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# About 7,500 years ago a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus

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Tuck School Moderator
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About 7,500 years ago a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus  [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2018, 09:46
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About 7,500 years ago, a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level 500 feet within a year.

(A) a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level
(B) a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, which raised the water level
(C) a torrent of water poured into the Black Sea through the Bosporus, which raised the water level
(D) the Black Sea had a torrent of water poured into it through the Bosporus, raising the water level
(E) the Black Sea had the water level raised by a torrent of water pouring into it through the Bosporus

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Re: About 7,500 years ago a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus  [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2018, 10:09
About 7,500 years ago, a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level 500 feet within a year.
A. a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level( correct meaning,correct modification)
B. a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, which raised the water level(incorrect modification)
C. a torrent of water poured into the Black Sea through the Bosporus, which raised the water level(same as in B)
D. the Black Sea had a torrent of water poured into it through the Bosporus, raising the water level(meaning change)
E. the Black Sea had the water level raised by a torrent of water pouring into it through the Bosporus(meaning issue)

Will go with choice A

Correct if I am wrong

Thanks

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Re: About 7,500 years ago a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus  [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2018, 10:36
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IMO D

D gives a correct & logical strucuture.

About 7,500 years ago, the Black Sea had a torrent of water poured into it through the Bosporus, raising the water level 500 feet within a year.

A lacks main verb. so A is fragment.
A. a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level

Correct me if i am wrong.
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Re: About 7,500 years ago a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus  [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2018, 11:14
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About 7,500 years ago, a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level 500 feet within a year.
A. a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level
B. a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, which raised the water level
C. a torrent of water poured into the Black Sea through the Bosporus, which raised the water level
D. the Black Sea had a torrent of water poured into it through the Bosporus, raising the water level
E. the Black Sea had the water level raised by a torrent of water pouring into it through the Bosporus

I will go with the answer D.
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Re: About 7,500 years ago a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus  [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2018, 11:51
1
arun6765 wrote:
IMO D

D gives a correct & logical strucuture.

About 7,500 years ago, the Black Sea had a torrent of water poured into it through the Bosporus, raising the water level 500 feet within a year.

A lacks main verb. so A is fragment.
A. a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level

Correct me if i am wrong.

I would actually go with A on this one.

The sentence is not lacking a verb in my opinion, as the torrent of water "poured" into the black sea and also "raised" the water level as a result.
This fits both grammatically as well as logically.

Personally, I find answer D sounds very awkward in a multitude of ways and I would thus eliminate it.

Hope this helps.

Best regards,
Chris
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Re: About 7,500 years ago a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus  [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2018, 12:48
PeepalTree wrote:
About 7,500 years ago, a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level 500 feet within a year.
A. a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level
B. a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, which raised the water level
C. a torrent of water poured into the Black Sea through the Bosporus, which raised the water level
D. the Black Sea had a torrent of water poured into it through the Bosporus, raising the water level
E. the Black Sea had the water level raised by a torrent of water pouring into it through the Bosporus

I believe that the correct option could be Option D

Options A,B,&C- Lacks a verb before "poured"
Also in Option C, which (after the comma) incorrectly refers to the Bosporus
Option D is correct, raising the water level describes the effect of the torrent of water that is poured
Option E is awkward in the sense it does not fit the sentence and ambiguous in meaning. 500 feet appearing after the word Bosporus. Does not make any sense!

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Re: About 7,500 years ago a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus  [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2018, 20:07
I would like to go with A in this one

I rejected D because raising the water level is corresponding to Black sea , means black sea is responsible for raising water level but I think it is the torrent of water which is causing the water level to rise
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About 7,500 years ago a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus  [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2018, 20:24
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PeepalTree wrote:
About 7,500 years ago, a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level 500 feet within a year.

A. a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level

B. a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, which raised the water level

C. a torrent of water poured into the Black Sea through the Bosporus, which raised the water level

D. the Black Sea had a torrent of water poured into it through the Bosporus, raising the water level
-- AMBIGUOUS - raising the water level of what? The Bosporus? No, probably the Black Sea.

