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According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of

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According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of [#permalink]

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Question 1
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A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

43% (01:30) correct 57% (01:28) wrong based on 388

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Question 2
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A
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E

Question Stats:

59% (00:34) correct 41% (00:34) wrong based on 371

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Question 3
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A
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E

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59% (00:34) correct 41% (00:35) wrong based on 356

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Question 4
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A
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75% (00:25) correct 25% (00:18) wrong based on 279

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Question 5
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A
B
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E

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73% (00:43) correct 27% (00:40) wrong based on 199

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According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of species extinctions that occurred in North America about 11,000 years ago, at the end of the Pleistocene era, can be directly attributed to the arrival of humans, i.e., the Paleoindians, who were ancestors of modern Native Americans. However, anthropologist Shepard Krech points out that large animal species vanished even in areas where there is no evidence to demonstrate that Paleoindians hunted them. Nor were extinctions confined to large animals: small animals, plants, and insects disappeared, presumably not all through human consumption. Krech also contradicts Martin's exclusion of climatic change as an explanation by asserting that widespread climatic change did indeed occur at the end of the Pleistocene. Still, Krech attributes secondary if not primary responsibility for the extinctions to the Paleoindians, arguing that humans have produced local extinctions elsewhere. But, according to historian Richard White, even the attribution of secondary responsibility may not be supported by the evidence. White observes that Martin's thesis depends on coinciding dates for the arrival of humans and the decline of large animal species, and Krech, though aware that the dates are controversial, does not challenge them; yet recent archaeological discoveries are providing evidence that the date of human arrival was much earlier than 11,000 years ago.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

Q1: Which of the following is true about Martin’s theory, as that theory is described in the passage?

(A) It assumes that the Paleoindians were primarily dependent on hunting for survival.
(B) It denies that the Pleistocene species extinctions were caused by climate change.
(C) It uses as evidence the fact that humans have produced local extinctions in other situations.
(D) It attempts to address the controversy over the date of human arrival in North America.
(E) It admits the possibility that factors other than the arrival of humans played a role in the Pleistocene extinctions.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

Q2: In the last sentence of the passage, the author refers to “recent archaeological discoveries” (lines 36-37) most probably in order to

(A) refute White’s suggestion that neither Maritn nor Krech adequately account for Paleoindians’ contributions to the Pleistocene extinctions
(B) cast doubt on the possibility that a more definitive theory regarding the causes of the Pleistocene extinctions may be forthcoming
(C) suggest that Martin’s, Krech’s, and White’s theories regarding the Pleistocene extinctions are all open to question
(D) call attention to the most controversial aspect of all the current theories regarding the Pleistocene extinctions
(E) provide support for White’s questioning of both Martin’s and Krech’s positions regarding the role of Paleoindians in the Pleistocene extinctions

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

Q3: Which of the following, if true, would most weaken Krech’s objections to Martin’s theory?

(A) Further studies showing that the climatic change that occurred at the end of the Pleistocene era was even more severe and widespread than was previously believed
(B) New discoveries indicating that Paleoindians made use of the small animals, plants, and insects that became extinct
(C) Additional evidence indicating that widespread climatic change occurred not only at the end of the Pleistocene era but also in previous and subsequent eras
(D) Researchers’ discoveries that many more species became extinct in North America at the end of the Pleistocene era than was previously believed
(E) New discoveries establishing that both the arrival of humans in North America and the wave of Pleistocene extinctions took place much earlier than 11,000 years ago

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

Q4: The passage suggests that Krech would be most likely to agree with a theory of the Pleistocene species extinctions that

(A) included climate change as one of the causes of the extinctions
(B) incorporated a revised date for human arrival in North America
(C) eliminated the Paleoindians as a factor in the extinctions
(D) identified a single cause for the extinctions
(E) emphasized the role of hunting in causing most species extinctions

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

5. The passage mentions the extinction of species other than large animals (see highlighted text)[Nor were extinctions confined to large animals: small animals, plants, and insects disappeared] most probably in order to

(A) suggest that the Paleoindians were responsible for more extinctions than Martin's theory assumes
(B) provide support for the speculation that humans arrived in North America significantly earlier than the end of the Pleistocene era
(C) point out the only area in which Martin, Krech, and White agree concerning the circumstances of the Pleistocene extinctions
(D) cite additional evidence tending to support Krech's conclusions about the role of humans in the Pleistocene extinctions
(E) raise a question about the logical consistency of Krech's view of Martin's theory

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA

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Last edited by hazelnut on 02 Jul 2017, 22:56, edited 7 times in total.
Formatted & added question 5

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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2009, 21:23
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yeah..........OA is same

nitya34 wrote:
Thanks for posting
BEB?

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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2009, 21:30
Priyankur and Nitya,

Please explain your answers for 1.

