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# Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su

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Re: Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
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generis wrote:
[textarea]

Project SC Butler: Day 168: Sentence Correction (SC2)

Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.

(A) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.

(B) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that a major health hazard is represented by clouds of invisible pollutants.

(C) Clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard that new research suggests is borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind.

(D) New research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants, borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, represent a major health hazard.

(E) A major health hazard, new research suggests, is clouds of invisible pollutants borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind.

The original sentence has an incorrect subject after the modifying phrase. "New research" is not "borne hundreds of miles from their source...". When the opening of the sentence does not begin with the subject, but instead with a modifying phrase containing the description of the subject, the FIRST noun after the comma should be the LOGICAL subject of the preceding modifying phrase. The correct subject in options A and B should be "clouds of invisible pollutants".

Therefore, A and B are incorrect because of the incorrect subject. Eliminate

C - the "that" seems to be incorrectly referring to "health hazard". Again, the modifier placement is incorrect ("health hazard" is not suggested by new research). Eliminate

D - Perfectly okay. If we eliminate the modifying phrase between two commas, the sentence is grammatically and logically correct. "New research (sub) suggests (verb) that clouds (sub) of invisible pollutants represent (verb) a major health hazard. The modifier between two commas - "borne hundreds of miles..." correctly points to "clouds of invisible pollutants". Everything about (D) is perfectly grammatical, logical, and concise. Best answer

E - Illogical: "A major health hazard" IS not equal to "clouds of invisible pollutants". "New research suggests" is awkwardly placed between two commas. Eliminate.

Hence Option (D) is the best answer.
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Re: Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
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Easy D. A ,b and C can be eliminated right away for using incorrect opening modifier. They all incorrectly modify things that are borne by air. The correct answer should say that the pollutants are borne by the wind.

E is illogical at best. "IS" is a linking verb and hence the sentence says that a major health hazard = clouds.

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Re: Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
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Question:
Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.

30 ft level:
On the face, the question tests Modifiers. Rule - Whenever the sentence starts with a modifier, the subject come immediately after the comma.

(A) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard. - Incorrect. New research cannot be the subject.

(B) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that a major health hazard is represented by clouds of invisible pollutants. - Incorrect. New research cannot be the subject.

(C) Clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard that new research suggests is borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind. - Awkward construction. The second half of the sentence doesn't refer to the clouds! Incorrect.

(D) New research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants, borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, represent a major health hazard. - Looks good! The subject is just after the modifier (refer 30 ft level para)

(E) A major health hazard, new research suggests, is clouds of invisible pollutants borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind. - Changes the meaning. incorrect.

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Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
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A and B are incorrect because they contain dangling modifiers. Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, is intended to modify the noun clouds. However, it is wrongly placed near the noun new research which is incorrect.

Similarly, as in A and B, E contains a dangling modifier. A major health hazard wrongly modifies new research instead of the noun clouds. Option E is therefore incorrect.

C is incorrect because the second clause that suggests is borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind is inappropriate. First of all, what is the antecedent of their? If it is clouds, then the verb is should be in plural form. Secondly, a pronoun or noun should come after that in the second clause. That is not serving as a pronoun in the second clause, but rather serves as a subordinating conjunction.

The right answer is D. New research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants, borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, represent a major health hazard. The non-essential modifier borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind is rightly placed to modify the noun phrase clouds of invisible polutants. The subjects and verbs agree in number.
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Re: Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
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generis wrote:
Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.

(A) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.
(B) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that a major health hazard is represented by clouds of invisible pollutants.
(C) Clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard that new research suggests is borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind.
(D) New research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants, borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, represent a major health hazard.
(E) A major health hazard, new research suggests, is clouds of invisible pollutants borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind.

MEANING
what is borne (carried) by the wind? CLOUDS
what is a health hazard? CLOUDS

(A) "borne… research" cloud are carried by the wind, not research, unintended;
(B) "borne… research" cloud are carried by the wind, not research, unintended; "hazard is rep by" passive is less concise, unintended;
(C) "a hazard [sing] that… is borne from their [plural]…" imps "that" is mod "hazard" not "clouds", thus nonsensical and sva error;
(E) "a hazard… research" cloud are the hazard, not research;, unintended;

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Re: Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
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Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.

(A) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.( borne noun modifier is not touching the noun it modies. hence wrong)

(B) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that a major health hazard is represented by clouds of invisible pollutants.( borne noun modifier is not touching the noun it modies. hence wrong)

(C) Clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard that new research suggests is borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind.( wrong meaning health hazard is borne hundreds of miles. wrong)

(D) New research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants, borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, represent a major health hazard.( correct choice it properly conveys the meaning it is intending.)

