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The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2017, 05:43
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dave13 wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell

(B) which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen

(C) which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling

(D) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling

(E) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen


Hello. the correct answer is C. BUT is it correct idiom "increased %" ? shouldn't it be "increased BY %"


Both are alright - the idea would be clear if you consider the question forms:
1. BY what percent did X increase?: X increased BY 5%.
2. How much did X increase?: X increased 5%.

In the first case "5%" is a noun, the object of prepositional phrase "of 5%". The prepositional phrase "of 5%" as a whole is working as an adverbial phrase for the verb "increased".
In the second case "5%" itself is an adverb referring to the verb "increased".
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New post 10 Nov 2017, 23:16
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In Option c - Ing modifier falling should modify the preceding word or noun if there is no comma but here it is modifying which (profits). Someone please explain
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New post 23 Mar 2018, 10:42
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ANSWER CHOICE ANALYSIS
Choice A: The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
This choice has pronoun-antecedent number error as.

Choice B: The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen over the last two years.
This choice has verb tense error. The verb tense “had increased” is written incorrectly in past perfect tense. The two events in the past are – falling of profits & increase in profits. The increase in profits is the later event. Thus, expressing it in past perfect tense is incorrect. Expressing the earlier event in past tense is correct – had fallen.

Also, this choice has pronoun-antecedent number error as in Choice A.

Choice C: The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years.
No error. In this sentence, the use of present perfect tense is justified since this tense presents an event that started in the past and whose effect is still valid in the present time frame. Furthermore, in this sentence, the second event “it fell” has been converted into a modifier that modifies the verb “have increased”. The modifier – after falling over the last two years – presents the sequencing for the verb “have increased” as intended.

Choice D: The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years.
This choice has modifier error. The modifier “with a five percent increase” non-sensically modifies the preceding clause. Per the intended meaning, it should modify the preceding noun – profits.

Choice E: The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen over the last two years.
This choice has modifier error as in Choice D. It also uses unnecessarily passive verb tense – having fallen.

Thus, Choice C is the correct answer.
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New post 13 Apr 2018, 05:52
Hi,
Could anyone please elaborate on choices B and D. Why "with a five percent increase" is wrong in options D, E. However I eliminated E for tense "having fallen". I need a more detailed explanation of options B and D. Please help.
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New post 13 Apr 2018, 06:33
yash321 wrote:
Hi,
Could anyone please elaborate on choices B and D. Why "with a five percent increase" is wrong in options D, E. However I eliminated E for tense "having fallen". I need a more detailed explanation of options B and D. Please help.



Hello yash321,

I will be glad to help you with you this one. :-)

Errors in Choice B:

1. Verb Tense Error: The verb tense had increased is written incorrectly in past perfect tense. The two events in the past are – falling of profits and increase in profits. The increase in profits is the later event. Thus, expressing it in past perfect tense is incorrect. Expressing the earlier event in past tense is correct – had fallen.

2. Pronoun-Antecedent Number Error: The singular pronoun it has been used to refer to plural noun profits.


Errors in Choice D:

1. Modifier Error: The modifier with a five percent increase non-sensically modifies the preceding clause. Per the intended meaning, it should modify the preceding noun – profits.


Hope it helps. :-)
Thanks.
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New post 17 May 2018, 18:24
Quote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.


(A) which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell - Incorrect.

(B) which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen - Incorrect.

(C) which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling - Correct.

(D) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling - Incorrect.

(E) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen - Incorrect.

Answer: (C).
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New post 06 Jul 2018, 19:21
A,B - "It" is referring to plural "profits"
D,E - The subjects is "results"
Distorts the meaning that the results fall over last 2 years not profits.

