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# Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les

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Re: Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
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dcoolguy wrote:
Hello experts,
E looks like a strengthener to me,
It doesn???t look like a- must be case

Reasons I eliminated E-
It says- if there are any , what if there are none?
In that case argument can hold.
It???s not a must be case.

Second, even if there are other good Diesel engines available, Ythex engine could still sell well. May be when most of engines will be banned and there will be only two and both of them could sell their products very well.

Is it something related with the word- ought to?
Maybe I didn???t understand the conclusion exactly? What???s the exact meaning of ought to? I thought it means should.

Just like E, A looked liked a strengthener to me, ended up marking A.????

"Ought to" does mean "should."

So, the conclusion is basically that it is likely that the Ythex engine will sell well in Marania after that time.

Regarding the idea that (E) doesn't have to be true in order for the conclusion to be true, what you're saying is correct, but the evidence doesn't support the conclusion very well if (E) isn't true.

The "if there are any" part doesn't make a material difference. The assumption stated by (E) is that there is not another engine that will compete with the Ythex engine. The "if there are any" part is just an acknowledgement within the assumption that they may not even be other manufacturers. There may be though.

So, since (A), (C), and (D) make no difference to the argument at all and the negation of (B) does not undermine the support the premises provide for the conclusion at all, (E) is the best answer.
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Re: Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
Premise:
Present accepted Emission = 100
New accepted Emission =80 (after two years)
Onez Emission = 100 (after two years onez will not be able to meet the new accepted value and will not be able to trade afterwards)
Ythex Emission= 70 (no competition, therefore, will be able to sell well)

Now what if any other contender comes out in the market and is equally good or is more good or is cheaper or is better than Ythex. Then, there are slight chances that Ythex will not be able to sell well or capture the market base.

Therefore, option E is the right choice as it denies competition from other manufacturers.
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Re: Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
The Ythex engine ought to sell well in Marania after that time. Why will it sell well?
Because E : The other manufacturers of small diesel engines in Marania, if there are any, have not produced an engine as popular and clean-running as Ythex's new engine.
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Re: Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
GMATNinja wrote:
Manang wrote:
Conclusion: if the ban is passed, the Ythex engine ought to sell well in Marania after that time.
E is correct IMHO,
Ythex engine is expensive but there is nothing pushing the businesses to switch to this engine. The ban, if enforced, will ultimately mean they have to switch from their current engines. If there is another company that makes inexpensive, more popular and cleaner engines, surely the businesses will switch to that engine.
D is close, but there is no reason to believe that difficulty in enforcing a ban doesn't mean that the ban WILL NOT be enforced at some point.

sayiurway wrote:
I was able to narrow down to D and E but ended up choosing the wrong answer D.

Answer D weakens the conclusion that "So if the ban is passed, the Ythex engine ought to sell well in Marania after that time". However, the fact that the law is difficult to be enforced does not mean that it will never be enforced.

Otherwise, if we negate the answer E "Other manufacturers can produce engine as popular and clean-running as Ythex's", it clearly breaks the conclusion.

Quote:
D. The government's ban on high levels of pollution caused by diesel engines, if passed, will not be difficult to enforce.

Manang and sayiurway are spot on! Just because the ban is difficult to enforce does not mean that it will not be enforced! In order for (D) to work, we'd have to assume that the level of difficulty will actually prevent Marania from enforcing the law.

Quote:
E. The other manufacturers of small diesel engines in Marania, if there are any, have not produced an engine as popular and clean-running as Ythex's new engine.

Consider the logic of the passage: Ythex's main rival is Onez. Onez's product is currently widely used and cheaper than Ythex's new product. However, if the ban is passed, the use of Onez's product will be banned.

The specific logic here is that Ythex's product ought to sell well BECAUSE the ban will eliminate Ythex's main competition. But if other manufacturer's have produced a new product that is JUST AS popular and clean-running as Ythex's product, then Ythex WILL in fact have new competition. If there would be new competition, then we cannot reason that Ythex's product ought to sell well BECAUSE the ban will elimination competition!

