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A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed

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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2018, 01:05
i am anxious between choice c and e. it takes me a long time for these choices.
choice c somewat contradict the evidence in the argument. in many og problems, we see the choices which contradict or repeat the evidence. these choices are traps. I dont know why gmat offer these answer choices. gmat wants us to realize what is evidence and evidence can not be changed.
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2018, 12:11
Bunuel wrote:
A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed in-home assistance with a similar sample of Israeli people. The people in the two samples received both informal assistance, provided by family and friends, and formal assistance, professionally provided. Although Sweden and Israel have equally well-funded and comprehensive systems for providing formal assistance, the study found that the people in the Swedish sample received more formal assistance, on average, than those in the Israeli sample.

Which of the following, if true, does most to explain the difference that the study found?


A. A companion study found that among children needing special in-home care, the amount of formal assistance they received was roughly the same in Sweden as in Israel.

B. More Swedish than Israeli people older than 75 live in rural areas where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent.

C. Although in both Sweden and Israel much of the funding for formal assistance ultimately comes from the central government, the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries.

D. In recent decades, the increase in life expectancy of someone who is 75 years old has been greater in Israel than in Sweden.

E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone.


NEW question from GMAT® Official Guide 2019


(CR04140)


ARGUMENT CONSTRUCTION:
Two samples taken for study.
The sample is collection of people above 75 Years of age from two different countries.
The similarity in the two samples is that
(a) both the samples ( from two diif countries) require help at home.
(b) this help is provided personally by family / friends and professionally by govt.
(c) the funding to provide home assistance is similar in both the countries.

Results of Study:
Irrespective of so many similar conditions more formal help provided in Swedish sample than in Israeli sample.

One way to tackle a Paradox question is to pre-think on
(a) Alternate Explanation
(b) If its a plan then Improper implementation of plan
(c) Improper Comparison.

Lets see if we can give alternate explanation to finding of study.
What if some conditions existed that demanded more home assistance from professorial care to Swedish people than to Israeli People.


Lets Evaluate the answer choices and find a reason to reject each incorrect choice. .

A. A companion study found that among children needing special in-home care, the amount of formal assistance they received was roughly the same in Sweden as in Israel.
Incorrect
This talks about a different study and different set of people altogether. The sample is all children while the sample in question is of people older than 75.

B. More Swedish than Israeli people older than 75 live in rural areas where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent.

Incorrect. This actually accentuates the paradox.
Probably the sample of Swedish considered in study are from rural areas, and in such places formal assistance is non-existence. Then how was that the Swedish people got more formal assistance than Israeli.

C. Although in both Sweden and Israel much of the funding for formal assistance ultimately comes from the central government, the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries.
Incorrect

If we were to analyze this portion "the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries. " that would help us evaluation the choice.

Ok, local structures could be different, but how can we conclusively make the point that the difference in structure led to the findings in the study. " different structure" is a broad word from which any inferences can be drawn in either favor or against the results of study.

D. In recent decades, the increase in life expectancy of someone who is 75 years old has been greater in Israel than in Sweden.
Incorrect
This statement does nothing to actually resolve our curiosity that the question threw at us. All we know that study has considered a sample whose subject were people over 75 years of age. Now country Y having better life expectancy of the group considered in sample no where relates the paradox that we have at hand.

E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone.
Correct: Two Reasons for this being correct .
First ,We have eliminated all the incorrect answers and are left with only one, so this must be a right answer.
Second, this option tells us talks about living conditions of the two groups considered in sample. How does this resolve the paradox.
It says Israeli people older than 75 ( ok this is the sample of people considered in study )live with children, so they probably get home assistance from personal means more than professional means
Sweden people of that age ( age 75 years and old) tend to live alone.So to provide home assistance probably professional help is required.
Ok This explains the paradox
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A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2018, 14:34
A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed in-home assistance with a similar sample of Israeli people. The people in the two samples received both informal assistance, provided by family and friends, and formal assistance, professionally provided. Although Sweden and Israel have equally well-funded and comprehensive systems for providing formal assistance, the study found that the people in the Swedish sample received more formal assistance, on average, than those in the Israeli sample.

Which of the following, if true, does most to explain the difference that the study found?

A. A companion study found that among children needing special in-home care, the amount of formal assistance they received was roughly the same in Sweden as in Israel.

B. More Swedish than Israeli people older than 75 live in rural areas where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent.

C. Although in both Sweden and Israel much of the funding for formal assistance ultimately comes from the central government, the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries.

D. In recent decades, the increase in life expectancy of someone who is 75 years old has been greater in Israel than in Sweden.

E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone.


BID (Boil It Down): Swedes receive more formal assistance than Israelis

Facts To Reconcile
1) Swedes and Israelis have equally good systems for formal assistance for in-home needs for older people.
2) The Swedes received more formal assistance.

The Goal: Find an option that explains why the two groups don’t receive equal amounts of formal assistance.

Choice E nails it. Since people in Israel are more likely to live with their children, of course they are going to have greater opportunity for informal care. If family members are living with these 75+ year olds in Israel, of course they are going to have more informal care. It would be incidental because they are not as dependent on formal services, so it’s not surprising then that of course Israelis would, on average, receive less formal care. This option resolves the seeming discrepancy.

Choice A is Out of Focus. We’re not dealing with children, and any information about children is irrelevant to the discussion of an imbalance in formal care for older people.

