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Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 777
Page:

Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge whatever rates the market would bear, needing no approval from regulators before raising rates.

(A) needing no approval from regulators before raising
(B) and it needed no approval by regulators before raising
(C) and needing no approval from regulators before they raised
(D) with approval not needed by regulators before they raised
(E) with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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hazelnut wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 777
Page:

Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge whatever rates the market would bear, needing no approval from regulators before raising rates.

(A) needing no approval from regulators before raising
(B) and it needed no approval by regulators before raising
(C) and needing no approval from regulators before they raised
(D) with approval not needed by regulators before they raised
(E) with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of


(A) Correctneeding no approval from regulators before raising
(B) and it needed no approval by regulators before raising
It is wrong. Here we are talking about companies so plural pronoun is needed
(C) and needing no approval from regulators before they raised
Parallelism issue
(D) with approval not needed by regulators before they raised
with...... is an adverbial and is worng
(E) with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of
same as D
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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The following is how I chose answer choice (A)

Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge whatever rates the market would bear, needing no approval from regulators before raising rates.

(A) needing no approval from regulators before raising
=> This option contains a participial phrase modifying the preceding clause. No error is spotted. Logical meaning.
CORRECT!

(B) and it needed no approval by regulators before raising
=> Wrong. There is no singular subject that can be antecedent of this pronoun. In this case, agent of the action "needed no approval..." should be "insurance companies" which is a plural noun.

(C) and needing no approval from regulators before they raised
=> Wrong. "and" requires parallelism, but "leading" is not parallel with "were"

(D) with approval not needed by regulators before they raised
=> Wrong. First, "with" makes the sentence more wordy. Second, why do we have to use a passive voice "approval not needed by..." while active voice in option (A) is available? Finally, pronoun "they" is ambiguous.

(E) with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of
=> Wrong. Usage of "with" and passive voice make this option less attractive. Also, "the raising of" is a noun in V-ing form, which is less preferred to the verb "raising" in option (A).
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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hazelnut wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 777
Page:

Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge whatever rates the market would bear, needing no approval from regulators before raising rates.

(A) needing no approval from regulators before raising- CORRECT- concisely put.
(B) and it needed no approval by regulators before raising- INCORRECT- it incorrectly refers to plural insurance companies.
(C) and needing no approval from regulators before they raised- INCORRECT- with the introduction of and, needing no approval is not parallel to free to charge
(D) with approval not needed by regulators before they raised- INCORRECT- they is ambiguous and usage of passive voice when the first part is in active voice, should be avoided.
(E) with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of
-INCORRECT- when we have the correct form of verb "raising" available, construction of the gerund- "the raising of" should be avoided.

Correct option is A
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Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge whatever rates the market would bear, needing no approval from regulators before raising rates.

A. needing no approval from regulators before raising
B. and it needed no approval by regulators before raising
C. and needing no approval from regulators before they raised
D. with approval not needed by regulators before they raised
E. with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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AbdurRakib wrote:
Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge whatever rates the market would bear, needing no approval from regulators before raising rates.


A. needing no approval from regulators before raising
CORRECT

B. and it needed no approval by regulators before raising
"it" here is wrong since "insurance companies" is prural.

C. and needing no approval from regulators before they raised
"and needing" isn't parallel to "were"

D. with approval not needed by regulators before they raised
"they" here is ambiguous since it could refer "insurance companies" or "regulators"

E. with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of
"the raising of" is wordy. "raising" is better
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2017, 22:44
nguyendinhtuong wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge whatever rates the market would bear, needing no approval from regulators before raising rates.


A. needing no approval from regulators before raising
CORRECT

B. and it needed no approval by regulators before raising
"it" here is wrong since "insurance companies" is prural.

C. and needing no approval from regulators before they raised
"and needing" isn't parallel to "were"

D. with approval not needed by regulators before they raised
"they" here is ambiguous since it could refer "insurance companies" or "regulators"

Could you please explain the use of parallelism in option C? I am unable to understand the parallelism logic.

