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A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend

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A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend to manipulate other people a great deal more than nonaddicts do. The researcher concluded that people who frequently manipulate other people are likely to become addicts.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the researcher’s conclusion?


(A) After becoming addicted to drugs, drug addicts learn to manipulate other people as a way of obtaining drugs.
(B) When they are imprisoned, drug addicts often use their ability to manipulate other people to obtain better living conditions.
(C) Some nonaddicts manipulate other people more than some addicts do.
(D) People who are likely to become addicts exhibit unusual behavior patterns other than frequent manipulation of other people.
(E) The addicts that the researcher studied were often unsuccessful in obtaining what they wanted when they manipulated other people.

Originally posted by govinam on 18 Sep 2006, 16:11.
Last edited by Bunuel on 15 Mar 2018, 22:41, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic, edited the question and added the OA.
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Re: A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2006, 16:45
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(A) After becoming addicted to drugs, drug addicts learn to manipulate other people as a way of obtaining drugs.

If addicts learn to become manipulative after becoming one, then the researchers assertion that the people who are manipulative become addicts falls apart. The causal relationship is no longer evident.
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1 for A, A is directly opp. to what is mentioned  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2012, 23:00
+1 for A, A is directly opp. to what is mentioned.
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Re: 13.12  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2012, 23:11
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ssarkar wrote:
A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend to manipulate other people a great deal more than nonaddicts do. The researcher concluded that people who frequently manipulate other people are likely to become addicts.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the researcher’s conclusion?
(A) After becoming addicted to drugs, drug addicts learn to manipulate other people as a way of obtaining drugs.
(B) When they are imprisoned, drug addicts often use their ability to manipulate other people to obtain better living conditions.
(C) Some nonaddicts manipulate other people more than some addicts do.
(D) People who are likely to become addicts exhibit unusual behavior patterns other than frequent manipulation of other people.
(E) The addicts that the researcher studied were often unsuccessful in obtaining what they wanted when they manipulated other people.



This is a Cause-Effect relationship.

Cause -> Frequent Manipulation of People
Effect -> becoming a Drug Addict.

A) After becoming Drug Addicts, manipulation of people happens.
This clearly reverses the causal effect relationship under question.
Could be the answer
B) This just says Drug Addicts have the ability to manipulate people.
C) Non-addicts are not in picture.
D) Unusual behaviour patterns is out of scope.
E) Clearly not the answer.

A is the answer.
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Re: A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2012, 00:20
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Why is the answer not D? In the given case, the author concludes that manipulative behavior causes people to become addicts. Thus, A causes B. The CR bible says that if we can show that there are other factors at play that cause B, and A is not the only one, then it undermines or weakens the argument. The choice D tells us that manipulative behavior is the not the sole reason for people becoming addict, i.e. A alone is not responsible for the cause of B. Can't we take such a reasoning to say that D indeed is the correct choice?
Help appreciated.
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Re: A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2012, 01:57
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D is an information that just increases the knowledge; okay the guys can manipulate + do some other behavior also
but this information doesnt weaken to any extent. The argument talks of the case in bold

Hence A
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Re: A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2012, 10:40
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Yes, the answer is 100% A

This argument is the typical correlation causation problem we see with many CR questions. Researchers have found a high incidence of those who manipulate others within drug addicts. They conclude that it is the manipulation that leads people to become drug addicts.

To weaken the argument, we can:

1) Remove the manipulation and show that people are still drug addicts

2) Give an alternate cause for drug addiction, or

3) Show that drug addiction leads to manipulation

The only answer choice that clearly does any of the above, is A.

Choice D, as many people who posted above me said, does not specifically attack the argument. It is a very weak attempt at weakening the argument...
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Re: A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2012, 05:16
Has to (a)

Option A strengthens the possibility of reverse causality

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Re: A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2018, 04:50
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A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend to manipulate other people a great deal more than nonaddicts do. The researcher concluded that people who frequently manipulate other people are likely to become addicts.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the researcher’s conclusion?


