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The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its

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New post Updated on: 31 Aug 2018, 06:39
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A
B
C
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E

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The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell

(B) which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen

(C) which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling

(D) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling

(E) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

comma + with (adverbial modifier) = LINK 1 & LINK 2 & LINK 4 & LINK 5

First Glance

The underline starts with a "comma which" structure. Watch out for Modifier issues.

Issues

(1) Pronoun: it

The original sentence says that it fell over the last two years. What fell?

Logically, the profits fell. The word profits, though, is plural, while the pronoun it is singular. Bad match! Answer (B) repeats this error. Eliminate answers (A) and (B).

(2) Verb: had increased

A vertical scan of the answers reveals a difference in verb tenses: increased, had increased, and have increased.

Two things happened in the past, with one thing happening before the other. Answer (B) uses past perfect for both the first 3 months of this year and the last two years. Only the longer-ago event should use past perfect: eliminate answer (B).

It's acceptable to use the simple past, as in answer (A), or the present perfect, as in answer (C). Answer (A) is a bit clunky because it uses the simple past for two events that took place at different times in the past. Don't cross answer (A) off just for this, but be skeptical; it's probably not correct.

(3) Modifier: with

The first word of the answers varies. Answers (A), (B), and (C) start with which, while answers (D) and (E) use with.

"Comma which" is a noun modifier, so this clause is talking about the main noun before the comma: profits. Does that make sense? Yes—the profits have increased 5 percent.

"Comma with" is an adverbial modifier, which refers to the entire clause, not just the noun before the comma. What was with a 5 percent increase? The core of a clause is the subject, verb, and object (if there is an object), so the results are evident, with a 5 percent increase. Huh? That doesn't make sense. Here's a correct example: The dog barked happily at the moon, with joy exuding from every fiber of his being. The joy isn't exuding from the moon. The joy is exuding from the happily barking dog.

Eliminate answers (D) and (E) because the "comma with" modifiers is not clearly referring to the preceding noun, profits.

Originally posted by buckkitty on 09 Feb 2007, 14:42.
Last edited by hazelnut on 31 Aug 2018, 06:39, edited 8 times in total.
Edited the question.
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New post 08 Apr 2012, 06:25
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1. The pronoun ‘it’ has no locus standi here; we should say ‘they’ since the pronoun refers to the plural profits – A and B gone

2. The fall in profits is not a one-time affair that happened at a specific time two years ago. It has been falling for the past two years. Therefore, it might be right to use a present perfect or a present participle rather than a past perfect, since we do not have a bonafide simple past tense to intervene between the past perfect and the present tense of the text.

3. However, the problem in D and E is one of modification. The prepositional phrase - with a five percent increase- modifies the subject ‘the results’ rather than the profits This is wrong becos it is the profits that have gone up. It is illogical to say that the results went up 5%.

4. That is the reason C wins, by using the relative pronoun ‘which’
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New post 16 May 2009, 08:34
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The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell -->incorrect modifier it. They is better to match profits

b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen -->...had increased ... after it had fallen... is surely ungrammatical. Besides, same error as A

c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling -->BEST. The first three months is an indefinitely time and likely to last until now, so present perfect is best.

d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling -->with + Noun phrase + after + present participle + ... is ungrammatical. Besides, it seems to modify for the results, not for profits, meaning The results have a 5% increase (???) after the result fell over the last 2 years --> awkward meaning

e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen --> same errors as D
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New post 24 Apr 2010, 13:13
thank you nilesh376 for your initiative, but here is what I think:
"uummm.. Not sure how to answer ur question but theres another reason why 'D' is wrong. First in second clause two events are happening 5 pc increase in first three months nd 'fall' in previous 2 years and the main clause is talking in present.. 'are evident'. When two things are said in past, its imp to distinguish which occurred earlier."

that's what I said but there is preposition "after" in the second phrase(I dont think the second statement which you refer to it as a second clause is infact a clause because there is no a clear subject and there are only partial predicate therefore the whole phrase which is long is acting as a adverb that is modifying the main verb in the main clause) back to what I was saying the word "after" indicates the time sequence so again why do we need to use tense.

