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The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2014, 20:57
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akhil911 wrote:
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen


My question is why is D or E not correct and C correct - is it because of the use of with in choices D and E or do they contain any additional error.
The only difference between C and D is the usage of with and which.
Can someone please guide on the usage of these words.


Dear Akhil,
Thank you for your query. :)
You are correct. Structurally speaking, the difference between C and D is the difference between their respective uses of “which” and “with”. However, logically speaking, choice C is any day a lot clearer in conveying the intended meaning of the author than either choice D or E is. Let’s see why:

In choice D or E, it is not clear exactly how the prepositional phrase starting with “with” relates back to the sentence. Now, the whole phrase starting with “with” is a prepositional phrase, which can modify either a noun or a verb. Accordingly, the two possible things that could be modified with this modifier are (ref: underlined sections) :

a. The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits…
or
b. The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits

Now, the context of the sentence dictates that the “with” phrase modify “profits” as, logically speaking, the profits have increased after falling for two years. So let’s test whether this meaning comes across clearly with the “with” modifiers :

(D) The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years.
(E) The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen over the last two years.

Now, do you think that the “with” modifiers in the above two sentences clearly refer back to the profits?! The answer is NO! This is because these phrases could be deemed as modifying the action in the previous clause. In other words, it could be taken to suggest that:

The results are evident because of a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years.


The above meaning makes logical sense. However, is this sense compatible with the intended meaning of the author? The answer is NO! Also, besides the fact that choices D and E form rather awkward sentences, in the “with” modifying phrases, we are just told about a five percent increase, but we are not told exactly what entity has increased during the first three months of this year. The same goes for the “falling” bit. We do not know exactly what fell over the last two years.

Accordingly, it makes more sense to use “which” here. This is because “which” is typically used to convey extra-information about the noun preceding it. In the correct choice, “which” unambiguously refers back to “profits”. A simple example of the same usage is explained below:

The green shoes, which I tried on, are designed by the famous shoe designer Romano Ray.


In the above sentence, the noun “shoes” is already described as “green” in color. Therefore, the “which” clause- which I tried on- gives us extra information about the shoes.

To solidify your understanding of the topic and to learn the nuances of the same, please visit our in-depth article on the subject: noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

Please also revise the concept of “Types of modifier” if you are an e-GMATer.

Hope the above discussion helps! :)

Regards,

Neeti.
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2014, 20:32
Couple of question:
1. I have question regarding the 'tense' used in A & B. Please find below choice by eliminating the pronoun error. please let me know if they are correct.

a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling


2. Question regarding 'with'
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
In both cases 'with' is incorrect.
Is 'with' always incorrect to start a modifier ? Or can 'with' used to start modifier is any case ? Is there any example that shows correct usage of 'with' ?

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2014, 02:20
russ9 wrote:
Hi -- Can someone please explain why the verbs are incorrect in A? Why is it incorrect that both are in past tense? Doesn't it make complete sense that the profits increased AFTER they fell?

Description says that having two tenses in the past is incorrect?

Also, if C said -- "profits have increased after they fell" -- would that still be correct?








Hi russ9,
Let's discuss your questions one by one:


Can someone please explain why the verbs are incorrect in A? Why is it incorrect that both are in past tense? Doesn't it make complete sense that the profits increased AFTER they fell?



I think it’s incorrect to say that both the verbs are incorrect in option A. Let’s discuss the sentence in detail to find out more:

SENTENCE

• The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits,
o which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.


MEANING

• So, this sentence states a fact from the present that certain results are evident in the company’s profits.
• The profits have increased five percent during the first three months of this year.
o This happened after the profits fell over the last two years.


Now, there are two things about the increase in the profits that are worth discussing here:
1. The increase happened over a period of 3 months.
2. The effect of this increase in the profits is still present. (The results…. are evident in its profits)

Since the increase is a continuous event that has happened over a duration of time it can’t be represented using the simple past tense. Either we need to use the present perfect tense of the past perfect tense.
Also, since the effect of these increases is visible in the present time, it can’t be represented using the past perfect tense.

So, the correct tense to be used here is the present perfect tense.