(A) After becoming addicted to drugs, drug addicts learn to manipulate other people as a way of obtaining drugs. Drug addicts learn to manipulate other people after becoming addicted to drugs. This weakens the the argument. Correct
(B) When they are imprisoned, drug addicts often use their ability to manipulate other people to obtain better living conditions. Irrevelent
(C) Some nonaddicts manipulate other people more than some addicts do. The stimulus is talking about the entire group not some people from the group, Incorrecr
(D) People who are likely to become addicts exhibit unusual behavior patterns other than frequent manipulation of other people. Incorrect, Does not weaken the argument.
(E) The addicts that the researcher studied were often unsuccessful in obtaining what they wanted when they manipulated other people. Incorrect, Does not weaken the argument
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Re: A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2018, 21:25
govinam wrote:
A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend to manipulate other people a great deal more than nonaddicts do. The researcher concluded that people who frequently manipulate other people are likely to become addicts.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the researcher’s conclusion?


(A) After becoming addicted to drugs, drug addicts learn to manipulate other people as a way of obtaining drugs.
(B) When they are imprisoned, drug addicts often use their ability to manipulate other people to obtain better living conditions.
(C) Some nonaddicts manipulate other people more than some addicts do.
(D) People who are likely to become addicts exhibit unusual behavior patterns other than frequent manipulation of other people.
(E) The addicts that the researcher studied were often unsuccessful in obtaining what they wanted when they manipulated other people.


(A) After becoming addicted to drugs, drug addicts learn to manipulate other people as a way of obtaining drugs.
Correct This opposes the argument and establishes that addicts become good at manipulating others and not other way round.
(B) When they are imprisoned, drug addicts often use their ability to manipulate other people to obtain better living conditions.
Incorrect. This does not specify is one is a result of the other.
(C) Some nonaddicts manipulate other people more than some addicts do.
Incorrect.So what ? Does'nt make a difference.
(D) People who are likely to become addicts exhibit unusual behavior patterns other than frequent manipulation of other people.
Incorrect. We need a relation b/w addiction and manipulation, other behaviour does'nt really matter.
(E) The addicts that the researcher studied were often unsuccessful in obtaining what they wanted when they manipulated other people.
Incorrect. It strengthens the argument that addicts are weak manipulatiors.
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Re: A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jan 2019, 20:28
govinam wrote:
A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend to manipulate other people a great deal more than nonaddicts do. The researcher concluded that people who frequently manipulate other people are likely to become addicts.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the researcher’s conclusion?
(A) After becoming addicted to drugs, drug addicts learn to manipulate other people as a way of obtaining drugs.
(B) When they are imprisoned, drug addicts often use their ability to manipulate other people to obtain better living conditions.
(C) Some nonaddicts manipulate other people more than some addicts do.
(D) People who are likely to become addicts exhibit unusual behavior patterns other than frequent manipulation of other people.
(E) The addicts that the researcher studied were often unsuccessful in obtaining what they wanted when they manipulated other people.


People who manipulate -> Other people become addicts
Cause -> Effect

Only in A, this is reversed.
When they were addict, they learnt how to manipulate

(A) After becoming addicted to drugs, drug addicts learn to manipulate other people as a way of obtaining drugs.
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Re: A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jan 2019, 21:34
for cause and effect questions, always reverse it. i.e, effect leads to cause or effect is because of some other reason

so Ans A
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A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2019, 10:59
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so it is between a and d.

Option a is clearly the opposite of the conclusion drawn in the argument.

Option D doesn't really weaken the argument as much as option A does. Notice the wording of option D. it says --> People who are likely to become addicts exhibit unusual behaviour patterns other than frequent manipulation of other people...this means that not so frequent manipulation can still be a cause. if anything, this option can strengthen the argument, slightly.