<using 'with' as second clause wud make it a stand alone independent clause, you can flip and test.. this makes 'D' and 'E' out.>

am not sure about this, "with" is actually a preposition therefore it is not used to introduce a n independent clause, also "with" is sometimes used to introduce an absolute phrase but there is no way that it can introduce an independent clause because it actually would not have a complete meaning.

further clarification please.
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New post 29 Dec 2010, 20:10
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There is a rule in modification that if a modifier is inessential, then it has to be set off with a comma, in which case the clause should complete the intended meaning in full without considering the modifier. In D and E, the prepositional modifiers are separated by a comma, but the intended meaning of the passage can not be completed without considering the modifiers. Therefore, the use of comma before the preposition ‘with’ is grammatically incorrect. Hence D and E can be dropped.
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New post 20 Jul 2011, 22:14
OG says the underlined part need to clarify the sequence by using verb tenses.
Here are the explanation for the choices:

A The verb tenses do not distinguish between the times at which these indicators occurred; the singular it does not agree with the plural profits.
B The verb tenses do not distinguish between the times when the indicators occurred; the singular it does not agree with the plural profits.
C Correct. The verb tenses clearly indicate the sequence of events.
D It is not clear what connection is being described by with; the prepositional phrase makes the sentence wordy and unclear.
E It is not clear what connection is being described by with; the prepositional phrase makes the sentence wordy and unclear.

IF the sequence is the first priority, I think E best resolves this problem "having fallen..." clearly indicates that the action falling happened before the action increase.
Why is E wrong?
1) because it starts with "with+ing" pattern?
I've noticed that OG seems to avoid this "with" pattern. But could anyone tell me why is it wrong? if it's a noun modifier, then it makes perfect sense to modify "profits".
2) because it contains "having"? GMAT seems to avoid this form too.

Please explain~~~Thanks
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New post 20 Apr 2013, 05:56
Hi -- Can someone please explain why the verbs are incorrect in A? Why is it incorrect that both are in past tense? Doesn't it make complete sense that the profits increased AFTER they fell?

Description says that having two tenses in the past is incorrect?

Also, if C said -- "profits have increased after they fell" -- would that still be correct?
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New post 20 Apr 2013, 07:05
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My question is why is D or E not correct and C correct - is it because of the use of with in choices D and E or do they contain any additional error.
The only difference between C and D is the usage of with and which.
Can someone please guide on the usage of these words.
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New post 11 Feb 2014, 03:37
FuzzyBuzzard wrote:
Jump up...

After reviewing this topic and also other topics about the same question, I didn't find an answer to my question:
Why is it OK to use present participant ("falling")?
I have expected it to be "had fallen", since it happened 2 years ago and after it the profits got better ("increased), or in other words:
1st action (Past Perfect) ---> 2nd action (Past Simple) ---> PRESENT.

Thank you.

EDIT: :wall people just answer the original SC question, without even looking at the latest posts and what was asked in them!


I was also wondering the same thing and I came to this conclusion:

Verbs ending with '-ing' are flexible in that they can serve as modifiers and can assume the tense of the main verb of the clause.

To rephrase it: 'Profits, after falling the last two years, have increased.'

Because 'falling' modifies 'Profits' -- which 'have increased' -- 'falling' also assumes a past tense.

Makes sense?
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New post 19 Apr 2014, 21:57
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akhil911 wrote:

My question is why is D or E not correct and C correct - is it because of the use of with in choices D and E or do they contain any additional error.
The only difference between C and D is the usage of with and which.
Can someone please guide on the usage of these words.


Dear Akhil,
Thank you for your query. :)
You are correct. Structurally speaking, the difference between C and D is the difference between their respective uses of “which” and “with”. However, logically speaking, choice C is any day a lot clearer in conveying the intended meaning of the author than either choice D or E is. Let’s see why:

In choice D or E, it is not clear exactly how the prepositional phrase starting with “with” relates back to the sentence. Now, the whole phrase starting with “with” is a prepositional phrase, which can modify either a noun or a verb. Accordingly, the two possible things that could be modified with this modifier are (ref: underlined sections) :

a. The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits…
or
b. The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits

Now, the context of the sentence dictates that the “with” phrase modify “profits” as, logically speaking, the profits have increased after falling for two years. So let’s test whether this meaning comes across clearly with the “with” modifiers :

(D) The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years.
(E) The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen over the last two years.

Now, do you think that the “with” modifiers in the above two sentences clearly refer back to the profits?! The answer is NO! This is because these phrases could be deemed as modifying the action in the previous clause. In other words, it could be taken to suggest that:

The results are evident because of a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years.


The above meaning makes logical sense. However, is this sense compatible with the intended meaning of the author? The answer is NO! Also, besides the fact that choices D and E form rather awkward sentences, in the “with” modifying phrases, we are just told about a five percent increase, but we are not told exactly what entity has increased during the first three months of this year. The same goes for the “falling” bit. We do not know exactly what fell over the last two years.