Hence, C is the answer.
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New post 09 Aug 2018, 20:36
sayantanc2k wrote:
victory47 wrote:
i can go to choice C as oa for this problem
but we have a problem in official answer.
in C, "falling" take the tense of main clause, which is "have increased. this mean "after they have fallen... over last two years". this is not logic.
in this case, subject should be present and full clause is " after the profits fell over last two years"

am I correct? is official answer wrong? sorry for these words. maybe i am wrong

pls, discuss this point


Before discussing this point, please recollect that when words such as "after" and "before" are used, the usage past perfect to depict an event in past of another past event is not required.

After I finished my homework, I went out.... correct.
When I had finished my homework, I went out..... correct.
After I had finished my homework, I went out... redundant.
Now consider the following:
After finishing my homework, I went out.... correct.

In option C it may seem that the tense of the action "fall" should depict that the "falling" happened before the action "increase". However the use of the word "after" already makes it clear that the action "falling" happened before the action "increase". Therefore usage of tense is not required to depict the sequence.


Hi sayantanc2k,
Option C -
Though your explanation for usage of "falling" looks convincing, I am afraid you have made difficult an easy ( but overlooked) funda of ellipsis.
It basically says "............after (they have been) falling ...."

I think it is similar to striping ellipsis mentioned @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ellipsis_(linguistics)
more link on ellipsis - https://www.dailywritingtips.com/a-guid ... tructions/
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New post 30 Oct 2018, 08:37
daagh wrote:
1. The pronoun ‘it’ has no locus standi here; we should say ‘they’ since the pronoun refers to the plural profits – A and B gone

2. The fall in profits is not a one-time affair that happened at a specific time two years ago. It has been falling for the past two years. Therefore, it might be right to use a present perfect or a present participle rather than a past perfect, since we do not have a bonafide simple past tense to intervene between the past perfect and the present tense of the text.

3. However, the problem in D and E is one of modification. The prepositional phrase - with a five percent increase- modifies the subject ‘the results’ rather than the profits This is wrong becos it is the profits that have gone up. It is illogical to say that the results went up 5%.

4. That is the reason C wins, by using the relative pronoun ‘which’



Hi Daagh,

Thank you for such a good explanation. I have one query: can we never use with to modify the immediate subject ? why is with not modifying the profits here?
like which, with do not follow the touch rule ?

Please help me with this question.
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New post 01 Nov 2018, 07:14
daagh wrote:
1. The pronoun ‘it’ has no locus standi here; we should say ‘they’ since the pronoun refers to the plural profits – A and B gone

2. The fall in profits is not a one-time affair that happened at a specific time two years ago. It has been falling for the past two years. Therefore, it might be right to use a present perfect or a present participle rather than a past perfect, since we do not have a bonafide simple past tense to intervene between the past perfect and the present tense of the text.

3. However, the problem in D and E is one of modification. The prepositional phrase - with a five percent increase- modifies the subject ‘the results’ rather than the profits This is wrong becos it is the profits that have gone up. It is illogical to say that the results went up 5%.

4. That is the reason C wins, by using the relative pronoun ‘which’



Hello DAAGH sir and EGMAT and GMATNinja

I understand with acts as an adverbial modfier..does that mean it will modify the entire preceding clause ..just as a VERBing generally does
and so it should make sense with the subject of preceding ..and that is why it is modifying RESULTS here...

Need clarity...Please help!!
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New post 11 Mar 2019, 12:06
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Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one issue at a time, and narrow it down to the right answer! To begin, here is the original question, with any major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
(B) which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
(C) which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
(D) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
(E) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

After a quick glance over the options, there are a few key differences we can focus on:

1. which vs. with (modifiers)
2. increased / had increased / have increased (verb tense/subject-verb agreement)
3. it fell / it had fallen / falling / having fallen (verb tense/pronouns)


Since we're dealing with a modifier here, let's start with #1 on our list. This will determine if we should start the modifier with "which" or "with." Here is how each type of modifier works:

,which = noun modifier (the modifier must refer back to the noun right before the comma)
,with = adverbial modifier (the modifier must refer back to the clause before the comma)

Let's take a look at each option and determine if we need to use "which" or "with" here:

(A) The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
(B) The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
(C) The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
(D) The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
(E) The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

After looking more carefully, it makes more sense to use the noun modifier beginning with "which" because it clearly refers back to what it's modifying: profits. Using the word "with" here changes the meaning! It says that the results increased five percent, not the profits! Therefore, we can eliminate options D & E because they use an adverbial modifier that isn't clear or logical to use here.

