't get into the "if... then..." clause in the conclusion altogether. We can still say the conclusion holds i.e. "IF the satellite is put in space, the ruins can be discovered". I hope I am able to put up what I am thinking.

Had the Question been "Which of the following is an Assumption required for the plan of further Discovery of the Mayan Ruins to work EXCEPT?" or "Which of the following is required for the stated plan of finding Mayan Ruins EXCEPT", then E would have been an Assumption sure. Because the Ruins cannot be found.

Anything concrete on why E is an Assumption or if my point is not making sense are welcome.
Intern
Joined: 05 Sep 2018
Posts: 4

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12 Sep 2018, 11:38
I agree with you on this and also selected E since this is the only option which is relatively out of scope of the argument and hence does not need to be an assumption, since the question stem already has the important word "If". Would be great if we could get an expert's response on option E.
Manager
Joined: 21 May 2017
Posts: 78
Location: India

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25 Dec 2018, 10:00
Can some one please explain why B is the correct ans here.
Re: V21-36   [#permalink] 25 Dec 2018, 10:00
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# V21-36

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