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A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human

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A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 16 Oct 2017, 05:30
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A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human clones are nothing new; they occur naturally in the recognizable form of identical twins. Not until the successful cloning of a sheep called Dolly, however, has the possibility of intentionally producing an identical copy of a human been considered seriously.

Production of a human clone would most likely utilize the same basic methodology that resulted in Dolly. A human egg would be retrieved from an individual, and its genetic material (DNA) would be removed and replaced with DNA derived from any adult human cell type. This would bypass the need for fertilization of the egg by the sperm in order to obtain a full complement of DNA. In a laboratory dish, the egg would then undergo several cell divisions. Placed into a uterus, the resulting embryo would grow and, with luck, develop until birth.

Although this cloning technique is conceptually and procedurally simple, its success rate has been extremely low. The birth of one Dolly, for instance, required the preparation of 277 re-nucleated eggs, followed by the implantation of 29 resulting best embryos. The low success rate can be attributed to the difference between the young DNA of a normally fertilized egg and the genetic material of the re-nucleated egg, which is mature and of defined destiny - it has already committed itself to a particular physiological role. In order for proper fetal development to occur, mature DNA must be coaxed into reverting to its youthful state, a complex process that will be difficult to achieve for the human species.

Beyond the practical difficulties of intentional human cloning, scientists, politicians, and others have raised serious ethical concerns about this practice. For example, there is a chance that the cloning procedure would adversely affect the developing embryo. There also might be deleterious effects on the long-term health of the clone. Proponents of human cloning counter that human sexual reproduction is not a risk-free affair either. Even if human cloning could be made safe, the motivations behind producing human clones do not fall clearly on one side of the ethical divide. While proponents stress potentially appealing motivations - a man and a woman who are both carriers of a genetic disease can use cloning to assure that their child will not be afflicted with the disorder - critics argue that the practice could and likely would be used for unethical ends, such as to select for certain traits, such as hair/eye color or sexual orientation, for example.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. dismiss a new scientific method as unethical
B. defend a medical procedure against unwarranted attack
C. explain a process and its ramifications
D. describe a hypothesis and its negative consequences
E. analyze the possible outcomes of a new medical approach



2. The author of the passage mentions Dolly most probably in order to

A. suggest that human cloning is feasible
B. show that the ethical concerns against cloning are misguided
C. argue that nonhuman cloning is less efficient than human cloning
D. establish a basis for an argument against human cloning
E. refute a counterargument in favor of human cloning.



3. According to the passage, which of the following is a potential obstacle to human cloning?

A. Lack of adequately prepared human eggs
B. Predetermination of DNA function within the adult body
C. Shortage of funding for additional research
D. Inability to pinpoint specific biological relationships within an egg
E. Unpredictability of chemical reactions within the uterus



4. The passage suggests which of the following?

A. Human cloning is reachable within ten years.
B. The cloning of nonhuman animals has always been successful.
C. The eggs of nonhuman animals are easier to obtain than human eggs.
D. DNA taken from an adult human cell contains DNA from both parents.
E. Human DNA is less predictable than nonhuman DNA.



5. Which of the following is NOT given in the passage as a reason not to pursue human cloning?

A. The unknown effects of cloning on adult human clones.
B. The potential harm to cloned embryos.
C. The chance that cloning will be used to select for only certain socially advantageous characteristics.
D. The technical difficulty of obtaining suitable DNA.
E. The exorbitant costs associated with the medical procedures used in cloning.



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Originally posted by Skywalker18 on 09 Sep 2016, 00:11.
Last edited by hazelnut on 16 Oct 2017, 05:30, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2016, 10:29
Skywalker18 wrote:
All correct in 9 mins 30 seconds , including 2 mins 50 seconds to read


11 min including 3:20 to read. All correct.

Somebody help me to improve time management.

Should I be taking notes on RCs as suggested. I want to master the act of fast active reading
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Re: A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2017, 04:11
Skywalker18 can you explain answer of 4th question ?
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Re: A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Feb 2017, 19:08
1
relhanakshay007 wrote:
Skywalker18 can you explain answer of 4th question ?


Let me try to explain this:

We can find this information in the last one and difficult to find it.

Even if human cloning could be made safe, the motivations behind producing human clones do not fall clearly on one side of the ethical divide. While proponents stress potentially appealing motivations - a man and a woman who are both carriers of a genetic disease can use cloning to assure that their child will not be afflicted with the disorder - critics argue that the practice could and likely would be used for unethical ends, such as to select for certain traits, such as hair/eye color or sexual orientation, for example.


