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When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans jo

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When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans jo  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 25 Dec 2017, 09:46
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When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans joined a society that was divided between master and white servants brought from Europe. In most parts of the South, some of these first African slaves became free either through escape or through emancipation by their owners. It is therefore a misconception that all African Americans in the pre-Civil War South were slaves. Many researchers have also assumed that these free African Americans were the offspring of white slave owners who took advantage of their female slaves. However, these cases represent only a small minority of free African Americans in the South. Most free African Americans were actually the descendants of African American men and white servant women.

In fact, despite the efforts of the various colonial legislatures, white servant women continued to bear children by African American fathers through the late seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth century. It appears that such births were the primary source of the increase in the free African American population for this period. Over two hundred African American families in Virginia descended from white women. Forty-six families descended from freed slaves, twenty-nine from Indians, and sixteen from white men who married or had children by free African American women. It is likely that the majority of the remaining families descended from white women since they first appear in court records in the mid-eighteenth century, when slaves could not be freed without legislative approval, and there is no record of legislative approval for their emancipations.

The history of free African Americans families in colonial New York and New Jersey, by contrast, is quite different from that of free African Americans in the South. Most were descended from slaves freed by the Dutch West India Company between 1644 and 1664 or by individual owners. Researchers have studied these families, especially a group of fourteen families that scholars have traced through at least three generations. None of the fourteen families appears to be descended from a white servant woman and an African American man. However, Lutheran church records from the eighteenth century show that a few such couples had children baptized.


[1] The author of the passage is primarily interested in

(A) defending an accepted position on colonial history

(B) analyzing an unproven hypothesis regarding slavery

(C) presenting an alternate view of a historical period

(D) critiquing an outdated theory of colonial development

(E) describing the culmination of a historical trend.



[2] The passage suggests which of the following about African American families in colonial New York and New Jersey?

(A) They were not descended from white servant women and African American men.

(B) They were less numerous than African American families in the colonial South.

(C) Most of them were started between 1644 and 1664.

(D) They began with an initial group of fourteen families.

(E) Some of them may have descended from white servant women.



[3] Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) No free African Americans in the American colonies were the offspring of white slave owners.

(B) Some colonial legislatures passed laws to prevent interbreeding between white colonists and African Americans.

(C) White servants were not as numerous as African American slaves in early America.

(D) Most African Americans in the South were born into slavery.

(E) Records exist to document all births of free African Americans in colonial America.


Originally posted by crejoc on 09 Aug 2009, 10:40.
Last edited by Skywalker18 on 25 Dec 2017, 09:46, edited 3 times in total.
Corrected OA for Q3
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans jo  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2009, 11:22
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crejoc wrote:
When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans joined a society that was divided between master and white servants brought from Europe. In most parts of the South, some of these first African slaves became free either through escape or through emancipation by their owners. It is therefore a misconception that all African Americans in the pre-Civil War South were slaves. Many researchers have also assumed that these free African Americans were the offspring of white slave owners who took advantage of their female slaves. However, these cases represent only a small minority of free African Americans in the South. Most free African Americans were actually the descendants of African American men and white servant women.
In fact, despite the efforts of the various colonial legislatures, white servant women continued to bear children by African American fathers through the late seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth century. It appears that such births were the primary source of the increase in the free African American population for this period. Over two hundred African American families in Virginia descended from white women. Forty-six families descended from freed slaves, twenty-nine from Indians, and sixteen from white men who married or had children by free African American women. It is likely that the majority of the remaining families descended from white women since they first appear in court records in the mid-eighteenth century, when slaves could not be freed without legislative approval, and there is no record of legislative approval for their emancipation.
The history of free African Americans families in colonial New York and New Jersey, by contrast, is quite different from that of free African Americans in the South. Most were descended from slaves freed by the Dutch West India Company between 1644 and 1664 or by individual owners. Researchers have studied these families, especially a group of fourteen families that scholars have traced through at least three generations. None of the fourteen families appears to be descended from a white servant woman and an African American man. However, Lutheran church records from the eighteenth century show that a few such couples had children baptized.

[1] The author of the passage is primarily interested in

A) defending an accepted position on colonial history

B) analyzing an unproven hypothesis regarding slavery

C) presenting an alternate view of a historical period refer to the boldface statement in para 1.. also, author presented the view but not defended(position), analyzed(hypothesis), critiqued(outdated theory), or described(the culmination of a historical trend)

D) critiquing an outdated theory of colonial development

E) describing the culmination of a historical trend.

