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According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of

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According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2018, 21:45
TIME: 7 minutes

1. Excerpt from the passage: Krech also contradicts Martin's exclusion of climatic change as an explanation by asserting that widespread climatic change did indeed occur at the end of the Pleistocene
This means Martin proposed that climate change was not a factor in the extinction that occurred at the end of the Pleistocene.
Hence B
2. Excerpt from the passage: White observes that Martin's thesis depends on coinciding dates for the arrival of humans and the decline of large animal species, and Krech, though aware that the dates are controversial, does not challenge them
The last line of the passage provides additional support to white's theory that arrival humans had no role in the extinction. If the recent discoveries are true then humans had arrived much earlier than the time frame accepted by Martin and Krech. Therefore, we can infer that it is unlikely that humans had contributed to the extinction as envisioned by the researchers.
Hence E
3. Excerpt from the passage: Nor were extinctions confined to large animals: small animals, plants, and insects disappeared, presumably not all through human consumption
Option B weakens the above statement. If option B is correct then we could assume that humans indeed played a far greater role than what Krech thought, and hence weakens krech opposition to martin theory.
option B is the correct answer.
4. A ( straight and obvious)
Krech already states in the passage that " asserting that widespread climatic change did indeed occur at the end of the Pleistocene"

5. Excerpt from the passage: Anthropologist Shepard Krech points out that large animal species vanished even in areas where there is no evidence to demonstrate that Paleoindians hunted them. Nor were extinctions confined to large animals: small animals, plants, and insects disappeared, presumably not all through human consumption
Thus the statements above support the Krech theory that humans didn't play a primary role in the extinction, but rather a secondary role.
Hence D
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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2018, 07:40
For 1), are we supposed to take Martin's exclusion of climate change in his theories as "denial"? It seems a little problematic.

Seems possible that Martin's exclusion of climate change may just be a situation where he thinks it isn't the most important factor (so he didn't see any reason to include it in his theory), rather than a flat out denial of climate change's impact on the extinction of Pleistocene species. And you can't categorically say that exclusion = denial.

It's like saying a zoologist who doesn't include climate change in their theory as to why the dodo bird went extinct DENIES the impact climate change (may) have had on our feathered friend's extinction.
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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2018, 21:23
P1- 2 theory on why extinction - one says hunting, other says something else (with evidence)
P2- 2 is contradicts 1; 3rd theory on archaeological discoveries contradicts facts from both theories.

Main point - Author is contradicting 2 theories with a 3rd one. evidences are given for that.
Tone - Modrate

Q1: Which of the following is true about Martin’s theory, as that theory is described in the passage?
What to do - First POE; look for answer in 1st para;
(A) It assumes that the Paleoindians were primarily dependent on hunting for survival. - No
(B) It denies that the Pleistocene species extinctions were caused by climate change. - because theory is depends upon given situation all other factors should be removed. Also all other choices can't be the answer.
(C) It uses as evidence the fact that humans have produced local extinctions in other situations. - No that is theory 2
(D) It attempts to address the controversy over the date of human arrival in North America. - theory 3
(E) It admits the possibility that factors other than the arrival of humans played a role in the Pleistocene extinctions. - theory2

----------------------------------------------------------

Q2: In the last sentence of the passage, the author refers to “recent archaeological discoveries” (lines 36-37) most probably in order to
(E) provide support for White’s questioning of both Martin’s and Krech’s positions regarding the role of Paleoindians in the Pleistocene extinctions - White is challenging both on Paleoindians ground, As both have given Paleoindians in their theories.

----------------------------------------------------------

Q3: Which of the following, if true, would most weaken Krech’s objections to Martin’s theory?
objection is "animal species vanished even in areas where there is no evidence to demonstrate that Paleoindians hunted them".
pre-think - Two things can have different effects at same time extinction.

(B) New discoveries indicating that Paleoindians made use of the small animals, plants, and insects that became extinct - best of the lot.
----------------------------------------------------------

Q4: The passage suggests that Krech would be most likely to agree with a theory of the Pleistocene species extinctions that
(A) included climate change as one of the causes of the extinctions - straight Ans
(B) incorporated a revised date for human arrival in North America - No
(C) eliminated the Paleoindians as a factor in the extinctions - not eliminated
(D) identified a single cause for the extinctions - No
(E) emphasized the role of hunting in causing most species extinctions - No

-----------------------------------------------------------

5. The passage mentions the extinction of species other than large animals (see highlighted text)[Nor were extinctions confined to large animals: small animals, plants, and insects disappeared] most probably in order to

(A) suggest that the Paleoindians were responsible for more extinctions than Martin's theory assumes - No
(B) provide support for the speculation that humans arrived in North America significantly earlier than the end of the Pleistocene era - No
(C) point out the only area in which Martin, Krech, and White agree concerning the circumstances of the Pleistocene extinctions - No
(D) cite additional evidence tending to support Krech's conclusions about the role of humans in the Pleistocene extinctions - Correct
(E) raise a question about the logical consistency of Krech's view of Martin's theory - No; opposite
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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2018, 08:14
aquaria wrote:
For 1), are we supposed to take Martin's exclusion of climate change in his theories as "denial"? It seems a little problematic.

Seems possible that Martin's exclusion of climate change may just be a situation where he thinks it isn't the most important factor (so he didn't see any reason to include it in his theory), rather than a flat out denial of climate change's impact on the extinction of Pleistocene species. And you can't categorically say that exclusion = denial.

