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Re: With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been [#permalink]
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Ans: D

A) With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this; this can not be used as a pronoun to refer back to some noun or can not be used to modify action.

B) Having nearly all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this; same as option A

C) Nearly all tortilla chips being made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime); this changes meaning - chips removes the skin of the kernel.., this is not correct. being made from corn kernels.. modifies tortilla chips

D) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that; noun + noun modifier modifies heating kernels in a lime solution

E) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that ; here process refers to chips are made from... it changes the meaning by taking the focus off heating kernels in a lime solution
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With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this removes the skin of the kernel so water can penetrate.

A) With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this
This can’t be used to denote an entire action.

B) Having nearly all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this
This can’t be used to denote an entire action.

C) Nearly all tortilla chips being made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime)
SV Error – (all tortilla…. removes)
Being is almost always incorrect in the GMAT

D) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that
Best of all

E) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that 
Having been is used to denote cause and result or simultaneous actions.
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generis sir hazelnut mam Kindly clarify about usage of having+V3 form whether used only in case of cause and effect.....Also whether this rule is also applicable in Option E.....Please throw some light on it
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vasuca10, If you narrowed this down to D and E, great job.

(D) uses Present Perfect verb form - have been heated.

The Present Perfect verb tense is used for actions that started in the past, but continue into the present.

In this sentence, Present Perfect is exactly what we need...

"Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that removes the skin of the kernel so water can penetrate."

are made = simple present
have been heated = present perfect
removes = simple present

The corn kernels have been heated (this action started in the past, and continues into the present) in a solution of lime, a process that removes (continuing into the present) the skin of the kernel so water can penetrate (still present tense).

I hope this makes sense.
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Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and narrow down our options quickly so we know how to answer questions like this when they pop up on the GMAT! To begin, let's take a quick look at the question and highlight any major differences between the options in orange:

With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this removes the skin of the kernel so water can penetrate.

A) With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this

B) Having nearly all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this

C) Nearly all tortilla chips being made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime)

D) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that

E) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that

After a quick glance over the options, we have several areas we can focus on to narrow down our options:

1. With near to all / Nearly all (Idioms & Clarity)
2. made / being made / are made (Construction & Active/Passive Voice)
3. that have been heated / that are heated / having been heated (Verb Form)
4. …,this / …, a process that / nothing (Modifiers & Construction)


While it may be tempting to start with #1 and move down this list, we’re going to start with #4: modifiers & construction. Why? Because it’s essentially an either/or split, and it will eliminate 2-3 options rather quickly. We need to make sure that any modifiers have clear antecedents, the wording is clear, and that the lack of modifier in option C isn’t a problem:

A) With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this
This is INCORRECT because “this” should refer back to ONLY the closest noun (calcium hydroxide) and not the entire previous clause (that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide). Since “this” doesn’t cover as much as we need it to, this option is out.

B) Having nearly all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this
This is INCORRECT for the same reason as option A!

C) Nearly all tortilla chips being made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime) removes
This is INCORRECT because removing the modifier altogether creates an entirely different problem: subject-verb agreement! We’ve now made the singular verb “removes” our main verb, and our subject is the plural “tortilla chips.” So - let’s rule this one out too.

D) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that
This is OKAY for now. Starting the modifier with “a process that,” it’s 100% clear that it refers back to the previous clause, rather than just the previous noun.

E) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that
This is also OKAY for now because “a process that” clearly refers back to the entire previous clause.

We can eliminate options A, B, & C because their endings created problems with construction and subject-verb agreement. Now that we have it narrowed down to only 2 options, the only list item we have left to tackle is #3: verb form.

D) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that
This is our CORRECT option! The sentence is structured clearly, and the verb “have been heated” shows the correct cause/effect relationship (corn kernels are heated in a lime solution → removes kernel skins).

E) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that
This is INCORRECT. The verb “having been heated” is supposed to indicate both the cause & result of an event, whereas we only need a verb that indicates the cause of the event.

There you have it - option D is our winner! By focusing on an either/or split first, we were able to eliminate 3 options quickly, giving us more time to focus on more complex grammatical issues!


Don’t study for the GMAT. Train for it.
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EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and narrow down our options quickly so we know how to answer questions like this when they pop up on the GMAT! To begin, let's take a quick look at the question and highlight any major differences between the options in orange:

With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this removes the skin of the kernel so water can penetrate.

