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The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its

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The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell

(B) which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen

(C) which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling

(D) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling

(E) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 21 Oct 2017, 19:45, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.

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New post 09 Feb 2007, 15:23
hsampath wrote:
Hmm, I was leaning towards E. I think the use of which is wrong here, since that part of the sentence conveys information that is essential.
(


An essential modifier 'that' is used only when we identify the noun by its characteristics. 'which' is used when the characteristics of the noun are not used to identify the noun and when the characteristics are purely informative.

In this case, we are talking about the company's profits and the profits happened to have increased. It is not that there are multiple types of profits for a company and we want to refer only to a specific kind of profits, which have increased.

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New post 09 Feb 2007, 17:44
hsampath wrote:
Hmm, I was leaning towards E. I think the use of which is wrong here, since that part of the sentence conveys information that is essential.

Besides, the subject seems to be results and not profits. But now Im confused. I still have a long way to go with SC...:(


E would be a sentence fragment as the clause "The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits" is independent

so we need a relative pronoun which

C does it

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IMO C

The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell -->incorrect modifier it. They is better to match profits
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen -->...had increased ... after it had fallen... is surely ungrammatical. Besides, same error as A
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling -->best. The first three months is an indefinitely time and likely to last until now, so present perfect is best.
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling -->with + Noun phrase + after + present participle + ... is ungrammatical. Besides, it seems to modify for the results, not for profits, meaning The results have a 5% increase (???) after the result fell over the last 2 years --> awkward meaning
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen --> same errors as D

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2010, 12:35
elevinty wrote:
I know C is right, but I have a question isn't D a bunch of prepositional phrases that are actually modifying the main verb in the previous clause "are evident" therefore they are grammatically right, furthermore preposition "after" clearly indicates the sequence of the two events so why do we need to use tense to show the time sequence between the two :?: :?: :?:
Note: in mgmat sc it says if the sequence is clear then we do not have to use complicated tense.
Note: I dont think "increase" here is a verb because "five percent" is acting as an adjective or prearticle that is modifying "increase" so without the "five percent" the phrase would be "an increase" therefore "increase" is acting as the object of the prepositional phrase therefore it's not a verb.

Can someone please clarify.



uummm.. Not sure how to answer ur question but theres another reason why 'D' is wrong. First in second clause two events are happening 5 pc increase in first three months nd 'fall' in previous 2 years and the main clause is talking in present.. 'are evident'. When two things are said in past, its imp to distinguish which occurred earlier.

Also when you see the whole statemnt together the first is the main clause and second is subordinate clause.dependent on first. using 'with' as second clause wud make it a stand alone independent clause, you can flip and test.. this makes 'D' and 'E' out.

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New post 24 Apr 2010, 13:13
thank you nilesh376 for your initiative, but here is what I think:
"uummm.. Not sure how to answer ur question but theres another reason why 'D' is wrong. First in second clause two events are happening 5 pc increase in first three months nd 'fall' in previous 2 years and the main clause is talking in present.. 'are evident'. When two things are said in past, its imp to distinguish which occurred earlier."

that's what I said but there is preposition "after" in the second phrase(I dont think the second statement which you refer to it as a second clause is infact a clause because there is no a clear subject and there are only partial predicate therefore the whole phrase which is long is acting as a adverb that is modifying the main verb in the main clause) back to what I was saying the word "after" indicates the time sequence so again why do we need to use tense.

<using 'with' as second clause wud make it a stand alone independent clause, you can flip and test.. this makes 'D' and 'E' out.>

am not sure about this, "with" is actually a preposition therefore it is not used to introduce a n independent clause, also "with" is sometimes used to introduce an absolute phrase but there is no way that it can introduce an independent clause because it actually would not have a complete meaning.

further clarification please.
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New post 25 Apr 2010, 00:56
elevinty wrote:
thank you nilesh376 for your initiative, but here is what I think:
"uummm.. Not sure how to answer ur question but theres another reason why 'D' is wrong. First in second clause two events are happening 5 pc increase in first three months nd 'fall' in previous 2 years and the main clause is talking in present.. 'are evident'. When two things are said in past, its imp to distinguish which occurred earlier."

that's what I said but there is preposition "after" in the second phrase(I dont think the second statement which you refer to it as a second clause is infact a clause because there is no a clear subject and there are only partial predicate therefore the whole phrase which is long is acting as a adverb that is modifying the main verb in the main clause) back to what I was saying the word "after" indicates the time sequence so again why do we need to use tense.