Here we can see that Since human clone can be designed as per the parents choice such as hair/eye colour etc..though it is unethical and with this we can say the human clones are from parents and first bold statement itself is sufficient to answer this question.

Hope this helps.
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Re: A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2017, 23:31
Skywalker18 wrote:
4. The passage suggests which of the following?
A. Human cloning is reachable within ten years.
B. The cloning of nonhuman animals has always been successful.
C. The eggs of nonhuman animals are easier to obtain than human eggs.
D. DNA taken from an adult human cell contains DNA from both parents.
E. Human DNA is less predictable than nonhuman DNA.



Where is it mentioned that 'DNA taken from an adult human cell contains DNA from both parents'.? :cry:
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Re: A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2017, 00:03
dnalost wrote:
Skywalker18 wrote:
4. The passage suggests which of the following?
A. Human cloning is reachable within ten years.
B. The cloning of nonhuman animals has always been successful.
C. The eggs of nonhuman animals are easier to obtain than human eggs.
D. DNA taken from an adult human cell contains DNA from both parents.
E. Human DNA is less predictable than nonhuman DNA.



Where is it mentioned that 'DNA taken from an adult human cell contains DNA from both parents'.? :cry:


Here -
Quote:
While proponents stress potentially appealing motivations - a man and a woman who are both carriers of a genetic disease can use cloning to assure that their child will not be afflicted with the disorder - critics argue that the practice could and likely would be used for unethical ends, such as to select for certain traits, such as hair/eye color or sexual orientation, for example.
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Re: A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Mar 2017, 10:09
3. According to the passage, which of the following is a potential obstacle to human cloning?
A. Lack of adequately prepared human eggs
B. Predetermination of DNA function within the adult body
C. Shortage of funding for additional research
D. Inability to pinpoint specific biological relationships within an egg
E. Unpredictability of chemical reactions within the uterus

where does the author say that predetermination of DNA function within the adult body
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Re: A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2017, 20:17
2
NaeemHasan wrote:
3. According to the passage, which of the following is a potential obstacle to human cloning?
A. Lack of adequately prepared human eggs
B. Predetermination of DNA function within the adult body
C. Shortage of funding for additional research
D. Inability to pinpoint specific biological relationships within an egg
E. Unpredictability of chemical reactions within the uterus

where does the author say that predetermination of DNA function within the adult body


Although this cloning technique is conceptually and procedurally simple, its success rate has been extremely low. The birth of one Dolly, for instance, required the preparation of 277 re-nucleated eggs, followed by the implantation of 29 resulting best embryos. The low success rate can be attributed to the difference between the young DNA of a normally fertilized egg and the genetic material of the re-nucleated egg, which is mature and of defined destiny - it has already committed itself to a particular physiological role. In order for proper fetal development to occur, mature DNA must be coaxed into reverting to its youthful state, a complex process that will be difficult to achieve for the human species.
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Re: A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2017, 19:21
9.33 mins...4 correct...1 wrong. :( I got the 1st question wrong. I would like to see the OE and have any one put down their thoughts for this question.
Thanks in advance.
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A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2017, 05:35
1
Skywalker18 wrote:
A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human clones are nothing new; they occur naturally in the recognizable form of identical twins. Not until the successful cloning of a sheep called Dolly, however, has the possibility of intentionally producing an identical copy of a human been considered seriously.

Production of a human clone would most likely utilize the same basic methodology that resulted in Dolly. A human egg would be retrieved from an individual, and its genetic material (DNA) would be removed and replaced with DNA derived from any adult human cell type. This would bypass the need for fertilization of the egg by the sperm in order to obtain a full complement of DNA. In a laboratory dish, the egg would then undergo several cell divisions. Placed into a uterus, the resulting embryo would grow and, with luck, develop until birth.

Although this cloning technique is conceptually and procedurally simple, its success rate has been extremely low. The birth of one Dolly, for instance, required the preparation of 277 re-nucleated eggs, followed by the implantation of 29 resulting best embryos. The low success rate can be attributed to the difference between the young DNA of a normally fertilized egg and the genetic material of the re-nucleated egg, which is mature and of defined destiny - it has already committed itself to a particular physiological role. In order for proper fetal development to occur, mature DNA must be coaxed into reverting to its youthful state, a complex process that will be difficult to achieve for the human species.

Beyond the practical difficulties of intentional human cloning, scientists, politicians, and others have raised serious ethical concerns about this practice. For example, there is a chance that the cloning procedure would adversely affect the developing embryo. There also might be deleterious effects on the long-term health of the clone. Proponents of human cloning counter that human sexual reproduction is not a risk-free affair either. Even if human cloning could be made safe, the motivations behind producing human clones do not fall clearly on one side of the ethical divide. While proponents stress potentially appealing motivations - a man and a woman who are both carriers of a genetic disease can use cloning to assure that their child will not be afflicted with the disorder - critics argue that the practice could and likely would be used for unethical ends, such as to select for certain traits, such as hair/eye color or sexual orientation, for example.
4. The passage suggests which of the following?