[2] The passage suggests which of the following about African American families in colonial New York and New Jersey?

A) They were not descended from white servant women and African American men.

B) They were less numerous than African American families in the colonial South.

C) Most of them were started between 1644 and 1664. here by the statement mentioned in the 3rd para we cannot assume that they were started at the same time they were freed..

D) They began with an initial group of fourteen families.

E) Some of them may have descended from white servant women. refer to the boldface in the last para..it implies that none from those 14 families is descended from the white women but some from the families other than those 14 may be..

[3]Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

A) No free African Americans in the American colonies were the offspring of white slave owners.

B) Some colonial legislatures passed laws to prevent interbreeding between white colonists and African Americans. refer the boldfaced statement in 2nd para..

C) White servants were not as numerous as African American slaves in early America.

D) Most African Americans in the South were born into slavery.

E) Records exist to document all births of free African Americans in colonial America.

OA :
C , E , B
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New post 11 Aug 2009, 20:26
thanks for the explanations ... kudos..
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New post 25 Aug 2009, 09:05
I don't fully understand why is B incorrect for [1]?
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans jo  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2016, 08:12
mendelay wrote:
I don't fully understand why is B incorrect for [1]?



The author is not emphasizing on Slavery rather he is presenting the details about their spread across america.
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans jo  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2017, 17:50
crejoc wrote:
When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans joined a society that was divided between master and white servants brought from Europe. In most parts of the South, some of these first African slaves became free either through escape or through emancipation by their owners. It is therefore a misconception that all African Americans in the pre-Civil War South were slaves. Many researchers have also assumed that these free African Americans were the offspring of white slave owners who took advantage of their female slaves. However, these cases represent only a small minority of free African Americans in the South. Most free African Americans were actually the descendants of African American men and white servant women.

In fact, despite the efforts of the various colonial legislatures, white servant women continued to bear children by African American fathers through the late seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth century. It appears that such births were the primary source of the increase in the free African American population for this period. Over two hundred African American families in Virginia descended from white women. Forty-six families descended from freed slaves, twenty-nine from Indians, and sixteen from white men who married or had children by free African American women. It is likely that the majority of the remaining families descended from white women since they first appear in court records in the mid-eighteenth century, when slaves could not be freed without legislative approval, and there is no record of legislative approval for their emancipations.

The history of free African Americans families in colonial New York and New Jersey, by contrast, is quite different from that of free African Americans in the South. Most were descended from slaves freed by the Dutch West India Company between 1644 and 1664 or by individual owners. Researchers have studied these families, especially a group of fourteen families that scholars have traced through at least three generations. None of the fourteen families appears to be descended from a white servant woman and an African American man. However, Lutheran church records from the eighteenth century show that a few such couples had children baptized.

[1] The author of the passage is primarily interested in

(A) defending an accepted position on colonial history

(B) analyzing an unproven hypothesis regarding slavery

(C) presenting an alternate view of a historical period

(D) critiquing an outdated theory of colonial development

(E) describing the culmination of a historical trend.



OFFICIAL EXPLANATION


When answering any question about the author’s primary interest, purpose, or intent, we must take the entirety of the passage into account without misrepresenting its focus. Typically, the opening paragraph and the topic sentences of each paragraph will reveal the focus of the passage. In the opening paragraph of this passage, the author discusses some misconceptions and assumptions about African Americans in the colonial and pre-Civil War periods, ending the paragraph with the statement that “most free African Americans were actually the descendants of African American men and white servant women.” The subsequent paragraphs are dedicated to discussing these descendants.

(A) The author does not defend an accepted position, but instead provides evidence that contradicts some misconceptions and assumptions about colonial history.

(B) The author presents historical facts about African Americans. The author does not present or analyze an unproven hypothesis.

(C) CORRECT. The author presents facts, and the alternate view that can be drawn from them, of a historical period.

(D) The author does not critique an outdated theory, but instead presents facts that are contradictory to some stated misconceptions and assumptions. Also, the passage does not focus on “colonial development,” but rather a certain segment of the population in colonial times.