Note that, it makes perfect sense to say that the profits increased after they fell, but in the context of this sentence this is incorrect, as explained above.




Description says that having two tenses in the past is incorrect?

I didn’t exactly get your doubt here, but there can be instances where both the verbs of the sentence can be in the past tense. However, that is not the case here.
Also, when there are two or more than two events that happened at different points of time in the past then the recommended way is to do the sequencing of the events.

I had finished my homework when Ross came to meet me. (Homework was finished before Ross came)


The chief guest had left before the party started. (Chief guest left then the party started)

In both the above sentences, one of the events happened before the other.



Also, if C said -- "profits have increased after they fell" -- would that still be correct?

Yes, since the falling of the profits is an action that happened in the past, it’s correct to describe this action using the simple past tense.





Hope this helps!
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2014, 02:56
umeshpatil wrote:
Couple of question:
1. I have question regarding the 'tense' used in A & B. Please find below choice by eliminating the pronoun error. please let me know if they are correct.

a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling


2. Question regarding 'with'
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
In both cases 'with' is incorrect.
Is 'with' always incorrect to start a modifier ? Or can 'with' used to start modifier is any case ? Is there any example that shows correct usage of 'with' ?

I will offer kudos to every satisfactory answer :lol:





Hi umeshpatil,


I have already answered your first question in my reply to russ9’s post. You can find it on the same page, right next to your post:


Regarding question number 2, I will say that a modifier can be started with ‘with’. Let’s take a look at a couple of official examples:

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE I

• Diabetes, together with its serious complications, ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of death, surpassed only by heart disease and cancer.

In this sentence, the modifier doesn't exactly start with 'with', but still it serves the purpose. If a modifier can start with 'together with', it can also start with 'with'. Right?

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE II

• The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.





Hope this helps! :)
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2014, 02:41
I chose the correct answer (C) solely based on the use of "V-ing" after "after". Since two verbs (increase and fall) clarify the same subject "profits" --> if "after" is used, it should be followed by "V-ing" form of the verb denoting the prior action (which is "fall" in this sentence).

E.g. After discussing all other issues with Lana, I have changed my mind.

However, I'm not sure if I can rely on this reason to pick up the correct answer in other similar situation. Any suggestion?
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2014, 07:26
Hi E-gmat,

Content taken from the latest post of e-gmat on this thread.

The results are evident because of a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years.

The above meaning makes logical sense. However, is this sense compatible with the intended meaning of the author? The answer is NO! Also, besides the fact that choices D and E form rather awkward sentences, in the “with” modifying phrases, we are just told about a five percent increase, but we are not told exactly what entity has increased during the first three months of this year. The same goes for the “falling” bit. We do not know exactly what fell over the last two years.


My questions:

How the above makes logical sense.

The results are evident because of a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years.

What has increased by 5% and what had fallen previously , we don't know from the above sentence then how can it be logical?

Plz suggest !
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2015, 15:23
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen


The original sentence has two errors -
1. The effect of profit increase is still evident (first part of the sentence says that). Hence present perfect tense should be used instead of past.
2. 'it' does not have an antecedent

A - WRONG because of the above reasons
B - WRONG tense 'had increased' + pronoun error as in (A)
C - Right
D - 'profits with five percent increase' is very awkward.
E - Same as D.

If you have alternate explanations to D & E , please do let me know
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2015, 17:17
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
Incorrect. "during" implies continuity.
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
Incorrect. No need of the past perfect.
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
Correct.
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
Correct, but wordy (verb vs. participle)
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
Correct, but wordy and also kind redundant (perfect participle already indicates cause->consequence)

I am going with C.

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2015, 04:28
nancykumar wrote:
Need Help, what is "falling " in choice C ( i think it is acting as verb-ing modifier ) so "after falling " is is modifying what ?



"which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling"... this modifies the profits and hence "falling" refers to profits as well. The sentence mentions that the profits have increased after falling over the last two years. IMO, it is a verb-ing modifier as we do not have a helping verb to make it an actual verb.

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2015, 15:09
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen


The correct answer C is very tricky in this case because we have two things that happened in the past, but the present perfect tense is correct.

