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Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of

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Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of the Benin culture of West Africa. Some scholars, noting that the oldest surviving plaques date to the 1400s, hypothesize that brass-casting techniques were introduced by the Portuguese, who came to Benin in 1485 A.D. But Portuguese records of that expedition mention cast-brass jewelry sent to Benin’s king from neighboring Ife. So it is unlikely that Benin’s knowledge of brass casting derived from the Portuguese.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) The Portuguese records do not indicate whether their expedition of 1485 included metalworkers.

(B) The Portuguese had no contact with Ife until the 1500s.

(C) In the 1400s the Portuguese did not use cast brass for commemorative plaques.

(D) As early as 1500 A.D., Benin artists were making brass plaques incorporating depictions of Europeans.

(E) Copper, which is required for making brass, can be found throughout Benin territory.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Premise:
1. Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of the Benin culture of West Africa.
2. Some scholars, noting that the oldest surviving plaques date to the 1400s, hypothesize that brass-casting techniques were introduced by the Portuguese, who came to Benin in 1485 A.D.
3. But Portuguese records of that expedition mention cast-brass jewelry sent to Benin’s king from neighboring Ife.

Conclusion: So it is unlikely that Benin’s knowledge of brass casting derived from the Portuguese.

Question Type :
Strengthens, New information can be added.
Prephase: Benin’s knowledge of brass casting was not derived from the Portuguese. So look for answer choice that keep the Portuguese at bay with respect to Brass-casting

A. The Portuguese records do not indicate whether their expedition of 1485 included metalworkers. - A neutral ans. Does not strengthen -will keep if none other match.
B. The Portuguese had no contact with Ife until the 1500s. - Plaques date to the 1400s, Portuguese records of that expedition mention cast-brass jewelry sent to Benin’s king from neighboring Ife. but portuguese had no contact with Ife untill 1500s, hence Ife had their own set of skills of casting plaques.
C. In the 1400s the Portuguese did not use cast brass for commemorative plaques. - A good contender - But Protuguese did not use cast brass plaques does not mean they could not have shared the knowledge - Incorrect
D. As early as 1500 A.D., Benin artists were making brass plaques incorporating depictions of Europeans. - Benin artists may have used the knowledge acquired from portuguese to make the plaques.
E. Copper, which is required for making brass, can be found throughout Benin territory. - Not relevant to the subject.
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Re: Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2016, 23:36
I took more that 4 min to get to the answer.
I dont know what is Commemorative plaques so i consider it as some kind of design
P1:- SO Design, which is part of brass-casting techniques, was part of Benin culture
P2 :- oldest design available is of 1400's means atmax 1400 year old.
P3:- Portuguese came in 1485 ,
P4 :- but records shows cast-brass jewelry sent to Benin’s king from neighboring

conclusion is Portuguese does not introduce brass-casting techniques
What if Portuguese does have an contact with neighbours and Portuguese tought neighbours this tech.
so assumption is ortuguese does not have an contact
B is the aaswer

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New post 27 Sep 2016, 21:48
Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of the Benin culture of West Africa. Some scholars, noting that the oldest surviving plaques date to the 1400s, hypothesize that brass-casting techniques were introduced by the Portuguese, who came to Benin in 1485 A.D. But Portuguese records of that expedition mention cast-brass jewelry sent to Benin’s king from neighboring Ife. So it is unlikely that Benin’s knowledge of brass casting derived from the Portuguese.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. The Portuguese records do not indicate whether their expedition of 1485 included metalworkers.
B. The Portuguese had no contact with Ife until the 1500s.
C. In the 1400s the Portuguese did not use cast brass for commemorative plaques.
D. As early as 1500 A.D., Benin artists were making brass plaques incorporating depictions of Europeans.
E. Copper, which is required for making brass, can be found throughout Benin territory

I think the most important word here is "...that expedition"
So "that expedition" refers to the event mentioned as "who came to Benin in 1485".

Keeping this in mind, the conclusion is "it is unlikely that Benin’s knowledge of brass casting derived from the Portuguese"
So anything that strengthens this is the winner.

B. says that Portuguese had no contact with Ife until the 1500s. Then "the expedition" must have been sent to Benin in 1500s. So some scholars are wrong about Portuguese coming to Benin in 1485 and this ultimately strengthens the conclusion.

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Re: Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2016, 10:42
Nightfury14 wrote:
Premise:
1. Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of the Benin culture of West Africa.
2. Some scholars, noting that the oldest surviving plaques date to the 1400s, hypothesize that brass-casting techniques were introduced by the Portuguese, who came to Benin in 1485 A.D.
3. But Portuguese records of that expedition mention cast-brass jewelry sent to Benin’s king from neighboring Ife.

Conclusion: So it is unlikely that Benin’s knowledge of brass casting derived from the Portuguese.

Question Type :
Strengthens, New information can be added.
Prephase: Benin’s knowledge of brass casting was not derived from the Portuguese. So look for answer choice that keep the Portuguese at bay with respect to Brass-casting

A. The Portuguese records do not indicate whether their expedition of 1485 included metalworkers. - A neutral ans. Does not strengthen -will keep if none other match.
B. The Portuguese had no contact with Ife until the 1500s. - Plaques date to the 1400s, Portuguese records of that expedition mention cast-brass jewelry sent to Benin’s king from neighboring Ife. but portuguese had no contact with Ife untill 1500s, hence Ife had their own set of skills of casting plaques.
C. In the 1400s the Portuguese did not use cast brass for commemorative plaques. - A good contender - But Protuguese did not use cast brass plaques does not mean they could not have shared the knowledge - Incorrect
D. As early as 1500 A.D., Benin artists were making brass plaques incorporating depictions of Europeans. - Benin artists may have used the knowledge acquired from portuguese to make the plaques.
E. Copper, which is required for making brass, can be found throughout Benin territory. - Not relevant to the subject.