Accordingly, it makes more sense to use “which” here. This is because “which” is typically used to convey extra-information about the noun preceding it. In the correct choice, “which” unambiguously refers back to “profits”. A simple example of the same usage is explained below:

The green shoes, which I tried on, are designed by the famous shoe designer Romano Ray.


In the above sentence, the noun “shoes” is already described as “green” in color. Therefore, the “which” clause- which I tried on- gives us extra information about the shoes.

To solidify your understanding of the topic and to learn the nuances of the same, please visit our in-depth article on the subject: http://gmatclub.com/forum/noun-modifier ... 35868.html

Please also revise the concept of “Types of modifier” if you are an e-GMATer.

Hope the above discussion helps! :)

Regards,

Neeti.
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New post 13 May 2014, 21:32
Couple of question:
1. I have question regarding the 'tense' used in A & B. Please find below choice by eliminating the pronoun error. please let me know if they are correct.

a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling


2. Question regarding 'with'
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
In both cases 'with' is incorrect.
Is 'with' always incorrect to start a modifier ? Or can 'with' used to start modifier is any case ? Is there any example that shows correct usage of 'with' ?

I will offer kudos to every satisfactory answer :lol:
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New post 19 May 2014, 03:20
russ9 wrote:
Hi -- Can someone please explain why the verbs are incorrect in A? Why is it incorrect that both are in past tense? Doesn't it make complete sense that the profits increased AFTER they fell?

Description says that having two tenses in the past is incorrect?

Also, if C said -- "profits have increased after they fell" -- would that still be correct?








Hi russ9,
Let's discuss your questions one by one:


Can someone please explain why the verbs are incorrect in A? Why is it incorrect that both are in past tense? Doesn't it make complete sense that the profits increased AFTER they fell?



I think it’s incorrect to say that both the verbs are incorrect in option A. Let’s discuss the sentence in detail to find out more:

SENTENCE

• The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits,
o which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.


MEANING

• So, this sentence states a fact from the present that certain results are evident in the company’s profits.
• The profits have increased five percent during the first three months of this year.
o This happened after the profits fell over the last two years.


Now, there are two things about the increase in the profits that are worth discussing here:
1. The increase happened over a period of 3 months.
2. The effect of this increase in the profits is still present. (The results…. are evident in its profits)

Since the increase is a continuous event that has happened over a duration of time it can’t be represented using the simple past tense. Either we need to use the present perfect tense of the past perfect tense.
Also, since the effect of these increases is visible in the present time, it can’t be represented using the past perfect tense.

So, the correct tense to be used here is the present perfect tense.


Note that, it makes perfect sense to say that the profits increased after they fell, but in the context of this sentence this is incorrect, as explained above.




Description says that having two tenses in the past is incorrect?

I didn’t exactly get your doubt here, but there can be instances where both the verbs of the sentence can be in the past tense. However, that is not the case here.
Also, when there are two or more than two events that happened at different points of time in the past then the recommended way is to do the sequencing of the events.

I had finished my homework when Ross came to meet me. (Homework was finished before Ross came)


The chief guest had left before the party started. (Chief guest left then the party started)

In both the above sentences, one of the events happened before the other.



Also, if C said -- "profits have increased after they fell" -- would that still be correct?

Yes, since the falling of the profits is an action that happened in the past, it’s correct to describe this action using the simple past tense.





Hope this helps!
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New post 19 May 2014, 03:56
umeshpatil wrote:
Couple of question:
1. I have question regarding the 'tense' used in A & B. Please find below choice by eliminating the pronoun error. please let me know if they are correct.

a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling


2. Question regarding 'with'
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
In both cases 'with' is incorrect.
Is 'with' always incorrect to start a modifier ? Or can 'with' used to start modifier is any case ? Is there any example that shows correct usage of 'with' ?

I will offer kudos to every satisfactory answer :lol:





Hi umeshpatil,


I have already answered your first question in my reply to russ9’s post. You can find it on the same page, right next to your post:


Regarding question number 2, I will say that a modifier can be started with ‘with’. Let’s take a look at a couple of official examples:

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE I

• Diabetes, together with its serious complications, ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of death, surpassed only by heart disease and cancer.

In this sentence, the modifier doesn't exactly start with 'with', but still it serves the purpose. If a modifier can start with 'together with', it can also start with 'with'. Right?

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE II

• The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.





Hope this helps! :)
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New post 28 Sep 2014, 08:26
Hi E-gmat,

Content taken from the latest post of e-gmat on this thread.

The results are evident because of a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years.