-- HAD in this case is not a helping verb.
The verb is not "had [water] poured." Poured is a past participle.
HAD is the past tense of HAVE. See below.

E. the Black Sea had the water level raised by a torrent of water pouring into it through the Bosporus [500 feet within a year.]
Nonsensical. Utter babble. See below. The highlighted THE in red should be ITS

Major concepts that are tested
• participial phrases that act as adverbial modifiers, also known as
COMMA +__ING or COMMA + verbING
• COMMA + WHICH and
• logical sequence

Participial phrase: raising the water level

SPLIT #1: COMMA + WHICH
COMMA + WHICH
-- cannot modify an entire clause or phrase
-- the GMAT tests this issue often
-- instead, COMMA + WHICH must modify a preceding noun or noun phrase
Which is a relative pronoun and thus must refer to a noun
-- the modified noun is usually placed right before "comma + which," but there are exceptions

• Correct: I received my package, which was overdue.
• Correct, a bit less common: I received my package of books, which was overdue
("of books" is a prepositional phrase that refers to a noun that is very close to comma + which)
WRONG: I received my package two days late, which annoyed me.
(I am annoyed by the fact that the package arrived late. The package itself does not annoy me.)
Rewritten correctly: I was annoyed because I received my package two days late.
OR: I received my package two days late, a delay that annoyed me.

B) into the Black Sea, which raised the water level
The Black Sea did not raise its own water level. I promise.

C) ... through the Bosporus, which raised the water level
The Bosporus itself did not raise the water level. The torrent of water [from someplace else] raised the water level.
(And water level of which body? The Bosporus or the Black Sea?)

Eliminate B and C

Split #2: Eliminate illogical and nonsensical sentences

Here is Option (E) inserted into the sentence
raised by a torrent of water pouring into it through the Bosporus 500 feet within a year.

This sentence is babble.
500 feet within a year modifies —or means— WHAT?

"Logical predication" is involved in nearly half of all SC questions.
If "500 feet within a year" were removed, the sentence would be nearly acceptable.
We would need the pronoun ITS rather than the definite article THE to precede "water level,"
in this way: the Black Sea had ITS water level raised ... As (E) stands, though, it is a disaster.

Eliminate E

Split #3: adverbial modifiers, although versatile, must not be ambiguous

Option D) the Black Sea had a torrent of water poured into it through the Bosporus, raising the water level
• the COMMA + verbING modifier (participial phrase) acts as an adverbial modifier that modifies the whole preceding clause
• these modifiers must not create ambiguity
• "raising"? Whose water level rose by 500 feet within a year? That of the Bosporus? That of the Black Sea?

• Passive voice compared to voice in Option A
-- a torrent poured (A) is rhetorically stronger than had a torrent of water poured into it through (D). Active voice in this case imbues the sentence with vigor. .
-- HAD in this option is the past tense of HAVE as a standalone verb that means experienced, underwent, or received.
-- Similar: The gopher had its burrow filled with water when the flood came.
-- had is a flabby verb that is made weaker because the subject has something done TO it. Poured is an energetic verb. Its subject is an active doer.

• What poured the water into the Black Sea? The absence of a subject is not fatal, but it's another strike.

Eliminate D

Takeaways:
• learn what (comma + which) can and cannot do
• learn about participial phrases (comma + verbING, and verbING generally)
• try not to obsess if you get the choices down to two (likely A and D).
• think outside the box. Some aspect of option D is weird.

Compare. How do A and D differ? Which is clearer?
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Re: About 7,500 years ago a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus  [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2018, 22:17
generis wrote:
PeepalTree wrote:
About 7,500 years ago, a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level 500 feet within a year.

A. a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level

B. a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, which raised the water level

C. a torrent of water poured into the Black Sea through the Bosporus, which raised the water level

D. the Black Sea had a torrent of water poured into it through the Bosporus, raising the water level
-- AMBIGUOUS - raising the water level of what? The Bosporus? No, probably the Black Sea.