E. with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of
"the raising of" is wordy. "raising" is better


Why is C wrong due to parallelism? I am unable to understand the reasoning. Thanks in advance.
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Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Jun 2017, 00:41
utkarshthapak wrote:
Why is C wrong due to parallelism? I am unable to understand the reasoning. Thanks in advance.

Hi utkarshthapak, with C, the sentence would be:

Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge whatever rates the market would bear, and needing no approval from regulators before they raised rates.

and is an indicator of parallelism. We should always first look at the structure of the sentence to the RHS of indicator of parallelism. In option C, we have a participial phrase (needing no approval..) on the RHS.

For the sentence to be parallel, there must be a corresponding matching structure (in this case a participial phrase/adjective) on the LHS of indicator of parallelism. In option C, there is none. Hence, C is not parallel.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses this parallelism approach, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Originally posted by EducationAisle on 27 Jun 2017, 23:52.
Last edited by EducationAisle on 28 Jun 2017, 00:41, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge whatever rates the market would bear, needing no approval from regulators before raising rates.

A. needing no approval from regulators before raising
Correct
B. and it needed no approval by regulators before raising
- Use of AND is incorrect since such use means that "Approval from regulator for increase in rate" and "insurance companies can charge any rate" are two different act, an idea contrary to original intent. Use of Singular pronoun "IT" for plural antecedent "COMPANIES" is incorrect. Hence Incorrect.
C. and needing no approval from regulators before they raised - Use of AND is incorrect as explained in option B. Use of NEEDING along with RAISED doesn't make any sense. Hence Incorrect.
D. with approval not needed by regulators before they raised
Use of NEEDING along with RAISED doesn't make any sense. Use of WITH leads to RUN-ON sentence. Passive voice is not preferred. Hence Incorrect.
E. with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of
Use of WITH leads to RUN-ON sentence. Hence Incorrect
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2017, 00:38
A is correct answer
It is ambiguous in B
And is not needed C is a fragment now
D uses awkward construction
E is of no use .

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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2017, 06:02
A. needing no approval from regulators before raising
CORRECT

B. and it needed no approval by regulators before raising
- 'it' can't refer to companies (plural)

C. and needing no approval from regulators before they raised
- writing 'and'here wrongly means that we are talking about 2 activities- of companies free to charge and companies not needing approval.

D. with approval not needed by regulators before they raised
- passive construction to be avoided

E. with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of
'the raising of' is wordy.

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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2017, 09:29
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2017, 07:14
elegantm wrote:
Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge whatever rates the market would bear, needing no approval from regulators before raising rates.

A. needing no approval from regulators before raising
Correct
B. and it needed no approval by regulators before raising
- Use of AND is incorrect since such use means that "Approval from regulator for increase in rate" and "insurance companies can charge any rate" are two different act, an idea contrary to original intent. Use of Singular pronoun "IT" for plural antecedent "COMPANIES" is incorrect. Hence Incorrect.
C. and needing no approval from regulators before they raised - Use of AND is incorrect as explained in option B. Use of NEEDING along with RAISED doesn't make any sense. Hence Incorrect.
D. with approval not needed by regulators before they raised
Use of NEEDING along with RAISED doesn't make any sense. Use of WITH leads to RUN-ON sentence. Passive voice is not preferred. Hence Incorrect.
E. with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of
Use of WITH leads to RUN-ON sentence. Hence Incorrect


I dont think option D and E have any problem with the usage of with as it just gives the additional information about the previous sentence.It is acceptable.Need expert views on this issue.
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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vlakhanpal14 wrote:
elegantm wrote:
Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge whatever rates the market would bear, needing no approval from regulators before raising rates.