In other words, the argument is that Ythex's product ought to sell well when Onez's product goes away. But if other products (regardless of how many) will enter the market when Onez's product goes away, then we have no idea whether competition will increase, decrease, or stay the same. Without (E), we cannot conclude that Ythex's new product ought to sell well.

kausikS wrote:
Why is A wrong?
Negate A:Marania's warehousing and transshipment business buys a few diesel engines of any size than other types of engines.
This shatters the conclusion that the sale of Ythrex should rise right?

Quote:
A. Marania's warehousing and transshipment business buys more diesel engines of any size than other types of engines.

How the number of diesel engines compares to the number of other types of engines does not matter. Maybe diesel engines only represent 10% of the total engines. Regardless, "Ythex's engine is well-suited for use in the thriving warehousing businesses in Marania." We don't care how sales of the new diesel engine compare to sales of other engines.

If the currently used diesel engines are banned and warehousing businesses replace the banned engines with Ythrex's new product, then Ythrex's new product ought to sell well.

I hope that helps!

GMATNinja

When you say, "In order for (D) to work, we'd have to assume that the level of difficulty will actually prevent Marania from enforcing the law" does this mean that even if the law was only slightly effective (10% of the population abided to it), Onez engines could still sell well because 10% of the population now abides to the new ban?

What if this small percentage of the population already had a Onez engine?

Thank you!
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Re: Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
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woohoo921 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
Manang wrote:
Conclusion: if the ban is passed, the Ythex engine ought to sell well in Marania after that time.
E is correct IMHO,
Ythex engine is expensive but there is nothing pushing the businesses to switch to this engine. The ban, if enforced, will ultimately mean they have to switch from their current engines. If there is another company that makes inexpensive, more popular and cleaner engines, surely the businesses will switch to that engine.
D is close, but there is no reason to believe that difficulty in enforcing a ban doesn't mean that the ban WILL NOT be enforced at some point.

sayiurway wrote:
I was able to narrow down to D and E but ended up choosing the wrong answer D.

Answer D weakens the conclusion that "So if the ban is passed, the Ythex engine ought to sell well in Marania after that time". However, the fact that the law is difficult to be enforced does not mean that it will never be enforced.

Otherwise, if we negate the answer E "Other manufacturers can produce engine as popular and clean-running as Ythex's", it clearly breaks the conclusion.

Quote:
D. The government's ban on high levels of pollution caused by diesel engines, if passed, will not be difficult to enforce.

Manang and sayiurway are spot on! Just because the ban is difficult to enforce does not mean that it will not be enforced! In order for (D) to work, we'd have to assume that the level of difficulty will actually prevent Marania from enforcing the law.

GMATNinja

When you say, "In order for (D) to work, we'd have to assume that the level of difficulty will actually prevent Marania from enforcing the law" does this mean that even if the law was only slightly effective (10% of the population abided to it), Onez engines could still sell well because 10% of the population now abides to the new ban?

What if this small percentage of the population already had a Onez engine?

Thank you!

Your analysis is conflating "difficult to enforce" with "won't actually be enforced that well." We just can't make that leap. Something can be difficult to enforce and still actually BE enforced -- for instance, maybe it's tough to enforce security measures in modern airports, but security officials go to great lengths to enforce these measures even though it's hard. We can't assume that the security officials just give up, or only partially enforce the rules, because it's difficult.

Similarly, we can't assume that the difficulty of enforcing the pollution ban will actually prevent the Maranian government from enforcing the rules. So there is no way to say that only a portion of the population will abide by the ban -- the government could still enforce the rules really well, even though it's difficult to do so.

I hope that helps!
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Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
Bunuel wrote:
Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent less particulate pollution than the engine made by its main rival, Onez, now widely used in Marania; Ythex's engine is well-suited for use in the thriving warehousing businesses in Marania, although it costs more than the Onez engine. The Maranian government plans to ban within the next two years the use of diesel engines with more than 80 percent of current diesel engine particulate emissions in Marania, and Onez will probably not be able to retool its engine to reduce emissions to reach this target. So if the ban is passed, the Ythex engine ought to sell well in Marania after that time.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument above depends?