"After falling" doesn't require a past perfect tense because the context of the sentence makes clear that it happened first.

The present perfect tense "have increased" is ok because the increased profits in the first three months is presumably going to have a continued effect in the present (that is the company will continue to have profits).

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 10 Dec 2015, 21:56
emma4bschool wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased 5% during the first 3 months of this year after it fell
(B) which had increased 5% during the first 3 months of this year after it had fallen
(C) which have increased 5% during the first 3 months of this year after falling
(D) with a 5% increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling
(E) with a 5% increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen

Could someone tell me why it is C please? I would have thought it was past perfect tense and hence, B.

Thanks.


Hi,
firstly reasons why B is not correct..

1) 'It' cannot refer to plural 'profits'....

2) the very reason you assume it to be the answer,.. 'past perfect "had".'
there are clearly two events... increase of 5% and falling earlier..
logically the two incidents cannot contain ' past perfect'....
(B) which had increased 5% during the first 3 months of this year after it had fallen..

now why C is correct..
1) removes 'it' and brings in 'have'...
2) we can easily take the increase to have happened right now as it speaks of first three months of this year.. so have increased is ok
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 10 Dec 2015, 23:47
emma4bschool wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased 5% during the first 3 months of this year after it fell
(B) which had increased 5% during the first 3 months of this year after it had fallen
(C) which have increased 5% during the first 3 months of this year after falling
(D) with a 5% increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling
(E) with a 5% increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen

Could someone tell me why it is C please? I would have thought it was past perfect tense and hence, B.

Thanks.

The logical sequence of tenses says that if one event has happened before the other, perfect tense can be used.
However in the option B, both of the events use the perfect tense hence is not the correct option.

Moreover, Option B uses "it" for plural term profits.
Does this help?

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2016, 08:32
cyriuslevirus wrote:
In the case of the question, "profits increase and then fall"...

Hi cyriuslevirus, I think you got the sequence incorrect and perhaps, that's the reason for the confusion.

According to the sentence, profits fell and then increased (and not the other way round, as seems to be your understanding).
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New post 18 Sep 2016, 01:25
daagh wrote:
After dumping B and C for their obvious Pronoun number agreement errors,

(A) Belizeans typically eat their meals with rice, and tortillas are rare --- Here the second sentence is hanging aloof without any relation to the first part. In an extreme way, it may lead wrongly to imply, that the Belizeans typically eat their meals with rice because tortillas are rare

(D) Belizeans typically eat their meals with rice, tortillas a rarity – Same problem as in A; The modifier is dangling without a proper noun to modify

(E) Belizeans typically eat their meals with rice, with tortillas as a rarity – Now the adverbial modifier ‘with tortillas as a rarity’ rightly modifies the previous clause through the action of Belizeans eating rice as a staple; correct choice


Hello Daagh;;Please help me with usage of with
In another SC,
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

with modifies The results
While here, with modifies rice

Quite confused :shock: :shock:

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2016, 05:27
PLIT1) THERE ARE TWO PARTS IN THIS SENTENCE. THE LATER PART IS PRESENTED FIRST, SO AFTER THE COMMA YOU NEED TO REMIND THE READER THE SECOND PART ACTUALLY TOOK PLACE FIRST. IN OTHER WORDS, THE CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER WAS REVERSED IN THIS SENTENCE. A, D AND E ARE OUT.

SPLIT 2) "WHICH" VS "WITH". THE WORD "WHICH" REFERS TO PROFITS CLEARLY VS "WITH". THE WORD "WITH" IS UNCLEAR AND INDIRECT. D AND E ARE OUT.

SPLIT3) SVA. PROFITS IS PLURAL AND THE SINGULAR PRONOUN "IT" REFERS BACK TO PROFITS IN A AND B. SO A AND B ARE OUT.

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jan 2017, 22:47
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Note that pronouns in possessive forms can refer to possessive nouns.

In this sentence -
"The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits"
"its" can refer to "company's". However, we cannot use the pronoun "it" to refer to "company's".

Option A - Incorrect.
the usage of "it" is incorrect as it cannot refer to the possessive noun "company's".