(E) A major health hazard, new research suggests, is clouds of invisible pollutants borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind. ( health hazard is clouds of invisible pollutants is not the intended meaning.. hence wrong)
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Re: Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
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IMO correct asnwer is D

Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.

(A) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard - A case of Misplaced Modifier - "Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind" incorrectly modifies "new research" - INCORRECT

(B) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that a major health hazard is represented by clouds of invisible pollutants. - Same as of A - INCORRECT

(C) Clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard that new research suggests is borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind. - again awkward & jumbled modifer usage that changed the meaning of the sentence - INCORRECT

(D) New research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants, borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, represent a major health hazard. - "," "borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind" "," - properly modifying "clouds of invisible pollutants" - also SVA is properly maintained - "New research - suggests" & "clouds of invisible pollutants - represent" - CORRECT

(E) A major health hazard, new research suggests, is clouds of invisible pollutants borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind. - purely does not make any sense that, "A major health hazard" is is clouds of invisible pollutants - not the clouds but the pollitants are the health hazard. - INCORRECT
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Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 168: Sentence Correction (SC2)

Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.

(A) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.

(B) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that a major health hazard is represented by clouds of invisible pollutants.

(C) Clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard that new research suggests is borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind.

(D) New research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants, borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, represent a major health hazard.

(E) A major health hazard, new research suggests, is clouds of invisible pollutants borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind.

POE:
Split 1: Modyfier error -> Everything before the comma is describing "clouds", not research as it is currently suggesting. A/B are out
Split 2: C makes an ambiguous claim - is the health hazard or the cloud borne hundreds of miles away?
Split 3: D looks good. E looks also quite good. However, E is passive, thus D is the best choice.
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Re: Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
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Quote:

Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.

(A) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard. - Since it is the opening modifier "their" can refer to clouds or pollutants. Also new reserach has borne hundreds of miles? A is incorrect

(B) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that a major health hazard is represented by clouds of invisible pollutants. Same Modifier error as A.

(C) Clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard that new research suggests is borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind. It should be more like "new research suggests that". Also it creates meaning error by confusing what is born hundreds of miles.

(D) New research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants, borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, represent a major health hazard. Best of the lot.

(E) A major health hazard, new research suggests, is clouds of invisible pollutants borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind. A major health hazard is clouds?
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Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
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IMO D

Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.

(A) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.
Incorrect modifier

(B) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that a major health hazard is represented by clouds of
invisible pollutants.
Incorrect modifier

(C) Clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard that new research suggests is borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind.
Incorrect modifier

(D) New research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants, borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, represent a major health hazard.
Looks ok

(E) A major health hazard, new research suggests, is clouds of invisible pollutants borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind.
Incorrect modifier
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Re: Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
The very short official explanation is posted HERE
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Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.

(A) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.
Incorrect modifier placement - Borne hundred of miles modifying new reasearch

(B) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that a major health hazard is represented by clouds of invisible pollutants.
Same as A, Incorrect modifier placement

(C) Clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard that new research suggests is borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind.
Verb for Clouds being too far and in between essential modifier makes this as an awkward construction

(D) New research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants, borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, represent a major health hazard.
Cloud of invisible pollutant is the main subject here with correct non essential modifier placement, Contender

(E) A major health hazard, new research suggests, is clouds of invisible pollutants borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind.[/quote]
incorrect modifier placement makes this as an awkward construction

D is better choice
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Re: Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 168: Sentence Correction (SC2)

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.

(A) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard.
• Modifier error (what comes after the modifier is not the modifier's target) New research was not borne hundreds of miles from its source.

(B) Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research suggests that a major health hazard is represented by clouds of invisible pollutants.
• Same problem as that in A
• No reason for passive voice (though passive voice is correct quite often)

(C) Clouds of invisible pollutants represent a major health hazard that new research suggests is borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind.
• pronoun/noun: a hazard is singular and needs ITS, not their

(D) New research suggests that clouds of invisible pollutants, borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, represent a major health hazard.
• looks good

(E) A major health hazard, new research suggests, is clouds of invisible pollutants borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind.
• parentheticals can come between subject and verb, but not when they create confusion, as is the case here
• new research is not a major health hazard -- that interpretation is corrected once we sort out the verbs, but D is better.

paramjitdas and saarthakkhanna04 , welcome to SC Butler.

Wow, almost all of these answers are really good. People who follow are lucky. Nice work. Kudos.

Sir

In D, is there no ambiguity regarding " from their source " -What does their refer to ?
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Re: Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
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Re: Borne hundreds of miles from their source by the wind, new research su [#permalink]
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