A. Marania's warehousing and transshipment business buys more diesel engines of any size than other types of engines.
B. Ythex is likely to be able to reduce the cost of its small diesel engine within the next two years.
C. The Maranian government is generally favorable to anti-pollution regulations.
D. The government's ban on high levels of pollution caused by diesel engines, if passed, will not be difficult to enforce.
E. The other manufacturers of small diesel engines in Marania, if there are any, have not produced an engine as popular and clean-running as Ythex's new engine.

CR75231.01
Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION

Hi Experts GMATNinja KarishmaB Bunuel egmat mgmat

I get the point that (E) when negated breaks the conclusion but I think there is a little issue with (E), and that's the reason I choose (D). I know I am wrong and that's why wanted your feedback on this issue.

In (E)
Quote:
The other manufacturers of small diesel engines in Marania, if there are any, have not produced an engine as popular and clean-running as Ythex's new engine.
But in the Q stem it says that the government plans to implement the within the next 2 years and currently there are no competitors. There may or may not be new companies which can come up with better cost effective designs. No company will inform beforehand if they are developing something new and can come up suddenly once the ban is implemented. Can you please elaborate more on this thought.

Thanks!
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Re: Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
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GMATking94 wrote:
Bunuel wrote:
Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent less particulate pollution than the engine made by its main rival, Onez, now widely used in Marania; Ythex's engine is well-suited for use in the thriving warehousing businesses in Marania, although it costs more than the Onez engine. The Maranian government plans to ban within the next two years the use of diesel engines with more than 80 percent of current diesel engine particulate emissions in Marania, and Onez will probably not be able to retool its engine to reduce emissions to reach this target. So if the ban is passed, the Ythex engine ought to sell well in Marania after that time.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument above depends?

A. Marania's warehousing and transshipment business buys more diesel engines of any size than other types of engines.
B. Ythex is likely to be able to reduce the cost of its small diesel engine within the next two years.
C. The Maranian government is generally favorable to anti-pollution regulations.
D. The government's ban on high levels of pollution caused by diesel engines, if passed, will not be difficult to enforce.
E. The other manufacturers of small diesel engines in Marania, if there are any, have not produced an engine as popular and clean-running as Ythex's new engine.

CR75231.01
Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION

Hi Experts GMATNinja KarishmaB Bunuel egmat mgmat

I get the point that (E) when negated breaks the conclusion but I think there is a little issue with (E), and that's the reason I choose (D). I know I am wrong and that's why wanted your feedback on this issue.

In (E)
Quote:
The other manufacturers of small diesel engines in Marania, if there are any, have not produced an engine as popular and clean-running as Ythex's new engine.
But in the Q stem it says that the government plans to implement the within the next 2 years and currently there are no competitors. There may or may not be new companies which can come up with better cost effective designs. No company will inform beforehand if they are developing something new and can come up suddenly once the ban is implemented. Can you please elaborate more on this thought.

Thanks!

An assumption is what is necessary for the conclusion to hold, not sufficient.
It is necessary that at least as of now, other companies have not developed such an engine. If they have, then the Ythex engine will have competition so we cannot say that it will sell well.

Another assumption would be that no one is able to develop such an engine in the next two years too.
Another assumption is that most warehousing businesses will not switch to another kind of engine.
etc.

Hope the point is clear. Let me know if you have any doubts.
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Re: Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
KarishmaB wrote:
GMATking94 wrote:
Bunuel wrote:
Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent less particulate pollution than the engine made by its main rival, Onez, now widely used in Marania; Ythex's engine is well-suited for use in the thriving warehousing businesses in Marania, although it costs more than the Onez engine. The Maranian government plans to ban within the next two years the use of diesel engines with more than 80 percent of current diesel engine particulate emissions in Marania, and Onez will probably not be able to retool its engine to reduce emissions to reach this target. So if the ban is passed, the Ythex engine ought to sell well in Marania after that time.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument above depends?