A) With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this

B) Having nearly all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this

C) Nearly all tortilla chips being made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime)

D) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that

E) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that

After a quick glance over the options, we have several areas we can focus on to narrow down our options:

1. With near to all / Nearly all (Idioms & Clarity)
2. made / being made / are made (Construction & Active/Passive Voice)
3. that have been heated / that are heated / having been heated (Verb Form)
4. …,this / …, a process that / nothing (Modifiers & Construction)


While it may be tempting to start with #1 and move down this list, we’re going to start with #4: modifiers & construction. Why? Because it’s essentially an either/or split, and it will eliminate 2-3 options rather quickly. We need to make sure that any modifiers have clear antecedents, the wording is clear, and that the lack of modifier in option C isn’t a problem:

A) With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this
This is INCORRECT because “this” should refer back to ONLY the closest noun (calcium hydroxide) and not the entire previous clause (that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide). Since “this” doesn’t cover as much as we need it to, this option is out.

B) Having nearly all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this
This is INCORRECT for the same reason as option A!

C) Nearly all tortilla chips being made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime) removes
This is INCORRECT because removing the modifier altogether creates an entirely different problem: subject-verb agreement! We’ve now made the singular verb “removes” our main verb, and our subject is the plural “tortilla chips.” So - let’s rule this one out too.

D) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that
This is OKAY for now. Starting the modifier with “a process that,” it’s 100% clear that it refers back to the previous clause, rather than just the previous noun.

E) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that
This is also OKAY for now because “a process that” clearly refers back to the entire previous clause.

We can eliminate options A, B, & C because their endings created problems with construction and subject-verb agreement. Now that we have it narrowed down to only 2 options, the only list item we have left to tackle is #3: verb form.

D) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that
This is our CORRECT option! The sentence is structured clearly, and the verb “have been heated” shows the correct cause/effect relationship (corn kernels are heated in a lime solution → removes kernel skins).

E) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that
This is INCORRECT. The verb “having been heated” is supposed to indicate both the cause & result of an event, whereas we only need a verb that indicates the cause of the event.

There you have it - option D is our winner! By focusing on an either/or split first, we were able to eliminate 3 options quickly, giving us more time to focus on more complex grammatical issues!


Don’t study for the GMAT. Train for it.


Hello EMPOWERgmatVerbal, thank you for the explanation.
can you elaborate on " “having been heated” is supposed to indicate both the cause & result of an event" from your post please?
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NischalSR wrote:
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and narrow down our options quickly so we know how to answer questions like this when they pop up on the GMAT! To begin, let's take a quick look at the question and highlight any major differences between the options in orange:

With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this removes the skin of the kernel so water can penetrate.

A) With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this

B) Having nearly all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this

C) Nearly all tortilla chips being made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime)

D) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that

E) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that

After a quick glance over the options, we have several areas we can focus on to narrow down our options:

1. With near to all / Nearly all (Idioms & Clarity)
2. made / being made / are made (Construction & Active/Passive Voice)
3. that have been heated / that are heated / having been heated (Verb Form)
4. …,this / …, a process that / nothing (Modifiers & Construction)


While it may be tempting to start with #1 and move down this list, we’re going to start with #4: modifiers & construction. Why? Because it’s essentially an either/or split, and it will eliminate 2-3 options rather quickly. We need to make sure that any modifiers have clear antecedents, the wording is clear, and that the lack of modifier in option C isn’t a problem:

A) With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this
This is INCORRECT because “this” should refer back to ONLY the closest noun (calcium hydroxide) and not the entire previous clause (that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide). Since “this” doesn’t cover as much as we need it to, this option is out.

B) Having nearly all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this
This is INCORRECT for the same reason as option A!

C) Nearly all tortilla chips being made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime) removes
This is INCORRECT because removing the modifier altogether creates an entirely different problem: subject-verb agreement! We’ve now made the singular verb “removes” our main verb, and our subject is the plural “tortilla chips.” So - let’s rule this one out too.

D) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that
This is OKAY for now. Starting the modifier with “a process that,” it’s 100% clear that it refers back to the previous clause, rather than just the previous noun.

E) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that
This is also OKAY for now because “a process that” clearly refers back to the entire previous clause.

We can eliminate options A, B, & C because their endings created problems with construction and subject-verb agreement. Now that we have it narrowed down to only 2 options, the only list item we have left to tackle is #3: verb form.

D) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that
This is our CORRECT option! The sentence is structured clearly, and the verb “have been heated” shows the correct cause/effect relationship (corn kernels are heated in a lime solution → removes kernel skins).

E) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that
This is INCORRECT. The verb “having been heated” is supposed to indicate both the cause & result of an event, whereas we only need a verb that indicates the cause of the event.

There you have it - option D is our winner! By focusing on an either/or split first, we were able to eliminate 3 options quickly, giving us more time to focus on more complex grammatical issues!


Don’t study for the GMAT. Train for it.


