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A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed

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A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed in-home assistance with a similar sample of Israeli people. The people in the two samples received both informal assistance, provided by family and friends, and formal assistance, professionally provided. Although Sweden and Israel have equally well-funded and comprehensive systems for providing formal assistance, the study found that the people in the Swedish sample received more formal assistance, on average, than those in the Israeli sample.

Which of the following, if true, does most to explain the difference that the study found?


A. A companion study found that among children needing special in-home care, the amount of formal assistance they received was roughly the same in Sweden as in Israel.

B. More Swedish than Israeli people older than 75 live in rural areas where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent.

C. Although in both Sweden and Israel much of the funding for formal assistance ultimately comes from the central government, the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries.

D. In recent decades, the increase in life expectancy of someone who is 75 years old has been greater in Israel than in Sweden.

E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone.


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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2018, 05:25
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A. A companion study found that among children needing special in-home care, the amount of formal assistance they received was roughly the same in Sweden as in Israel. - irrelevant.

B. More Swedish than Israeli people older than 75 live in rural areas where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent. - opposite of what we are looking for.

C. Although in both Sweden and Israel much of the funding for formal assistance ultimately comes from the central government, //the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries.// - thus, the functioning of the local structures might be different in a positive or negative way, which leads to the difference. Looks good. Keep.

D. In recent decades, the increase in life expectancy of someone who is 75 years old has been greater in Israel than in Sweden. - ok. But, since the premise states that the sample tested, was similar, so we cannot assume any difference in number of people of the nature of the sample. It is tempting. But, often these kind of tempting options are traps in which I have taken several times. So, thus time I won't and see what proceeds.

E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone. - irrelevant.

Thus, C is best.


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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2018, 05:55
E is more appealing.Explains why sweden is more and isreal is less.

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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2018, 06:07
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Bunuel wrote:
A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed in-home assistance with a similar sample of Israeli people. The people in the two samples received both informal assistance, provided by family and friends, and formal assistance, professionally provided. Although Sweden and Israel have equally well-funded and comprehensive systems for providing formal assistance, the study found that the people in the Swedish sample received more formal assistance, on average, than those in the Israeli sample.

Which of the following, if true, does most to explain the difference that the study found?


Ans: E {IMO}

A. A companion study found that among children needing special in-home care, the amount of formal assistance they received was roughly the same in Sweden as in Israel. (children are not the point of discussion here) X

B. More Swedish than Israeli people older than 75 live in rural areas where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent. (This goes against the finding. If Swedish people live in area where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent then in survey they must receive less but result of the survey is opposite.) X

C. Although in both Sweden and Israel much of the funding for formal assistance ultimately comes from the central government, the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries. (This just says that structure is different but doesn't say anything about how it affects the services) X

D. In recent decades, the increase in life expectancy of someone who is 75 years old has been greater in Israel than in Sweden. (as per this again average has to be higher for Israel but result shows otherwise.) X

E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone. ( here because in Isarel older people tend to live with the family they receive informal Services on higher side and this makes Sweden's formal services on higher side on average.) Suffi.
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2018, 06:09
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SonalSinha803 wrote:
A. A companion study found that among children needing special in-home care, the amount of formal assistance they received was roughly the same in Sweden as in Israel. - irrelevant.

B. More Swedish than Israeli people older than 75 live in rural areas where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent. - opposite of what we are looking for.

C. Although in both Sweden and Israel much of the funding for formal assistance ultimately comes from the central government, //the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries.// - thus, the functioning of the local structures might be different in a positive or negative way, which leads to the difference. Looks good. Keep.

D. In recent decades, the increase in life expectancy of someone who is 75 years old has been greater in Israel than in Sweden. - ok. But, since the premise states that the sample tested, was similar, so we cannot assume any difference in number of people of the nature of the sample. It is tempting. But, often these kind of tempting options are traps in which I have taken several times. So, thus time I won't and see what proceeds.

E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone. - irrelevant.

Thus, C is best.


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I disagree with choice E beeing irrelevant, more people living with their childern indicates a potential for a larger degree of informal support (provided by the children due to the proximity), therefore a the potential demand for formal support could be smaller as children already take care of some of the issues which might lead Swedish elderly people to seek support!

With regards to C, as it was mentioned in the original passage that the systems in both countries are the same with regards to comprehensivness I assume that this goes both for the federal as well as for the regional level.

Hope this helps.

Best regards,
Chris
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2018, 21:55
I am also confused between C & E.Marked E as answer.Let's wait for OA.
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2018, 22:50
IMO E.

Since people living alone will be receiving less of informal help, therefore they must be depending more on formal help.
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 03:16
In C, we have to assume that the differences in which the assistances are delivered can affect the demand for formal asistances.
In choice E, it suggests that the informal assistance is more available in israel, hence the people require fewer assistances from professional agency.
The correct choice should be E.