A. Marania's warehousing and transshipment business buys more diesel engines of any size than other types of engines.
B. Ythex is likely to be able to reduce the cost of its small diesel engine within the next two years.
C. The Maranian government is generally favorable to anti-pollution regulations.
D. The government's ban on high levels of pollution caused by diesel engines, if passed, will not be difficult to enforce.
E. The other manufacturers of small diesel engines in Marania, if there are any, have not produced an engine as popular and clean-running as Ythex's new engine.

CR75231.01
Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION

Hi Experts GMATNinja KarishmaB Bunuel egmat mgmat

I get the point that (E) when negated breaks the conclusion but I think there is a little issue with (E), and that's the reason I choose (D). I know I am wrong and that's why wanted your feedback on this issue.

In (E)
Quote:
The other manufacturers of small diesel engines in Marania, if there are any, have not produced an engine as popular and clean-running as Ythex's new engine.
But in the Q stem it says that the government plans to implement the within the next 2 years and currently there are no competitors. There may or may not be new companies which can come up with better cost effective designs. No company will inform beforehand if they are developing something new and can come up suddenly once the ban is implemented. Can you please elaborate more on this thought.

Thanks!

An assumption is what is necessary for the conclusion to hold, not sufficient.
It is necessary that at least as of now, other companies have not developed such an engine. If they have, then the Ythex engine will have competition so we cannot say that it will sell well.

Another assumption would be that no one is able to develop such an engine in the next two years too.
Another assumption is that most warehousing businesses will not switch to another kind of engine.
etc.

Hope the point is clear. Let me know if you have any doubts.

Hi KarishmaB

Thanks for your response.

As you mentioned that the assumption might not be completely sufficient always and you pointed out other possible assumptions.

Quote:
But, I do have a question - "Is is not always the case that assumption must be true" ?
.

In this case this assumption can be false and other assumption might be true - "such as no other company is able to develop a new engine".

I am a bit confused.

Thanks again!
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Re: Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
GMATking94 wrote:
But, I do have a question - "Is is not always the case that assumption must be true" ?

In this case this assumption can be false and other assumption might be true - "such as no other company is able to develop a new engine".

I am a bit confused.

Thanks again!

Our entire argument is based on "no competition for Ythex if the ban is passed in 2 years"

Because Onez (a popular brand) will not be able to retool in 2 years, we are concluding that Ythex (Onez's main competitor) will sell well. But we are assuming that no one else will have a diesel engine within specifications either in 2 years.
For this, both should be true - 'no other company has made such an engine as yet' and 'no other company will be able to make it in the next 2 years either'
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Re: Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
KarishmaB wrote:
GMATking94 wrote:
But, I do have a question - "Is is not always the case that assumption must be true" ?

In this case this assumption can be false and other assumption might be true - "such as no other company is able to develop a new engine".

I am a bit confused.

Thanks again!

Our entire argument is based on "no competition for Ythex if the ban is passed in 2 years"

Because Onez (a popular brand) will not be able to retool in 2 years, we are concluding that Ythex (Onez's main competitor) will sell well. But we are assuming that no one else will have a diesel engine within specifications either in 2 years.
For this, both should be true - 'no other company has made such an engine as yet' and 'no other company will be able to make it in the next 2 years either'

Thanks a lot. I am able to clear my confusion.

KarishmaB
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Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
suramya26 wrote:
I think it has to be D.
If we negate D the option will be "the ban will be difficult to enforce".
If it is difficult to enforce then the sales of Onez may not be affected

Let's say even if the ban is difficult to enforce, it would still be enforced to some extent and result in increased sales for Ythex engine. Also, this option leaves the possibility that it could be enforced strictly at a later point in time, which makes this answer a weak choice.
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Re: Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
How does one do such large passage CR questions within the time frame while negating each answer choice going from A to E? Any tips would be appreciated.