Hello EMPOWERgmatVerbal, thank you for the explanation.
can you elaborate on " “having been heated” is supposed to indicate both the cause & result of an event" from your post please?


Great question NischalSR!

It sounds like you're referring to my explanation for option E:

E) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that
This is INCORRECT. The verb “having been heated” is supposed to indicate both the cause & result of an event, whereas we only need a verb that indicates the cause of the event.

The main issue with this option is that it creates a confusing meaning. This sentence actually says that tortilla chips are made from the act of heating up corn kernels, instead of saying they are made from corn kernels themselves. While it might be common sense to say "Well, tortilla chips are made from corn," THIS sentence is confusing readers into thinking that maybe the heat or the lime is what the chips are made of. Since the GMAT is all about clarity, we cannot let this option stand. Instead, option D handles this much better because it's incredibly clear.

By using "have been heated," we can more clearly show that we're discussing the order of events:

1. Corn kernels are heated in lime
2. The lime removes the skins and allows water to penetrate the kernel
3. We make those skinless corn kernels and make them into tasty chips!

We hope that helps! As always, make sure to tag us at EMPOWERgmatVerbal if you have any more questions!
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Re: With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been [#permalink]
With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this removes the skin of the kernel so water can penetrate.

A) With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this

B) Having nearly all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), this

C) Nearly all tortilla chips being made from corn kernels that are heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime)

D) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that have been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that

E) Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that 

Soln: Lets start by reading the question stem first, at the first glance the stem doesn't make much sense, this is primarily because of the "with" at the beginning. The sentence is trying to tell us that chips are made from corn kernels heated in a solution and it goes on to talk about how the process enables the same.

I personally think blindly looking for splits may not be the best idea on questions like these, the GMAT often counts on test takers eliminating answer choices based on these splits. So its best to attempt POE one answer choice at a time.

A) As discussed the "with" is unnecessary and "near to" is also not the correct manner of expression. We also need to emphasize the fact that it is the process of heating the kernels in the solution that is allowing water to penetrate. A mere "this" can easily refer to just the lime and not the "process", thus changing intended meaning. Hence A is out.

B) Much like the "with" in option A the "having" is not required, nor is it referring to any subject in question. the issue with "this" as stated in A stands so B is also out.

C) This option is giving us a fragment and not making coherent sense with the rest of the sentence. Here also the "this" is a problem as discussed in A and B. It is the process of heating that makes it possible and not the lime itself. Also the Subject Verb agreement is an issue here.

D) This sentence nicely fixes the "near to" issue and clearly indicates that "nearly" means almost all. By adding the words "a process that" any ambiguity with respect to the referent lime is removed and it very clearly conveys the intended meaning that it is the heating that is allowing this to happen. Lets keep D.

E) Only difference between D and E is that use of tense/v-ing modifier. Option D clearly uses the present perfect and conveys the fact that an action started in the past with continuing present effects is in motion and rightly so. The having been heated is in GMAT land "wordy" and "awkward" and can't be used to demonstrate the cause of another event in the given case, hence out.

Looks like we are left with D only.

Hope this helps.
Feel free to reach out in case you need more help.

Best,
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Re: With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been [#permalink]
egmat
I have opted for D as my correct answer, but can you please explain why E is wrong and what's the problem with "having been tested" for my knowledge?
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Adi280728 wrote:
egmat
I have opted for D as my correct answer, but can you please explain why E is wrong and what's the problem with "having been tested" for my knowledge?


Hello Adi280728,

We hope this finds you well.

To answer your query, "having been heated" is a present participle construction; thus, it cannot be used to refer to an action that concluded in the past but continues to affect the present; Option D correctly uses the present perfect tense verb phrase "have been heated" to refer to an action that concluded in the past but continues to affect the present.

We hope this helps.
All the best!
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With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been [#permalink]
Dear experts,

I understand that (D) is the best option.
(B) and (C) can easily be eliminated.
But I would like to confirm that I understand correctly. Some GMAT questions provide only 1 clear and other 1-2 options "not" incorrect but the correct one is better (more concise or clearer)

(A) This can refer to either "clause", "phrase" or "noun". But the structure is not quite good and if "this" refers to the phrase after "with", it will not make much sense and the modifier (with____, ) cannot modify "this".

(E) I don't think (E) is totally wrong, but (D) is better
PS. having been... can be either had been or have been, probably causing reader confuse the timeline. Thus, it may convey unclear meaning but it is not grammatically wrong

Am I correct?
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Tanchat wrote:
But I would like to confirm that I understand correctly. Some GMAT questions provide only 1 clear and other 1-2 options "not" incorrect but the correct one is better (more concise or clearer)


No. Every question will have 1 correct answer and 4 incorrect answers. The wrong answers are all, indeed, wrong.