I got A as answer because if that were not the case Shepard Krech would not have pointed out that large animal species vanished even in areas where there is no evidence to demon-
strate that Paleoindians hunted them
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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2009, 14:45
I thought Q2 was the hardest. I got it wrong. I missed the fact that Krech claims that humans had secondary responsibility - a fact which is disputed by white, and supported by evidence in the end of the passage.

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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2014, 23:39
For question 1 : I am confused between A and B. both are true. Please help.
For question 2: B
QUESTION 3: E

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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2014, 05:30
aditi1903 wrote:
For question 1 : I am confused between A and B. both are true. Please help.

The problematic words in choice A are "primarily" and "for survival". Yes, Martin's theory assumes that Paleoindians hunted animals, but that's all you can say. Was it their "primary" food "for survival" ? Perhaps and is reasonable..BUT NOT stated in the passage. Also, the correctness of Martin's theory doesn't depend on it.

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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of [#permalink]

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For Q1,

The passages states that Martin "excluded" the climate change as an explanation.
In my opinion, this DOES NOT mean that he DENIED it.
Can someone please elaborate on this?

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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2017, 00:05
5:30 for 4 questions. Guess I should be aiming to increase my speed a bit. The passage was not a very tough one.

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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2017, 05:02
tae808 wrote:
For Q1,

The passages states that Martin "excluded" the climate change as an explanation.
In my opinion, this DOES NOT mean that he DENIED it.
Can someone please elaborate on this?



Please help with Question # 1.
Why not A ?
For B , How "excluded" justifies this option ?

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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of [#permalink]

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1) Martin just said the extinction was caused by early humans . He doesn’t give any information about what the humans did with the animals. For all we know there could have been a hunting competition or something. So the food piece is n’t supported in the passage. As for B, I agree it can be a bit confusing but arrived at it simply by eliminating other choices."Krech also contradicts Martin’s exclusion of climatic change as an explanation by asserting that widespread climatic change did indeed".This implies that martin's theory EXCLUDED CLIMATE CHANGE as an explanation to extinction. Hence B.
2)"White observes that Martin’s thesis depends on coinciding dates for the arrival of humans and the decline of large animal species, and Krech, though aware that the dates are controversial, does not challenge them; yet recent archaeological discoveries are providing evidence that the date of human arrival was much earlier than 11,000 years ago". As there is an evidence discovered by archaelogical department which support's the position of White. Hence E.
3)Martin's theory – cause of extinction- Arrival of humans (paleoindians)
Krech Objection-"no evidence of hunting by paleoindians,.. not just large animals but small animals, plants and insects too vanished- not through human consumption we need to weaken any of above mentioned objections. Looking at option B it clearly weakens the objection.
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According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of [#permalink]

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Can someone extend help for 5D , it seems the highlighted text talks about the climatic effect, and not the human consumption was a factor.

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According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2017, 12:22
Hi mikemcgarry , daagh ,

Could you please explain me the answer choice for question 1 and question 3.

As per my understanding i selected the answer option A and D respectively.
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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2017, 06:00
KanakGarg wrote:
Can someone extend help for 5D , it seems the highlighted text talks about the climatic effect, and not the human consumption was a factor.


Hi KanakGarg

Krech counters Martin's claim by saying that large animals vanished in areas where there are no signs of human hunting. So this cannot be the primary cause.

"However, anthropologist Shepard Krech points out that large animal species vanished even in areas where there is no evidence to demonstrate that Paleoindians hunted them.Nor were extinctions confined to large animals: small animals, plants, and insects disappeared, presumably not all through human consumption."

Further the author adds that leave alone large animals, even plants and insects vanished, now this cannot be the result of human hunting. So for sure its not human hunting. (The author just supports Kerch by adding these lines)
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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2017, 06:31
Kritesh wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry , daagh ,

Could you please explain me the answer choice for question 1 and question 3.

As per my understanding i selected the answer option A and D respectively.



1.
"Krech also contradicts Martin's exclusion of climatic change as an explanation by asserting that widespread climatic change did indeed occur at the end of the Pleistocene."
(A) It assumes that the Paleoindians were primarily dependent on hunting for survival. -Martin never says that, it's Krech who brings hunting issue on board
(B) It denies that the Pleistocene species extinctions were caused by climate change. -Martin excluded climate change as a factor.

3. Krech objects to Martin's theory by saying that it primarily cannot be humans because animals have been extinct in places where there was no hunting.
(B) New discoveries indicating that Paleoindians made use of the small animals, plants, and insects that became extinct - Option B shows that indeed humans are the reason why the animals have become extinct.
(D) Researchers’ discoveries that many more species became extinct in North America at the end of the Pleistocene era than was previously believed -earlier data revealed that say 10 species went extinct, new research puts that number to 20. How does this weaken Krech's objection? This neither weakens nor strengthens.
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Re: According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of   [#permalink] 20 Aug 2017, 06:31
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