Hence the answer choice A is the correct answer
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A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2019, 11:11
Hello

Somehow I still cannot let go this one away. I totally agree about A. But D ... I don't know. The author explicitly uses the word "frequently manipulate other people". That is his or her necessary condition, the degree of repetition is set. Here's D says:

(D) People who are likely to become addicts exhibit unusual behavior patterns other than frequent manipulation of other people.

Which translates to that people who are likely to become addicts (note not necessarily DRUG addicts) do not exhibit "frequent manipulation. So basically D takes away the author's necessary condition, and, in my opinion, weaken the author's conclusion. It doesn't matter that people who are likely to become addicts may show some manipulation (not frequent). Again, the author specifically notes "frequent" and so is in conflict with D.

Could anybody please explain what I am potentially missing out?

Thank you

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Re: A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2019, 10:25
Premise: DA-->Manipulate people
Conclusion If someone Manipulates people--> likely to be drug addict

Only A breaks the conclusion by saying that drug addicts learn manipulation only after they become addicts. Hence A
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Re: A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2019, 11:36
I am confused between A & D here. I can clearly see that A is correct and thats what I have marked. But, I have no idea how D isnt the right answer.

The confusion, in my opinion, lies in the meaning of the word "Other than". If we take other than to mean, apart from or in addition to, D can easily be eliminated.
The another meaning of "Other than" can be except. In that case, The sentence is trying to convey that there are other indicators and not the one author is talking about. So it weakens author's conclusion by saying that the said indicator is not relavant.

Can experts please clarify? egmat mikemcgarry GMATNinja
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Re: A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2019, 20:19
darshak1 wrote:
I am confused between A & D here. I can clearly see that A is correct and thats what I have marked. But, I have no idea how D isnt the right answer.

The confusion, in my opinion, lies in the meaning of the word "Other than". If we take other than to mean, apart from or in addition to, D can easily be eliminated.
The another meaning of "Other than" can be except. In that case, The sentence is trying to convey that there are other indicators and not the one author is talking about. So it weakens author's conclusion by saying that the said indicator is not relavant.

Can experts please clarify? egmat mikemcgarry GMATNinja

Quote:
(D) People who are likely to become addicts exhibit unusual behavior patterns other than frequent manipulation of other people.

Here, "other than" means "outside of." It is possible that the people referred to in (D) display only these additional "unusual behavior patterns," or that they both frequently manipulate others and display other unusual behavior patterns.

Let's say that the "unusual behavior pattern" in (D) is excessive nose picking. (D) tells us that people who are likely to become addicts are DEFINITELY excessive nose pickers. However, (D) does NOT tell us whether these likely addicts frequently manipulate other people -- maybe they do, and maybe they do not. In other words, the information in (D) does not exclude the possibility that people who are likely to become addicts frequently manipulate others.

Because (D) does not give us any relevant information pertaining to the conclusion in the passage ("people who frequently manipulate other people are likely to become addicts"), it does not weaken that conclusion.

I hope that helps!
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Re: A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2019, 21:24
govinam wrote:
A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend to manipulate other people a great deal more than nonaddicts do. The researcher concluded that people who frequently manipulate other people are likely to become addicts.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the researcher’s conclusion?


(A) After becoming addicted to drugs, drug addicts learn to manipulate other people as a way of obtaining drugs.
(B) When they are imprisoned, drug addicts often use their ability to manipulate other people to obtain better living conditions.
(C) Some nonaddicts manipulate other people more than some addicts do.
(D) People who are likely to become addicts exhibit unusual behavior patterns other than frequent manipulation of other people.
(E) The addicts that the researcher studied were often unsuccessful in obtaining what they wanted when they manipulated other people.


A and D shortlists

D talks about people who are likely to become addicts while the conclusion talks about people who manipulate others. Therefore, D is rejected
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Re: A researcher studying drug addicts found that, on average, they tend   [#permalink] 02 Sep 2019, 21:24
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