Now that we have 3 options left, let's move on to #3 on our list: whether or not to use the pronoun "it." The first thing we need to ask ourselves when it comes to pronouns is "do they agree in number?" In this case, the pronoun "it" is referring back to the word "profits." So - do they agree in number? NO! The word "profits" is plural, and the pronoun "it" is singular.

(A) which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
(B) which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
(C) which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling

We can eliminate options A & B because they have a pronoun-antecedent agreement problem. This leaves us with C as our correct option!


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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2019, 03:48
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[quote="buckkitty"]The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell

(B) which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen

(C) which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling

(D) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling

(E) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

in choice d and e, "with a five..." modify the whole preceding clause, but dose not refer to subject of this clause, "the result". the phase is adverb. the phrase dose not refer to "profits" and, so, is unclear. unclear meaning is wrong on gmat.

look at choice c.
failing take the time of main clause, have done, so, after failing mean after they have fallen.
have increased show an action continuing until present but have fallen talk about past action without a specific point in the past.

I dont like this inconsistancy, but it is the fact.
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2019, 20:23
daagh wrote:
1. The pronoun ‘it’ has no locus standi here; we should say ‘they’ since the pronoun refers to the plural profits – A and B gone

2. The fall in profits is not a one-time affair that happened at a specific time two years ago. It has been falling for the past two years. Therefore, it might be right to use a present perfect or a present participle rather than a past perfect, since we do not have a bonafide simple past tense to intervene between the past perfect and the present tense of the text.

3. However, the problem in D and E is one of modification. The prepositional phrase - with a five percent increase- modifies the subject ‘the results’ rather than the profits This is wrong becos it is the profits that have gone up. It is illogical to say that the results went up 5%.

4. That is the reason C wins, by using the relative pronoun ‘which’



in choice D and E, "with 5 percent...." do not refer to subject of the sentence.
this is absolute phrase. we do need to see grammar books for explanation of this phrase. i will explain it now

"with+noun+noun modifier" work as adverb modifying the main clause but do not refer the subject of the main clause.

with the government encouraging persons to learn English, I take an english class.

compare with the following adverb, which refers to subject and at the same time is adverb of the main clause.

learning english well, I learn gmat effectively. in this sentence, "learning english well" refers to subject "I", and work as adverb of the main clause.

because the absolute phrase do not refer to any noun in the main clause, is is called absolute. this phrase is like a second sentence regarding meaning. but , regarding grammatical role, the absolute phrase is not a sentence, so , it must attach to another sentence to be an adverb and it can not be a separate sentence.

I will tell some patterns using "with"
"with" is used to show method of the main clause. I learn English with a good book
"with" work as adjective. the girl with the red hair is my wife.
"with" work ad adverb. I learn English with a good teacher.

we need to know that "with+noun+noun" can be an absolute phrase and that "absolute phrase" dose not refer to any noun in the main clause. refering to no noun in the main clause can make the sentence unclear and, so, wrong.
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2019, 01:01
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

A is incorrect because there is a blatant SV Agreement error. Second, if we say "it fell" we imply that the event was a one-off and not some sort of trend that actually led to the cost-cutting measures
For this reason A is incorrect.

B Past perfect here confuses the sequencing of events. Had increased after it had fallen? It makes it unclear what came first although logically something increased after something fell. Incorrect

C is correct as "which" correctly modifies "profits". The relative clause here correctly modifies the noun preceding it.

"with a 5% increase" can be tested by itself and excluding the participle phrase after it ("increase during..")
it actually doesn't make sense to have it here. With makes sense when saying "With the might of sword, King David killed the heathens"

Same goes for E, Tense issues also present.
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