Choice B is a 180. It actually provides a reason why Swedes would have LESS formal care than Israelis, not more.

Choice C points out a difference that has no obvious impact on the frequency of formal care. How does the difference in structure/delivery process of formal care in each country affect the amount of formal assistance received? It doesn’t.

Choice D touches on expectancy/ the total number of people who might receive care, but that does not impact the discrepancy between levels of formal care.

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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2018, 23:07
GMATNinja

Do you have any tips on handling traps like C? It requires an additional assumption that because of the differences in structure, Sweden receives more formal assistance. Otherwise, it does not signify whether the level of assistance is the same or not.

I've seen a lot of answer choices like this and always choose them... Are there ways to avoid this trap?
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jan 2019, 03:08
bbn2 wrote:
It requires an additional assumption that because of the differences in structure, Sweden receives more formal assistance. Otherwise, it does not signify whether the level of assistance is the same or not.

Look at the portion of your response in bold: without adding any assumptions to the answer choice, you can't determine whether the elderly in Sweden receive more formal care than the elderly in Israel. Now, we know that they do (because it is stated in the passage), but we need an answer choice that shows why they receive more care. If an answer choice does not provide that missing link, then it cannot be the right answer. You need something that specifically addresses the discrepancy.

Let's compare the above explanation of (C) to the correct answer, (E):

Quote:
E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone.

This answer specifies what is different about each group: the elderly in Israel tend to live with their children, while the elderly in Sweden tend to live alone. Using the the passage's definition of informal assistance ("provided by family and friends"), we can now conclude that the elderly in Israel receive more informal care, and thus would require less formal care.

The main difference between (C) and (E) is that (E) provides specific justification for the finding (that the Swedish use more formal care), while (C) only opens the possibility that there is a difference in the two programs, without providing information that actually explains the fact that the Swedish population receives more formal assistance.

As far as tips go: this really isn't sexy or exciting, but doing well on CR mostly boils down to reading the question and passage with precision. As you go through the answer choices, remind yourself that you are looking for an explanation that fills in the information gap and addresses the actual discrepancy, EXACTLY as it's phrased in the passage.

I hope this helps!
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New post 21 Aug 2019, 05:56
Not satisfied with option (E).
It is not established that the more formal assistance any sample receives, the fewer informal assistance he/she would get. Formal and informal assistance are not mutually exclusive. In other words, the possibility is still open that any sample receives a great number of informal assistance and formal assistance at the same time. In l’s case, subject could receive more formal assistance than S does, even if he/she lives with children.

I understand that, after eliminating other options, (E) is the only ‘rather’ reasonable one left. But it is not convincing enough to be marked even as a Contender.
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2019, 22:12
Bunuel wrote:
A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed in-home assistance with a similar sample of Israeli people. The people in the two samples received both informal assistance, provided by family and friends, and formal assistance, professionally provided. Although Sweden and Israel have equally well-funded and comprehensive systems for providing formal assistance, the study found that the people in the Swedish sample received more formal assistance, on average, than those in the Israeli sample.

Which of the following, if true, does most to explain the difference that the study found?


A. A companion study found that among children needing special in-home care, the amount of formal assistance they received was roughly the same in Sweden as in Israel.

B. More Swedish than Israeli people older than 75 live in rural areas where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent.

C. Although in both Sweden and Israel much of the funding for formal assistance ultimately comes from the central government, the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries.

D. In recent decades, the increase in life expectancy of someone who is 75 years old has been greater in Israel than in Sweden.

E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone.


NEW question from GMAT® Official Guide 2019


(CR04140)


I am still not sure about this question. The study found that Swedish people receive more formal assistance on average than Israeli people even though the program providing it is equally well funded. This to me means that per person spending for Swedish people is more than for Israeli. Hence either Swedish people have more money for the program or lesser people are participating in the program. We know the former isn't true hence lesser number of people are participating in the program in Sweden.

A - Irrelevant
B - If more Swedish people live in rural areas where formal assistance is sparse, which means the number of people receiving formal assistance is lesser hence the average formal assistance is more. I think B does explain the difference in study.
C - Irrelevant
D - Irrelevant
E - This statement shows the lesser people in Israel receive formal assistance as they are helped by family. This to me does not explain the difference in the study at all.

I am stumped. Can someone please explain what is faulty in my reasoning for B and E?
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Oct 2019, 06:44
moonriver0523 wrote:
Not satisfied with option (E).
It is not established that the more formal assistance any sample receives, the fewer informal assistance he/she would get. Formal and informal assistance are not mutually exclusive. In other words, the possibility is still open that any sample receives a great number of informal assistance and formal assistance at the same time. In l’s case, subject could receive more formal assistance than S does, even if he/she lives with children.

I understand that, after eliminating other options, (E) is the only ‘rather’ reasonable one left. But it is not convincing enough to be marked even as a Contender.

The questions asks, "Which of the following, if true, does most to explain the difference that the study found?"

You've said yourself that (E) the only reasonable choice available. That makes it a perfectly suitable answer to the question that we were given.

Wanting the most reasonable answer to choice to go further — to be more convincing, to more fully explain the paradox (or weaken the argument, or prove the conclusion, and so forth) is a pitfall you'll want to avoid. We're not looking for a PERFECT answer. Just the best one.

(E) does more than any other answer choice to explain the difference, so keep it. It's really that simple, even if it's not very satisfying.
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed   [#permalink] 19 Oct 2019, 06:44

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