Quote:
(A) This can refer to either "clause", "phrase" or "noun". But the structure is not quite good and if "this" refers to the phrase after "with", it will not make much sense and the modifier (with____, ) cannot modify "this".



• "Near to" is not idiomatic.


• The initial "With..." modifier is incorrect for at least two distinct reasons:

—The choice of modifier is entirely inappropriate. Comma-blocked initial "With..." should refer to an underlying circumstance/situation, already true at the time narrated, that contributes/contributed to the event narrated in the main clause. (See here.)

—"This" is trying to describe exactly the same process that's in the modifier, creating nonsense because the modifier and the main clause can't describe the same single observation/event/idea.
analogy:
Because the object is very heavy, it is hard to lift —> SENSIBLE SENTENCE
Because the object is very heavy, its weight makes it hard to lift —> NONSENSE
The object's weight makes it hard to lift —> SENSIBLE SENTENCE (here we need common sense to conclude that the object is heavy, not light or of middling weight)


Quote:
(E) I don't think (E) is totally wrong, but (D) is better


The no comma + "having..." modifier in E is nonsense. A summary of the issue can be found in this post (permalink; should jump directly to my post once the page has finished loading).
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Re: With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been [#permalink]
Hi experts,

I see a few opinions that 'having been heated' has a meaning just for present, not a continuous effect from past to present like the present perfect tense. However, I understand that the relative clause 'that have been heated' can be contracted to 'having been heated'. So would you experts please help to point out some alternative meanings which the phrase 'having been heated' may have that make it a wrong choice? Thanks.
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tinbq wrote:
Hi experts,

I see a few opinions that 'having been heated' has a meaning just for present, not a continuous effect from past to present like the present perfect tense. However, I understand that the relative clause 'that have been heated' can be contracted to 'having been heated'. So would you experts please help to point out some alternative meanings which the phrase 'having been heated' may have that make it a wrong choice? Thanks.

"Noun verb-ing" means "noun that is verb-ing," "noun that are verb-ing," "noun that was verb-ing," "noun that were verb-ing," or "noun that will be verb-ing," depending on the tense of the clause of the sentence in which "noun verb-ing" appears.

Examples:

The woman directing the movie is very high in energy.

means

The woman who is directing the movie is very high in energy.

The wolves running in the forest were many in number

means

The wolves that were running in the forest were many in number.

Let's use this understanding to analyze the (E) version of the sentence in this question.

Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that removes the skin of the kernel so water can penetrate.

means

Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that are having been heated in a solution of calcium hydroxide (lime), a process that removes the skin of the kernel so water can penetrate.

We can see that "Nearly all tortilla chips are made from corn kernels that are having been heated ...," is nonsensical. So, the use of "having been heated" this context results in a nonsensical sentence.
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tinbq wrote:
Hi experts,

I see a few opinions that 'having been heated' has a meaning just for present, not a continuous effect from past to present like the present perfect tense. However, I understand that the relative clause 'that have been heated' can be contracted to 'having been heated'. So would you experts please help to point out some alternative meanings which the phrase 'having been heated' may have that make it a wrong choice? Thanks.


Hello tinbq,

We hope this finds you well.

To answer your query, if a present participle ("verb+ing" - "having" in this sentence) directly modifies a noun, it conveys that the noun took an action that is continuous in nature, which is not the case here.

The use of "having been" could have been appropriate if it was introduced with a comma because the "comma + present participle ("verb+ing" - "having" in this sentence)" conveys a cause-effect relationship, wherein the action is not necessarily continuous in nature.

We hope this helps.
All the best!
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Re: With near to all tortilla chips made from corn kernels that have been [#permalink]
Hi MartyTargetTestPrep

Do you mean that 'kernels that have been heated' have a different meaning from 'kernels having been heated'?

May I apologize if this confuse you (as I am not a native speaker) but I found an example on the internet saying that the two following sentence have the same meaning:
The cookies having been heated are delicious.
=
The cookies that have been heated are delicious.


Hi ExpertsGlobal5

If the phrase 'kernels having been heated' has the same meaning as 'kernels that have been heated', so why is option E wrong/less preferable to option D?

Thank you all so much.
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tinbq wrote:
Hi MartyTargetTestPrep

Do you mean that 'kernels that have been heated' have a different meaning from 'kernels having been heated'?

May I apologize if this confuse you (as I am not a native speaker) but I found an example on the internet saying that the two following sentence have the same meaning:
The cookies having been heated are delicious.
=
The cookies that have been heated are delicious.

Indeed, the meanings are different, as I outlined above.
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