The above meaning makes logical sense. However, is this sense compatible with the intended meaning of the author? The answer is NO! Also, besides the fact that choices D and E form rather awkward sentences, in the “with” modifying phrases, we are just told about a five percent increase, but we are not told exactly what entity has increased during the first three months of this year. The same goes for the “falling” bit. We do not know exactly what fell over the last two years.


My questions:

How the above makes logical sense.

The results are evident because of a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years.

What has increased by 5% and what had fallen previously , we don't know from the above sentence then how can it be logical?

Plz suggest !
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New post 18 Feb 2015, 18:17
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
Incorrect. "during" implies continuity.
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
Incorrect. No need of the past perfect.
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
Correct.
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
Correct, but wordy (verb vs. participle)
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
Correct, but wordy and also kind redundant (perfect participle already indicates cause->consequence)

I am going with C.
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New post 14 Jan 2017, 23:47
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Note that pronouns in possessive forms can refer to possessive nouns.

In this sentence -
"The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits"
"its" can refer to "company's". However, we cannot use the pronoun "it" to refer to "company's".

Option A - Incorrect.
the usage of "it" is incorrect as it cannot refer to the possessive noun "company's".

Option B - Incorrect.
the usage of pronoun "it" is incorrect.
"which had increased during the first three months of the year ..." - the usage of past perfect is incorrect. We can either use the simple past or present perfect.

Option C - Correct Answer.
"which have increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling over the last two years."

both the things in bold refer to "profits".
Also, note the usage of present perfect - "have increased". this implies that the statement was made at the end of the three month period.
the usage of past tense "increased" implies that the statement was made After the end of the three month period.

Option D - Incorrect.
Note that prepositional phrases generally serve as adverbial modifiers.
In this case, "with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months ..." seems to describe How "the results of the company's cost cutting measures Are evident ..."
WHEREAS "a 5 percent increase" and "after falling" should clearly refer to "profits".

Hence, we need a noun-modifier such as "which".

Option E - Incorrect.
Same error as D.
Also, note that "after + having fallen" is redundant.

"having + past participle" already describes a prior action in a sequence of events.
For example -
Having watched the movie, I went to the restaurant.
Here, "watched" happened before "went".
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New post 19 Jan 2017, 08:53
i can go to choice C as oa for this problem
but we have a problem in official answer.
in C, "falling" take the tense of main clause, which is "have increased. this mean "after they have fallen... over last two years". this is not logic.
in this case, subject should be present and full clause is " after the profits fell over last two years"

am I correct? is official answer wrong? sorry for these words. maybe i am wrong

pls, discuss this point
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New post 20 Jan 2017, 17:35
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victory47 wrote:
i can go to choice C as oa for this problem
but we have a problem in official answer.
in C, "falling" take the tense of main clause, which is "have increased. this mean "after they have fallen... over last two years". this is not logic.
in this case, subject should be present and full clause is " after the profits fell over last two years"

am I correct? is official answer wrong? sorry for these words. maybe i am wrong

pls, discuss this point


Before discussing this point, please recollect that when words such as "after" and "before" are used, the usage past perfect to depict an event in past of another past event is not required.

After I finished my homework, I went out.... correct.
When I had finished my homework, I went out..... correct.
After I had finished my homework, I went out... redundant.
Now consider the following:
After finishing my homework, I went out.... correct.

In option C it may seem that the tense of the action "fall" should depict that the "falling" happened before the action "increase". However the use of the word "after" already makes it clear that the action "falling" happened before the action "increase". Therefore usage of tense is not required to depict the sequence.
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New post 06 Jul 2017, 06:28
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The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent
during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

A. which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell
“it” should logically refer to “profits” but since “it” is singular it cannot refer to plural “profits”

B. which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it had fallen
Past perfect for both the events does NOT clearly indicate the sequence of the events.
Also, “it” is incorrect as in A

C. which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling
Correct

D. with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling
Usage of prepositional phrase “with + noun + participle” is NOT correct in this case as we need a subject for “falling”. Using “with” illogically makes “results” as the subject of “falling”

E. with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen
Usage of prepositional phrase “with + noun + participle” is NOT correct in this case as we need a subject for “having fallen”. Using “with” illogically makes “results” as the subject of “falling”
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2017, 02:12
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell

(B) which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen

(C) which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling

(D) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling

(E) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen


Hello. the correct answer is C. BUT is it correct idiom "increased %" ? shouldn't it be "increased BY %"
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its &nbs [#permalink] 14 Jul 2017, 02:12

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