Option B - Incorrect.
the usage of pronoun "it" is incorrect.
"which had increased during the first three months of the year ..." - the usage of past perfect is incorrect. We can either use the simple past or present perfect.

Option C - Correct Answer.
"which have increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling over the last two years."

both the things in bold refer to "profits".
Also, note the usage of present perfect - "have increased". this implies that the statement was made at the end of the three month period.
the usage of past tense "increased" implies that the statement was made After the end of the three month period.

Option D - Incorrect.
Note that prepositional phrases generally serve as adverbial modifiers.
In this case, "with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months ..." seems to describe How "the results of the company's cost cutting measures Are evident ..."
WHEREAS "a 5 percent increase" and "after falling" should clearly refer to "profits".

Hence, we need a noun-modifier such as "which".

Option E - Incorrect.
Same error as D.
Also, note that "after + having fallen" is redundant.

"having + past participle" already describes a prior action in a sequence of events.
For example -
Having watched the movie, I went to the restaurant.
Here, "watched" happened before "went".
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2017, 07:53
fox123456 wrote:
The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell
(B) which had increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it had fallen
(C) which have increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling
(D) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling
(E) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after having fallen




Can someone please help to explain why falling is correct?
Thanks!

i can go to choice C as oa for this problem
but we have a problem in official answer.
in C, "falling" take the tense of main clause, which is "have increased. this mean "after they have fallen... over last two years". this is not logic.
in this case, subject should be present and full clause is " after the profits fell over last two years"

am I correct? is official answer wrong? sorry for these words. maybe i am wrong

pls, discuss this point
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jan 2017, 16:35
victory47 wrote:
fox123456 wrote:
The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell
(B) which had increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it had fallen
(C) which have increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling
(D) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling
(E) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after having fallen




Can someone please help to explain why falling is correct?
Thanks!

i can go to choice C as oa for this problem
but we have a problem in official answer.
in C, "falling" take the tense of main clause, which is "have increased. this mean "after they have fallen... over last two years". this is not logic.
in this case, subject should be present and full clause is " after the profits fell over last two years"

am I correct? is official answer wrong? sorry for these words. maybe i am wrong

pls, discuss this point


Before discussing this point, please recollect that when words such as "after" and "before" are used, the usage past perfect to depict an event in past of another past event is not required.

After I finished my homework, I went out.... correct.
When I had finished my homework, I went out..... correct.
After I had finished my homework, I went out... redundant.
Now consider the following:
After finishing my homework, I went out.... correct.

In option C it may seem that the tense of the action "fall" should depict that the "falling" happened before the action "increase". However the use of the word "after" already makes it clear that the action "falling" happened before the action "increase". Therefore usage of tense is not required to depict the sequence.

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2017, 02:44
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell - "it" reference is not clear + "increased" is simple tense, however present perfect "have increased" is needed as we do not know how far back these "first three months" occurred
(B) which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen - "had increased" and "had fallen" are incorrect as we have no reason for using past perfect
(C) which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling - CORRECT .. "which" clearly refers to "profits" + "have increased" is present perfect which works well with "first three months"
(D) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling - "with" modifies the subject of the previous clause "results"
(E) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen - "with" modifies the subject of the previous clause "results"
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NOTE: I am not an expert, therefore my analysis answering the questions may be incorrect and may not be relied upon. However I will appreciate if you can correct the mistakes I may have made in my analysis.

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2017, 05:28
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The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent
during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

A. which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell
“it” should logically refer to “profits” but since “it” is singular it cannot refer to plural “profits”

B. which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it had fallen
Past perfect for both the events does NOT clearly indicate the sequence of the events.
Also, “it” is incorrect as in A

C. which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling
Correct

D. with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling
Usage of prepositional phrase “with + noun + participle” is NOT correct in this case as we need a subject for “falling”. Using “with” illogically makes “results” as the subject of “falling”

E. with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen
Usage of prepositional phrase “with + noun + participle” is NOT correct in this case as we need a subject for “having fallen”. Using “with” illogically makes “results” as the subject of “falling”
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its   [#permalink] 06 Jul 2017, 05:28

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