A. needing no approval from regulators before raising
Correct
B. and it needed no approval by regulators before raising
- Use of AND is incorrect since such use means that "Approval from regulator for increase in rate" and "insurance companies can charge any rate" are two different act, an idea contrary to original intent. Use of Singular pronoun "IT" for plural antecedent "COMPANIES" is incorrect. Hence Incorrect.
C. and needing no approval from regulators before they raised - Use of AND is incorrect as explained in option B. Use of NEEDING along with RAISED doesn't make any sense. Hence Incorrect.
D. with approval not needed by regulators before they raised
Use of NEEDING along with RAISED doesn't make any sense. Use of WITH leads to RUN-ON sentence. Passive voice is not preferred. Hence Incorrect.
E. with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of
Use of WITH leads to RUN-ON sentence. Hence Incorrect


I dont think option D and E have any problem with the usage of with as it just gives the additional information about the previous sentence.It is acceptable.Need expert views on this issue.


Non-expert here but hope that I can help you on this issue.

2 options (D) and (E) have more than one problem, as follows

D. with approval not needed by regulators before they raised
--> First, pronoun ambiguity - "they" could refer to both "insurance companies in California" and "regulators".
Second, passive voice "approval not needed by regulators" is insufficient and less preferred to active voice used in options (A) and (B).

E. with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of
--> First, insufficient passive voice (as in above choice).
Second, "the raising" is a noun (in the form of complex gerund). According to V-A-N rule, this noun is less preferred to its verb form ("raising"/"raised") as used in options (A), (B) and (C).
Lastly, this option fails to identify agent of the action (raising rates), while based on the original sentence, the agent is insurance companies in California. This causes a slight change in the meaning of sentence. That's why this choice is clearly out.
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2017, 11:53
I was not sure about the correct answer because I remember verbs of opinion/preference/necessity cannot be conjugated in the BE+V-ing form? is needing correctly used here? Can someone help explain? Thank you!
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2017, 06:37
Hi everyone, can this ", needing..." modify the preceding S+V, "the market would bear" grammatically?
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2017, 07:10
Hi, I chose option A. Can someone kindly enlighten with the usage of with. Is with here an acceptable form. I know that in option (D) they is ambiguous and in option (E) the raising of looks dubious. But I am not sure about the exact fault in option E. Need help.
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2017, 19:41
hazelnut wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 777
Page:

Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge whatever rates the market would bear, needing no approval from regulators before raising rates.

(A) needing no approval from regulators before raising
(B) and it needed no approval by regulators before raising
(C) and needing no approval from regulators before they raised
(D) with approval not needed by regulators before they raised
(E) with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of


main problem in d is " needed by regulators" is wrong. companies, not regulators need approval.
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2017, 14:27
sunny91, the problem with E is that it's oddly vague and passive. If we are saying that companies didn't need permission to raise rates, then why add "with no approval needed," which no longer clearly applies to companies, or "the raising of rates," which no longer specifies who's doing the raising? We can still tell the intended meaning (who else would be raising the rates?), but E only obscures the meaning and doesn't add anything helpful. It's like a disgraced politician saying "Mistakes were made" rather than "I made mistakes." Why the vagueness?
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Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha [#permalink]

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New post 18 Dec 2017, 04:34
hazelnut wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 777
Page:

Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge whatever rates the market would bear, needing no approval from regulators before raising rates.

(A) needing no approval from regulators before raising
(B) and it needed no approval by regulators before raising
(C) and needing no approval from regulators before they raised
(D) with approval not needed by regulators before they raised
(E) with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of


A) needing no approval from regulators before raising
(B) and it needed no approval by regulators before raising ("IT" cannot refer back to companies(plural))
(C) and needing no approval from regulators before they raised( and is not needed here; there is only one thing that is going on here)
(D) with approval not needed by regulators before they raised ( they can be ambiguous here; can refer to regulators or companies)
(E) with no approval needed from regulators before the raising of (the sentence structure is awkward and doesn't provide sufficient meaning)
Re: Before 1988, insurance companies in California were free to charge wha   [#permalink] 18 Dec 2017, 04:34

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