A. Human cloning is reachable within ten years.
B. The cloning of nonhuman animals has always been successful.
C. The eggs of nonhuman animals are easier to obtain than human eggs.
D. DNA taken from an adult human cell contains DNA from both parents.
E. Human DNA is less predictable than nonhuman DNA.



relhanakshay007

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION


The second paragraph states "A human egg would be retrieved from an individual, and its genetic material (DNA) would be removed and replaced with DNA derived from any adult human cell type. THIS would bypass the need for fertilization of the egg by the sperm in order to obtain a full complement of DNA." This implies that the DNA from the adult cell already contains DNA from the egg (mother) and the sperm (father).

(A) The passage does not address anything about the time table for success with human cloning.

(B) The passage directly contradicts this statement by noting, in paragraph three, how difficult it was to clone Dolly. In addition, the word "always" is extreme.

(C) The passage does not imply this; if anything, it implies that the similarity between the two types of egg is part of the reason why the success of cloning Dolly may translate into success with human cloning.

(D) CORRECT. As noted above, the passage implies that an adult cell contains DNA from both parents.

(E) The passage does not imply this; if anything, it implies that the similarity between the two types of DNA is part of the reason why the success of cloning Dolly may translate into success with human cloning.
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Re: A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2018, 11:36
Hi Experts,
Can anyone of you please explain solution to Q3?
Its an according to... type question. Yet i am unable to understand how exactly is B is the answer. And where is it stated by the author. Please help.
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Re: A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2018, 15:55
9:29min 4 correct but I got #4 wrong (selected E)
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Re: A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2018, 05:48
3. According to the passage, which of the following is a potential obstacle to human cloning?

A. Lack of adequately prepared human eggs
B. Predetermination of DNA function within the adult body
C. Shortage of funding for additional research
D. Inability to pinpoint specific biological relationships within an egg
E. Unpredictability of chemical reactions within the uterus

Answer to this question is in these lines : The low success rate can be attributed to the difference between the young DNA of a normally fertilized egg and the genetic material of the re-nucleated egg, which is mature and of defined destiny - it has already committed itself to a particular physiological role.
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Re: A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2018, 22:28
sambit66 wrote:
Hi Experts,
Can anyone of you please explain solution to Q3?
Its an according to... type question. Yet i am unable to understand how exactly is B is the answer. And where is it stated by the author. Please help.


The third paragraph states "The low success rate can be attributed to the difference between the young DNA of a normally fertilized egg and the genetic material of the re-nucleated egg, which is mature and of defined destiny – it has already committed itself to a particular physiological role." This means that human cloning faces difficulties in overcoming the fixed roles of mature DNA.

Quote:
Option B: Predetermination of DNA function within the adult body


CORRECT. "Predetermination" reflects the fixed rolls of DNA found with "mature" or adult cells.
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A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2018, 08:00
msk0657 wrote:
relhanakshay007 wrote:
Skywalker18 can you explain answer of 4th question ?


Let me try to explain this:

We can find this information in the last one and difficult to find it.

Even if human cloning could be made safe, the motivations behind producing human clones do not fall clearly on one side of the ethical divide. While proponents stress potentially appealing motivations - a man and a woman who are both carriers of a genetic disease can use cloning to assure that their child will not be afflicted with the disorder - critics argue that the practice could and likely would be used for unethical ends, such as to select for certain traits, such as hair/eye color or sexual orientation, for example.


Here we can see that Since human clone can be designed as per the parents choice such as hair/eye colour etc..though it is unethical and with this we can say the human clones are from parents and first bold statement itself is sufficient to answer this question.

Hope this helps.


msk0657 , workout

Can you please provide explanation for 3rd question. I am still not clear

It seems people are arriving at option B by reading the last part of para 3 which states that "it has already committed itself to a particular physiological role. In order for proper fetal development to occur, mature DNA must be coaxed into reverting to its youthful state,"

I am not convinced that it is the correct reasoning. The POTENTIAL obstacle to cloning is hidden in para 4 end which states "critics argue that the practice could and likely would be used for unethical ends, such as to select for certain traits, ". So we can see that is an example of Predetermination of DNA function within the adult body which is mentioned in option B.

Please comment
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A clone is a genetically identical copy of a living organism. Human &nbs [#permalink] 03 Sep 2018, 08:00
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