-- HAD in this case is not a helping verb.
The verb is not "had [water] poured." Poured is a past participle.
HAD is the past tense of HAVE. See below.

E. the Black Sea had the water level raised by a torrent of water pouring into it through the Bosporus [500 feet within a year.]
Nonsensical. Utter babble. See below. The highlighted THE in red should be ITS

Major concepts that are tested
• participial phrases that act as adverbial modifiers, also known as
COMMA +__ING or COMMA + verbING
• COMMA + WHICH and
• logical sequence

Participial phrase: raising the water level

SPLIT #1: COMMA + WHICH
COMMA + WHICH
-- cannot modify an entire clause or phrase
-- the GMAT tests this issue often
-- instead, COMMA + WHICH must modify a preceding noun or noun phrase
Which is a relative pronoun and thus must refer to a noun
-- the modified noun almost always is placed right before "comma + which"

• Correct: I received my package, which was overdue.
• Correct, less common: I received my package of books, which was overdue
("of books" is a prepositional phrase that refers to a noun that is very close to comma + which)
WRONG: I received my package two days late, which annoyed me.
(I am annoyed by the fact that the package arrived late. The package does not annoy me.)
Rewritten correctly: I was annoyed because I received my package two days late.
OR: I received my package two days late, a delay that annoyed me.

B) into the Black Sea, which raised the water level
The Black Sea did not raise its own water level. I promise.

C) . . . through the Bosporus, which raised the water level
The Bosporus itself did not raise the water level. The torrent of water [from someplace else] raised the water level.
(And water level of what? The Bosporus or the Black Sea?)

Eliminate B and C

Split #2: Eliminate illogical and nonsensical sentences

Here is Option (E) inserted into the sentence
raised by a torrent of water pouring into it through the Bosporus 500 feet within a year.

This sentence is babble.
500 feet within a year modifies —or means— WHAT?

"Logical predication" is involved in nearly half of all SC questions.
If "500 feet within a year" were removed, the sentence would be nearly acceptable.
We would need the pronoun ITS rather than the definite article THE to precede "water level,"
in this way: the Black Sea had ITS water level raised . . . As (E) stands, however, it is a disaster.

Eliminate E

Split #3: adverbial modifier, although versatile, must not be ambiguous

Option D) the Black Sea had a torrent of water poured into it through the Bosporus, raising the water level
• the COMMA + verbING modifier (participial phrase) acts as an adverbial modifier
• although these modifiers are very versatile, they must not create ambiguity
• Whose water level rose by 500 feet within a year? That of the Bosporus? That of the Black Sea?

• HAD in this sentence is the past tense of HAVE.
-- Similar: The tax evader had handcuffs cinched around his wrists by the FBI during a press conference.

• Who or what poured the water into the Black Sea? The absence of a subject is not fatal, but it's another strike.

Eliminate D

Takeaways:
• learn what (comma + which) can and cannot do
• learn about participial phrases (comma + verbING, and verbING generally)
• try not to obsess if you get the choices down to two (likely A and D).
• think outside the box. Some aspect of option D is weird.

Compare. How do A and D differ? Which is clearer?

Let us compare Option A & Option D.

A. a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus into the Black Sea, raising the water level
D. the Black Sea had a torrent of water poured into it through the Bosporus, raising the water level
-- AMBIGUOUS - raising the water level of what? The Bosporus? No, probably the Black Sea

In Option A, though the meaning is not ambiguous ( raising the water level of the Black sea ), there is no working verb in the first part (before the comma). Am i right in saying so ? I believe the first part before the comma is a phrase and not a clause. "Raising the water level" is the dependent clause / adverbial modifier.

In Option D, Raising the water level of what ? Isn't it obvious that it is the water level of the Black Sea (as implied from the first half of the sentence) ?

Cheers!
SidSpeaks32
Re: About 7,500 years ago a torrent of water poured through the Bosporus   [#permalink] 02 Nov 2018, 22:17
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