<using 'with' as second clause wud make it a stand alone independent clause, you can flip and test.. this makes 'D' and 'E' out.>

am not sure about this, "with" is actually a preposition therefore it is not used to introduce a n independent clause, also "with" is sometimes used to introduce an absolute phrase but there is no way that it can introduce an independent clause because it actually would not have a complete meaning.

further clarification please.



sorry my mistake i shud say the second phrase..

see this way.. if you use 'with' preposition in 'D' . whom its referring to? sure it is 'its profits' just because its close to 'profits' and not to 'the result' the main subject or in fact 'the company'. does the preposition 'with' helps to link two phrases?. the second phrase is talking about increase and decrease of a figure which is profit and rely on a word which wud clearly refer to profit, introducing relative clause 'which' refers to profits and joins the two clause and phrase.

Using after or before preposition not always convey the same meaning. the verb should have a proper tense when used in the statement.

do below have same meaning??
we reached the station after, the train left already

we reached the station after, the train had left already.

or

I wrote the letter before he arrived

I had written the letter before he arrived

hope it makes sense

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New post 30 Jul 2010, 03:25
I also went for .....C...........

removing the "," "With" is acceptable as it would again modify profits ........I don't understand ....some one please put in perspective ......

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There is a rule in modification that if a modifier is inessential, then it has to be set off with a comma, in which case the clause should complete the intended meaning in full without considering the modifier. In D and E, the prepositional modifiers are separated by a comma, but the intended meaning of the passage can not be completed without considering the modifiers. Therefore, the use of comma before the preposition ‘with’ is grammatically incorrect. Hence D and E can be dropped.
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New post 20 Jul 2011, 22:14
OG says the underlined part need to clarify the sequence by using verb tenses.
Here are the explanation for the choices:

A The verb tenses do not distinguish between the times at which these indicators occurred; the singular it does not agree with the plural profits.
B The verb tenses do not distinguish between the times when the indicators occurred; the singular it does not agree with the plural profits.
C Correct. The verb tenses clearly indicate the sequence of events.
D It is not clear what connection is being described by with; the prepositional phrase makes the sentence wordy and unclear.
E It is not clear what connection is being described by with; the prepositional phrase makes the sentence wordy and unclear.

IF the sequence is the first priority, I think E best resolves this problem "having fallen..." clearly indicates that the action falling happened before the action increase.
Why is E wrong?
1) because it starts with "with+ing" pattern?
I've noticed that OG seems to avoid this "with" pattern. But could anyone tell me why is it wrong? if it's a noun modifier, then it makes perfect sense to modify "profits".
2) because it contains "having"? GMAT seems to avoid this form too.

Please explain~~~Thanks

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New post 12 Mar 2012, 00:23
Hi,

C) which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling

(E) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen

there is no particular rule about with or which that I can remember.
however here which preceded with comma correctly identifies profits

the problem with "with" is what does it refers to? profits/results/cost cutting measures?
also having is often not preferred in GMAt

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1. The pronoun ‘it’ has no locus standi here; we should say ‘they’ since the pronoun refers to the plural profits – A and B gone

2. The fall in profits is not a one-time affair that happened at a specific time two years ago. It has been falling for the past two years. Therefore, it might be right to use a present perfect or a present participle rather than a past perfect, since we do not have a bonafide simple past tense to intervene between the past perfect and the present tense of the text.

3. However, the problem in D and E is one of modification. The prepositional phrase - with a five percent increase- modifies the subject ‘the results’ rather than the profits This is wrong becos it is the profits that have gone up. It is illogical to say that the results went up 5%.

4. That is the reason C wins, by using the relative pronoun ‘which’
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New post 18 Mar 2013, 10:49
ratinarace wrote:
The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profi ts, which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after they fell
(B) which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after they had fallen
(C) which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling
(D) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling
(E) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen


"which" is correctly used and better than "with".
So D E out.