My answer was correct though. Just took much more time.
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Re: Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
DmitryFarber wrote:
ravigupta2912 You certainly shouldn't expect to be able to predict every answer, but this is one that you might want to see coming, at least in broad terms. When I read it, I noticed that they compared the engine only to its main competitor, so I definitely wondered if other companies might be able to retool their factories more quickly or otherwise produce a competitive product. I also wondered if something might cause the new Ythex engine to become subject to the ban, although the existing wording did not hint at that. These ideas came up because I was trying to drive a wedge between the existing premises (lower pollution than competitor; competitor can't catch up in time to avoid ban) with the conclusion (this particular engine will sell well). It's worth continuing to work on prediction, and then always reviewing to see how you might have predicted any answers you didn't think of. Also, if you ended up predicting one of the wrong answers, you also want to review to see why that answer isn't what you need. Keep at it, but in the end, you'll need to be flexible, and sometimes you can spot an answer just fine when you didn't think of it beforehand.

DmitryFarber KarishmaB MartyMurray GMATGuruNY GMATNinjaTwo
I request one of you to review my thought process. Thank you for bearing with me, as I tag multiple experts most of the times. It is my way of ensuring that I get at least one response as early as possible. Thanks again!

Did I make medium question more complicated? Or is my thinking clear? Definitely needs work, but what specifically needs to be worked on?

My thought process was mostly similar to what Dmitry Farber has mentioned above. But I did not think of the part of just mentioning one competitor until I read E.

Nonetheless, to evaluate this sentence and evaluate if there is another way that Ythex engine could be banned, I did the following: "The Maranian government plans to ban within the next two years the use of diesel engines with more than 80 percent of current diesel engine particulate emissions in Marania"

Ythex diesel engines produce 30% less pollution than its rival's. Let's assume Onez engines currently produce 70% of emissions. Therefore, Ythex will produce, 70% of 70%, total 49% pollution.
Govt. will ban any diesel engine that produces more than 80% of current emissions. Let's assume the max pollution is 70%, therefore anything above 80% of 70%, that is 56% will be banned. Ythex is below that limit. This helped me eliminate D. Theoretically as well, even if it is difficult to enforce, we cannot assume that ban won't be enforced.

I was stuck on A, but realized it is more irrelevant. How does the size matter? Probably a tricky distraction.

Finally E is the answer.
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Re: Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
1
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Engineer1 wrote:
I request one of you to review my thought process. Thank you for bearing with me, as I tag multiple experts most of the times. It is my way of ensuring that I get at least one response as early as possible. Thanks again!

Did I make medium question more complicated? Or is my thinking clear? Definitely needs work, but what specifically needs to be worked on?

My thought process was mostly similar to what Dmitry Farber has mentioned above. But I did not think of the part of just mentioning one competitor until I read E.

Nonetheless, to evaluate this sentence and evaluate if there is another way that Ythex engine could be banned, I did the following: "The Maranian government plans to ban within the next two years the use of diesel engines with more than 80 percent of current diesel engine particulate emissions in Marania"

Ythex diesel engines produce 30% less pollution than its rival's. Let's assume Onez engines currently produce 70% of emissions. Therefore, Ythex will produce, 70% of 70%, total 49% pollution.

Govt. will ban any diesel engine that produces more than 80% of current emissions. Let's assume the max pollution is 70%, therefore anything above 80% of 70%, that is 56% will be banned. Ythex is below that limit. This helped me eliminate D.

The passage in this question is not written very well. So, it's not 100 percent clear what "80 percent of current diesel engine particulate emissions in Marania" means. At the same time, it appears to mean "80 percent of the typical particulate emissions of a diesel engine in Marania."

So, since, the passage says that Onez engines are "now widely used in Marania," it appears that Onez engines are typical diesel engines now used in Marania. So, it's likely that an Onez engine produces about 100 percent of the typical emissions typically produced by a diesel engine in Marania, not 70 percent, as you suggested is possible.

Also, since the passage says, "Onez will probably not be able to retool its engine to reduce emissions to reach this target," which is 70 percent of the typical emissions currently produced by a diesel engine in Marania, it appears that an Onez engine produces significantly more than 70 percent of the typical emissions of a diesel engine in Marania.

So, long story short, your reasoning doesn't fit the information provided and was not necessary.

Quote:
Theoretically as well, even if it is difficult to enforce, we cannot assume that ban won't be enforced.

Yes, "difficult" does not mean "will not occur."

Quote:
I was stuck on A, but realized it is more irrelevant. How does the size matter? Probably a tricky distraction.