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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 03:57
Arro44 wrote:
SonalSinha803 wrote:
A. A companion study found that among children needing special in-home care, the amount of formal assistance they received was roughly the same in Sweden as in Israel. - irrelevant.

B. More Swedish than Israeli people older than 75 live in rural areas where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent. - opposite of what we are looking for.

C. Although in both Sweden and Israel much of the funding for formal assistance ultimately comes from the central government, //the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries.// - thus, the functioning of the local structures might be different in a positive or negative way, which leads to the difference. Looks good. Keep.

D. In recent decades, the increase in life expectancy of someone who is 75 years old has been greater in Israel than in Sweden. - ok. But, since the premise states that the sample tested, was similar, so we cannot assume any difference in number of people of the nature of the sample. It is tempting. But, often these kind of tempting options are traps in which I have taken several times. So, thus time I won't and see what proceeds.

E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone. - irrelevant.

Thus, C is best.


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I disagree with choice E beeing irrelevant, more people living with their childern indicates a potential for a larger degree of informal support (provided by the children due to the proximity), therefore a the potential demand for formal support could be smaller as children already take care of some of the issues which might lead Swedish elderly people to seek support!

With regards to C, as it was mentioned in the original passage that the systems in both countries are the same with regards to comprehensivness I assume that this goes both for the federal as well as for the regional level.

Hope this helps.

Best regards,
Chris
Hey,

I guess you are right. I read the argument 2nd time and I believe E is a more appropriate answer.

Thanks
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 07:34
Premise:
Fact1- a study of Swedish people older than 75 who needed in-home assistance with a similar sample of Israeli people.
Fact2- The people in the two samples received both informal assistance, provided by family and friends, and formal assistance, professionally provided. --- Which means that both the group of people received same care in all possible ways.
Fact3- Sweden and Israel have equally well-funded and comprehensive systems for providing formal assistance.

Conclusion:
the study found that the people in the Swedish sample received more formal assistance, on average, than those in the Israeli sample.

Pre-thinking:
So why Swedish sample received more formal assistance? Well for understanding this thing completely one must understand that for living, one need equal amount of assistance, no matter in which form it is coming. Which means if one is getting a type of assistance more then one must be getting other type of assistance lesser. As conclusion stated that Swedish sample received more formal assistance this means they are getting lesser assistance from family and friends. on the other hand Israel people are getting less formal assistance, which means more of the assistance from family and friends.


Which of the following, if true, does most to explain the difference that the study found?

A. A companion study found that among children needing special in-home care, the amount of formal assistance they received was roughly the same in Sweden as in Israel. ---- this study is not about children. out of scope.

B. More Swedish than Israeli people older than 75 live in rural areas where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent. --- if so then only family and friends assistance is available. but also it break down every thing, if considered true. so this one is not explaining the conclusion.

C. Although in both Sweden and Israel much of the funding for formal assistance ultimately comes from the central government, the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries. --- how there two type of assistance are given is not the concern here.

D. In recent decades, the increase in life expectancy of someone who is 75 years old has been greater in Israel than in Sweden. ---- out of scope.

E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone. --- onr the line of pre-thinking.
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 08:58
C it is, E doesn’t indicate that people who live alone need formal assistance.
Pls correct me.
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 09:19
karthikkaushik91 wrote:
C it is, E doesn’t indicate that people who live alone need formal assistance.
Pls correct me.
Cheers,
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Posted from my mobile device


Hello Karthik,

maybe below explanation is helpful in this regard:

Arro44 wrote:
I disagree with choice E beeing irrelevant, more people living with their childern indicates a potential for a larger degree of informal support (provided by the children due to the proximity), therefore a the potential demand for formal support could be smaller as children already take care of some of the issues which might lead Swedish elderly people to seek support!

With regards to C, as it was mentioned in the original passage that the systems in both countries are the same with regards to comprehensivness I assume that this goes both for the federal as well as for the regional level.

Hope this helps.

Best regards,
Chris

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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 23:37
Bunuel wrote:
A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed in-home assistance with a similar sample of Israeli people. The people in the two samples received both informal assistance, provided by family and friends, and formal assistance, professionally provided. Although Sweden and Israel have equally well-funded and comprehensive systems for providing formal assistance, the study found that the people in the Swedish sample received more formal assistance, on average, than those in the Israeli sample.


Argument: Need a reason to explain why Swedish people older than 75 received more professional assistance than Isreal people older than 75?


Which of the following, if true, does most to explain the difference that the study found?


A. A companion study found that among children needing special in-home care, the amount of formal assistance they received was roughly the same in Sweden as in Israel. Companion study does not explain result from this study. Irrelevant

B. More Swedish than Israeli people older than 75 live in rural areas where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent. Opposite answer choice. If formal services are sparse, then how could Swedish people receive more of them?

C. Although in both Sweden and Israel much of the funding for formal assistance ultimately comes from the central government, the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries.Trap! we can't gauge the impact of a different delivery structure unless we have some information in the package. The passage clearly states both are equally funded.