(A) which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after they fell
The verbs do not give a good idea of the sequence of the events. The simple past ("increased" and "fell") is used to describe "short" actions, in this case we are talking of what the profits did "during the first 3 months" and "over the last two years".
(B) which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after they had fallen.
"they had fallen over the last two years" is correct, this is an action that occurred over a long period of time in the past and is now over.
However, again, parallelism doesn't give us a good idea of the sequence of the events. And moreover "which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year" is not logically correct; I would change it maybe to "which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year", to because this action is recent and maybe is still "happening".
(C) which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling.
"have increased" is the correct verb, as I explained above. "after falling" clearly explains the sequence.

IMO C
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New post 18 Mar 2013, 22:31
official answer indeed is C.

...Thank you all for your inputs

@aditya, @sdasI actually have manipulated the original question, removing the pronoun error from option A and B..
My purpose of doing so is to understand the difference between option A and option C purely on the basis of the verbs.....coming back to the doubt that I have

in option A, doesn't the use of "after" clarifies the sequencing? or is it that we need past perfect here?? @aditya...yes I feel we need to clearly identify the sequencing as there are two events increased and fell both happening in the past

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New post 26 Mar 2013, 01:41
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.


Second clause is briefing about profits so "which" is appropriate.
Thus D and E are out.

Now subject given is plural so we cant use "it" for the same. Thus eliminate A and B

So C

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New post 20 Apr 2013, 02:05
daagh wrote:
1. The pronoun ‘it’ has no locus standi here; we should say ‘they’ since the pronoun refers to the plural profits – A and B gone

2. The fall in profits is not a one-time affair that happened at a specific time two years ago. It has been falling for the past two years. Therefore, it might be right to use a present perfect or a present participle rather than a past perfect, since we do not have a bonafide simple past tense to intervene between the past perfect and the present tense of the text.

3. However, the problem in D and E is one of modification. The prepositional phrase - with a five percent increase- modifies the subject ‘the results’ rather than the profits This is wrong becos it is the profits that have gone up. It is illogical to say that the results went up 5%.

4. That is the reason C wins, by using the relative pronoun ‘which’


How the prepositional phrase "with a five percent increase" modifies the subject "the results" and not "profits".

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New post 20 Apr 2013, 05:56
How the prepositional phrase "with a five percent increase" modifies the subject "the results" and not "profits".[/quote]

Hey there, it is actually modifying profits and not the results - that is what is the intended meaning of the sentence.

Think about it this way - can measures increase in %? No it cannot. But can profits increase in % - of course it can...

Hope this helps
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New post 20 Apr 2013, 07:05
We have to read choices D and E together with the comma after profits. A prepositional modifiers set off by a comma is an adverbial modifier, referring to either the subject or the entire clause. But we do not want that. We want something to modify the profits, done best by modifiers such as which or that; that is the reason C wins
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New post 07 Jan 2014, 09:03
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen



What does "it" refer to, in A and B? The profits? That's plural... So A/B gone.

C) makes sense

D) "with a" doesn't make sense, the rest does but this is enough to eliminate D, since we already have C

E) makes the same mistake as D, so we go with C.

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New post 11 Feb 2014, 03:37
FuzzyBuzzard wrote:
Jump up...

After reviewing this topic and also other topics about the same question, I didn't find an answer to my question:
Why is it OK to use present participant ("falling")?
I have expected it to be "had fallen", since it happened 2 years ago and after it the profits got better ("increased), or in other words:
1st action (Past Perfect) ---> 2nd action (Past Simple) ---> PRESENT.

Thank you.

EDIT: :wall people just answer the original SC question, without even looking at the latest posts and what was asked in them!


I was also wondering the same thing and I came to this conclusion:

Verbs ending with '-ing' are flexible in that they can serve as modifiers and can assume the tense of the main verb of the clause.

To rephrase it: 'Profits, after falling the last two years, have increased.'

Because 'falling' modifies 'Profits' -- which 'have increased' -- 'falling' also assumes a past tense.

Makes sense?

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