(E) The author does not discuss a “trend,” or describe its “culmination.”
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans jo  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2017, 20:28
Hi Experts,

I believe Ans to Q3 is B.
Please see link below, I think MGMAT agrees that the Ans is B
https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... t4476.html

Please correct me if I am wrong.
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans jo  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Dec 2017, 09:49
TheRzS wrote:
Hi Experts,

I believe Ans to Q3 is B.
Please see link below, I think MGMAT agrees that the Ans is B
https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... t4476.html

Please correct me if I am wrong.
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Hi TheRzS,
Even I chose B as the answer for Q3. Also in the original post, OA for Q3 was specified as B.
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New post 25 Dec 2017, 17:39
huhh...I must have been seeing things. It IS B on the post. At least we both got it right. Thanks mate.

Skywalker18 wrote:
TheRzS wrote:
Hi Experts,

I believe Ans to Q3 is B.
Please see link below, I think MGMAT agrees that the Ans is B
https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... t4476.html

Please correct me if I am wrong.
Regards


Hi TheRzS,
Even I chose B as the answer for Q3. Also in the original post, OA for Q3 was specified as B.
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans jo  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Dec 2017, 19:33
TheRzS wrote:
huhh...I must have been seeing things. It IS B on the post. At least we both got it right. Thanks mate.

Skywalker18 wrote:
TheRzS wrote:
Hi Experts,

I believe Ans to Q3 is B.
Please see link below, I think MGMAT agrees that the Ans is B
https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... t4476.html

Please correct me if I am wrong.
Regards


Hi TheRzS,
Even I chose B as the answer for Q3. Also in the original post, OA for Q3 was specified as B.


Hi TheRzS,
When I said OA for Q3 was B in the original post, i meant that initially it must have been posted as B as it is evident from the first reply (atomy's)-- see the spoiler .
Now, I changed the OA for Q3 from D to B .
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans jo  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2018, 01:42
In question 3) I am not sure about option B.

The OA is justified through these lines in the passage:
In fact, despite the efforts of the various colonial legislatures, white servant women continued to bear children by African American fathers through the late seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth century.

But in GMAT an inference is something that must be true, not something that might be true. From the lines what can surely be inferred is that there were legislation preventing interbreeding between white servant women and african americans. What "might" be inferred (not "must") that the legislation extended to colonial whites too. This is an assumption, or an education guess at best. Cannot agree with the OA here.
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans jo  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2018, 11:07
It took me just slightly over 8 mins :? to complete all three questions, albeit correctly. How much time should one ideally take on such a passage?
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans jo  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2018, 06:22
sandman13 wrote:
It took me just slightly over 8 mins :? to complete all three questions, albeit correctly. How much time should one ideally take on such a passage?

You should give yourself up to 3 minutes to read such a passage. Additionally, answering the questions should take approximately 1 minute each. So overall you shouldn't spend way longer than 6 minutes on this passage. However, keep in mind that this is a thumb rule. If you're good on your timing during the test you might wanna take the extra time to get these questions right.
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans jo  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2018, 07:06
Like sagarraj1986, I'm a bit skeptical that B is the OA for Question 3 (I just took MCAT Test #4, it's one of the RC questions there). Maybe RonPurewal can provide some insight?

As stated in the official explanation:
Quote:
On the GMAT, a correct inference is not a guess about what might be true, but rather a statement of what must be true based on the facts presented in the passage. Be careful to justify your answer with proof from the passage.

But that's the thing. B would be correct if we assume that white colonists, in coming to America, brought with them their slaves, therefore making the slaves by extension, white colonists themselves. TECHNICALLY, the passage supports this ("When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans joined a society that was divided between master and white servants brought from Europe."). Here's the big but though. B specifically says "interbreeding between white colonists and African Americans." That implies BOTH white colonist masters and their white servants.
You're all probably thinking by now that I'm splitting hairs at this point, but the passage does make the distinction that while white slaves and masters were part of the larger "colonist" group, so I think it's fair to dissect the question to this degree. Furthermore, the first sentence of par. 2 specifically talks about white servant women, and not white servant masters, so the blanket nature of "white colonists" as in answer B is inaccurate as the passage specifically refers to white slaves and not their white masters:
Quote:
In fact, despite the efforts of the various colonial legislatures, white servant women continued to bear children by African American fathers through the late seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth century.

It's honestly all semantics but it would make more sense imo if B specifically said "Some colonial legislatures passed laws to prevent interbreeding between white slave women and African Americans." This removes ambiguity, and by extension, the need to bring in outside assumptions.
Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans jo &nbs [#permalink] 28 Jul 2018, 07:06
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