D. In recent decades, the increase in life expectancy of someone who is 75 years old has been greater in Israel than in Sweden.Great for people in Israel but of little value to us. We are not talking about life expectancy here.

E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone. This absolutely explains the result! If one lives with their children, they would receive more of the care from them and hence would require lesser professional service. On the other hand, if a person lives alone, then he or she would have no choice but to opt for the formal, professional service.


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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2018, 00:58
A. A companion study found that among children needing special in-home care, the amount of formal assistance they received was roughly the same in Sweden as in Israel.

Children are irrelevant.

B. More Swedish than Israeli people older than 75 live in rural areas where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent. Incorrect

This option is completely opposite to the study. Conclusion states that Swedish people are getting more formal assistance but this option is says that Swedish people gets less formal assistance because they live in rural. Incorrect.

C. Although in both Sweden and Israel much of the funding for formal assistance ultimately comes from the central government, the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries.

This option is not stating the results of different local structure. Incorrect

D. In recent decades, the increase in life expectancy of someone who is 75 years old has been greater in Israel than in Sweden.

Life expectancy is irrelevant. Incorrect.

E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone.

Israel people are getting less formal assistance because they are getting more informal assistance. Correct

I will go for E.

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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2018, 04:48
Answer has to be E.

for option C, even though the local structures are different, we don't know why the swedish people receive more formal assistance than Israeli people.

the wording of option C may sound negative, but the option doesn't conclusively suggest that the different local bodies are causing the difference in formal assistance

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A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2018, 03:54
A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed in-home assistance with a similar sample of Israeli people. The people in the two samples received both informal assistance, provided by family and friends, and formal assistance, professionally provided. Although Sweden and Israel have equally well-funded and comprehensive systems for providing formal assistance, the study found that the people in the Swedish sample received more formal assistance, on average, than those in the Israeli sample.

Type - Explain the situation/ Paradox
Boil it down - Although Sweden and Israel have equally well-funded and comprehensive systems for providing formal assistance, the study found that the people in the Swedish sample received more formal assistance, on average, than those in the Israeli sample.
Total assistance = informal assistance (provided by family and friends) + formal assistance(provided by professionals)

A. A companion study found that among children needing special in-home care, the amount of formal assistance they received was roughly the same in Sweden as in Israel.-- Irrelevant -- it does not help to explain the difference

B. More Swedish than Israeli people older than 75 live in rural areas where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent. -- Incorrect -- it further deepens the paradox as it says that Swedish figure would be higher if people in rural areas had better access to formal assistance

C. Although in both Sweden and Israel much of the funding for formal assistance ultimately comes from the central government, the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries. -- Irrelevant

D. In recent decades, the increase in life expectancy of someone who is 75 years old has been greater in Israel than in Sweden. -- Irrelevant -- This does not explain the situation

E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone. - Correct -- Since more Israelis over 75 live with their children , they require lesser formal assistance.

Answer E
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A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2018, 03:38
A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed in-home assistance with a similar sample of Israeli people. The people in the two samples received both informal assistance, provided by family and friends, and formal assistance, professionally provided. Although Sweden and Israel have equally well-funded and comprehensive systems for providing formal assistance, the study found that the people in the Swedish sample received more formal assistance, on average, than those in the Israeli sample.

Which of the following, if true, does most to explain the difference that the study found?

Reasoning : Total amount of assistance required is equal for Sweden and Israel group.
Sweden ( Formal Assistance + Informal Assistance) =Israel( Formal Assistance + Informal Assistance)
Since Sweden Formal Assistance > Israel Formal Assistance
Then Sweden Informal < Israel Informal




A. A companion study found that among children needing special in-home care, the amount of formal assistance they received was roughly the same in Sweden as in Israel.
Out of scope

B. More Swedish than Israeli people older than 75 live in rural areas where formal assistance services are sparse or nonexistent.
Out of scope

C. Although in both Sweden and Israel much of the funding for formal assistance ultimately comes from the central government, the local structures through which assistance is delivered are different in the two countries.
Not relevant

D. In recent decades, the increase in life expectancy of someone who is 75 years old has been greater in Israel than in Sweden.
Life expectancy not relevant

E. In Israel, people older than 75 tend to live with their children, whereas in Sweden people of that age tend to live alone.
In line with Reasoning : Correct Answer
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2018, 10:08
E is the correct option.

C is saying structure is different and it is not saying anything that could give reason for more formal assistance in sweden than that of israel.

in E, since children are with the old people, hence formal assistance is less required.
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2018, 00:47
Hi,

For me, C says that there is a difference, but how? I feel this choice does not explain anything but difference.

So E is the answer because it clearly explains situation in both countries.
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Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2018, 00:33
Read the paragraph

formal = professional assistance
informal = family and friends

If Israelis live with more family and friends, it is likely they receive more "informal" assistance
Whereas, Swedish people living alone would require much more "formal" assistance

Ans. E is correct
Re: A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed &nbs [#permalink] 08 Jul 2018, 00:33

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