It's like saying a zoologist who doesn't include climate change in their theory as to why the dodo bird went extinct DENIES the impact climate change (may) have had on our feathered friend's extinction.


Even I had views similar to those of aquaria as quoted above and ended up choosing A, though the word 'primarily' in A is a little strong.

According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of species extinctions that occurred in North America about 11,000 years ago, at the end of the Pleistocene era, can be directly attributed to the arrival of humans, i.e., the Paleoindians, who were ancestors of modern Native Americans. However, anthropologist Shepard Krech points out that large animal species vanished even in areas where there is no evidence to demonstrate that Paleoindians hunted them. - From the bolded part, can't we infer that Paleoindians hunted large animals at least in a few areas and that this idea is a part of Martin's theory ?

Q1: Which of the following is true about Martin’s theory, as that theory is described in the passage?

(A) It assumes that the Paleoindians were primarily dependent on hunting for survival. - I agree that primarily is a little strong here.
(B) It denies that the Pleistocene species extinctions were caused by climate change. - As per Martin, the wave of species extinctions can be directly attributed to the arrival of humans, i.e., the Paleoindians, who were ancestors of modern Native Americans, but this fact DOES NOT mean that there were no other causes.

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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2018, 20:30
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Skywalker18 wrote:
aquaria wrote:
For 1), are we supposed to take Martin's exclusion of climate change in his theories as "denial"? It seems a little problematic.

Seems possible that Martin's exclusion of climate change may just be a situation where he thinks it isn't the most important factor (so he didn't see any reason to include it in his theory), rather than a flat out denial of climate change's impact on the extinction of Pleistocene species. And you can't categorically say that exclusion = denial.

It's like saying a zoologist who doesn't include climate change in their theory as to why the dodo bird went extinct DENIES the impact climate change (may) have had on our feathered friend's extinction.


Even I had views similar to those of aquaria as quoted above and ended up choosing A, though the word 'primarily' in A is a little strong.

According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of species extinctions that occurred in North America about 11,000 years ago, at the end of the Pleistocene era, can be directly attributed to the arrival of humans, i.e., the Paleoindians, who were ancestors of modern Native Americans. However, anthropologist Shepard Krech points out that large animal species vanished even in areas where there is no evidence to demonstrate that Paleoindians hunted them. - From the bolded part, can't we infer that Paleoindians hunted large animals at least in a few areas and that this idea is a part of Martin's theory ?

Q1: Which of the following is true about Martin’s theory, as that theory is described in the passage?

(A) It assumes that the Paleoindians were primarily dependent on hunting for survival. - I agree that primarily is a little strong here.
(B) It denies that the Pleistocene species extinctions were caused by climate change. - As per Martin, the wave of species extinctions can be directly attributed to the arrival of humans, i.e., the Paleoindians, who were ancestors of modern Native Americans, but this fact DOES NOT mean that there were no other causes.



Hello,

As usually the case, when you select an incorrect option, you have committed at least two errors in reasoning: your reasoning for rejecting the correct option and your reasoning for selecting the incorrect option both are wrong. So is the case here.

Skywalker18 wrote:
From the bolded part, can't we infer that Paleoindians hunted large animals at least in a few areas and that this idea is a part of Martin's theory?
No, we cannot infer this. The bolded part is pointed out by Krech. We don't even know whether Martin knew about or considered human hunting. (If you think that since Martin is attributing species extinctions to the arrivals of humans, he must be considering human hunting, I'll not agree with you. Species extinctions may not be a result of human hunting; extinctions may be a result of humans' playing with or destroying the nature, as is the case currently). Besides, if you ask me whether we can consider the bolded part a part of Krech's theory, I'll NOT say 'yes'. Why? Because Krech is just pointing out a fact. This is not his theory. However, frankly, it'll be difficult to reject it completely because Krech's theory might be based on this fact. But can you say that the facts on which your theory is based are part of your theory? I don't think so.

Aquaria's reasoning is incorrect because of the way he interprets 'exclusion' as used in the passage. If you think 'exclusion' just means that Martin did not study or consider climate change, the statement 'Krech also contradicts Martin's exclusion' wouldn't make any sense. How can you contradict the fact that someone did not study factor X? (Well, you can. However, that will lead to a very different meaning) You can, however, contradict the fact that X was not a factor in Y. Also, the statement "I am excluding climate change as an explanation for extinctions" does mean that I don't think climate change was the cause for extinctions. However, if I say that 'I am excluding climate change from my study", then it means that I'm not considering 'climate change' in my study. However, in this case, somebody contradicting my exclusion wouldn't make sense.
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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2018, 18:15
Skywalker18 wrote:
(B) It denies that the Pleistocene species extinctions were caused by climate change. - As per Martin, the wave of species extinctions can be directly attributed to the arrival of humans, i.e., the Paleoindians, who were ancestors of modern Native Americans, but this fact DOES NOT mean that there were no other causes.



to exclude a theory = to RULE OUT that theory.
From the passage:
Martin's exclusion of climatic change as an explanation.
In other words:
Martin RULES OUT CLIMATE CHANGE as an explanation for the wave of species extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene era.
Thus, option B is a valid inference:
Martin's theory denies that the Pleistocene species extinctions were caused by climate change.


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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of &nbs [#permalink] 18 Oct 2018, 18:15

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