Exactly.

Quote:
Finally E is the answer.

Yes, E is a necessary assumption.
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Re: Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
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Engineer1 wrote:
DmitryFarber wrote:
ravigupta2912 You certainly shouldn't expect to be able to predict every answer, but this is one that you might want to see coming, at least in broad terms. When I read it, I noticed that they compared the engine only to its main competitor, so I definitely wondered if other companies might be able to retool their factories more quickly or otherwise produce a competitive product. I also wondered if something might cause the new Ythex engine to become subject to the ban, although the existing wording did not hint at that. These ideas came up because I was trying to drive a wedge between the existing premises (lower pollution than competitor; competitor can't catch up in time to avoid ban) with the conclusion (this particular engine will sell well). It's worth continuing to work on prediction, and then always reviewing to see how you might have predicted any answers you didn't think of. Also, if you ended up predicting one of the wrong answers, you also want to review to see why that answer isn't what you need. Keep at it, but in the end, you'll need to be flexible, and sometimes you can spot an answer just fine when you didn't think of it beforehand.

DmitryFarber KarishmaB MartyMurray GMATGuruNY GMATNinjaTwo
I request one of you to review my thought process. Thank you for bearing with me, as I tag multiple experts most of the times. It is my way of ensuring that I get at least one response as early as possible. Thanks again!

Did I make medium question more complicated? Or is my thinking clear? Definitely needs work, but what specifically needs to be worked on?

My thought process was mostly similar to what Dmitry Farber has mentioned above. But I did not think of the part of just mentioning one competitor until I read E.

Nonetheless, to evaluate this sentence and evaluate if there is another way that Ythex engine could be banned, I did the following: "The Maranian government plans to ban within the next two years the use of diesel engines with more than 80 percent of current diesel engine particulate emissions in Marania"

Ythex diesel engines produce 30% less pollution than its rival's. Let's assume Onez engines currently produce 70% of emissions. Therefore, Ythex will produce, 70% of 70%, total 49% pollution.
Govt. will ban any diesel engine that produces more than 80% of current emissions. Let's assume the max pollution is 70%, therefore anything above 80% of 70%, that is 56% will be banned. Ythex is below that limit. This helped me eliminate D. Theoretically as well, even if it is difficult to enforce, we cannot assume that ban won't be enforced.

I was stuck on A, but realized it is more irrelevant. How does the size matter? Probably a tricky distraction.

Finally E is the answer.

There is no Math required here because frankly we can't do any Math. We don't know what exactly the '80% of current' means. All I can say for sure is that emissions need to be reduced; new Ythex engines have acceptable levels while Onex engines cannot be re-tooled on time to become acceptable. That's all.

I eliminated (D) because I have (E). Else I would worry about (D). It is weaker than (E) since 'difficult to enforce' doesn't mean will not be enforced but 'difficult to enforce' does mean issues in enforcing. In another context I might take it to mean that Onex engines will still be used.
Since the entire argument revolves around competition and the point being made is that Ythex will flourish because it will not have competition, so an assumption about no competition from another player makes more sense. Hence I chose (E). It was a close call though.
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Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
Quote:
D. The government's ban on high levels of pollution caused by diesel engines, if passed, will not be difficult to enforce.

I admit that "difficult to enforce" does not mean "cannot be enforced", and in the long run the ban will be on track no matter how hard. The question is how long it will take?
CARB mandated all vehicles in C.A. to be equipped with a catalytic converter in 1970s, and spent more time than planned achieving the goal. That was not the end of the story. Even now, tons of issues related to catalytic converter arise. Can we say "if the mandate is implemented, all ought to have the device on their cars"?
So, we are back to the almighty "in the long run", but it's worth acknowledging that in the long run we are all dead.

Quote:
E. The other manufacturers of small diesel engines in Marania, if there are any, have not produced an engine as popular and clean-running as Ythex's new engine.

There's no message telling us that those nowadays uncompetitive manufacturers will, or will not, produce such an engine in two years. Without more information—another assumption connecting option (E) with the conclusion, it's not possible to predict the future market only based on the current market.
Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent les [#permalink]
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