Hi,

Thank you for such a good explanation , however can you please elaborate more why A is incorrect. Are we not strengthening the argument by sayin that Portuguese did not even had metal workers when they came to Benin and isn't B little out of scope? Please help

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Re: Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2016, 11:12
megha_2709 wrote:
Nightfury14 wrote:
Premise:
1. Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of the Benin culture of West Africa.
2. Some scholars, noting that the oldest surviving plaques date to the 1400s, hypothesize that brass-casting techniques were introduced by the Portuguese, who came to Benin in 1485 A.D.
3. But Portuguese records of that expedition mention cast-brass jewelry sent to Benin’s king from neighboring Ife.

Conclusion: So it is unlikely that Benin’s knowledge of brass casting derived from the Portuguese.

Question Type :
Strengthens, New information can be added.
Prephase: Benin’s knowledge of brass casting was not derived from the Portuguese. So look for answer choice that keep the Portuguese at bay with respect to Brass-casting

A. The Portuguese records do not indicate whether their expedition of 1485 included metalworkers. - A neutral ans. Does not strengthen -will keep if none other match.
B. The Portuguese had no contact with Ife until the 1500s. - Plaques date to the 1400s, Portuguese records of that expedition mention cast-brass jewelry sent to Benin’s king from neighboring Ife. but portuguese had no contact with Ife untill 1500s, hence Ife had their own set of skills of casting plaques.
C. In the 1400s the Portuguese did not use cast brass for commemorative plaques. - A good contender - But Protuguese did not use cast brass plaques does not mean they could not have shared the knowledge - Incorrect
D. As early as 1500 A.D., Benin artists were making brass plaques incorporating depictions of Europeans. - Benin artists may have used the knowledge acquired from portuguese to make the plaques.
E. Copper, which is required for making brass, can be found throughout Benin territory. - Not relevant to the subject.



Hi,

Thank you for such a good explanation , however can you please elaborate more why A is incorrect. Are we not strengthening the argument by sayin that Portuguese did not even had metal workers when they came to Benin and isn't B little out of scope? Please help

Regards
Megha


If A were as follows, then it would be strengthening:
"The Portuguese records indicate that their expedition of 1485 did not include metalworkers.".
The current construction of A is neither strengthening nor weakening as the option A does not indicate whether there were (or there were no) metalworkers in the expedition team.

Option B:
It could be the case that Ife got the brass jewelry from the Portuguese and then in turn sent to the Benins. But if the Portuguese did not have contact with the Ife (as mentioned in option B), then it cannot be the case that the Benins got the jewelry from the Portuguese (even indirectly).

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Re: Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2016, 20:43
AbdurRakib wrote:
Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of the Benin culture of West Africa. Some scholars, noting that the oldest surviving plaques date to the 1400s, hypothesize that brass-casting techniques were introduced by the Portuguese, who came to Benin in 1485 A.D. But Portuguese records of that expedition mention cast-brass jewelry sent to Benin’s king from neighboring Ife. So it is unlikely that Benin’s knowledge of brass casting derived from the Portuguese.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. The Portuguese records do not indicate whether their expedition of 1485 included metalworkers.
B. The Portuguese had no contact with Ife until the 1500s.
C. In the 1400s the Portuguese did not use cast brass for commemorative plaques.
D. As early as 1500 A.D., Benin artists were making brass plaques incorporating depictions of Europeans.
E. Copper, which is required for making brass, can be found throughout Benin territory.


Good question.
I chose B - The passage states that "it is unlikely that Benin's knowledge of brass casting derived from the Porguguese." From this sentence I can I know that the Portuguese are not likely to have had any effect, direct/indirect, on Benin's brass casting knowledge. If the Portuguese didn't even have any contact with Ife until the 1500's, then how could that country have taught the neighboring Ife who, in turn, sent gifts to Benin? The passage is telling us that Benin had knowledge before Portugal interacted with Ife; therefore, can't be Portuguese.

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sayantanc2k wrote:
megha_2709 wrote:
Nightfury14 wrote:
Premise:
1. Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of the Benin culture of West Africa.
2. Some scholars, noting that the oldest surviving plaques date to the 1400s, hypothesize that brass-casting techniques were introduced by the Portuguese, who came to Benin in 1485 A.D.
3. But Portuguese records of that expedition mention cast-brass jewelry sent to Benin’s king from neighboring Ife.

Conclusion: So it is unlikely that Benin’s knowledge of brass casting derived from the Portuguese.

Question Type :
Strengthens, New information can be added.
Prephase: Benin’s knowledge of brass casting was not derived from the Portuguese. So look for answer choice that keep the Portuguese at bay with respect to Brass-casting

A. The Portuguese records do not indicate whether their expedition of 1485 included metalworkers. - A neutral ans. Does not strengthen -will keep if none other match.
B. The Portuguese had no contact with Ife until the 1500s. - Plaques date to the 1400s, Portuguese records of that expedition mention cast-brass jewelry sent to Benin’s king from neighboring Ife. but portuguese had no contact with Ife untill 1500s, hence Ife had their own set of skills of casting plaques.
C. In the 1400s the Portuguese did not use cast brass for commemorative plaques. - A good contender - But Protuguese did not use cast brass plaques does not mean they could not have shared the knowledge - Incorrect
D. As early as 1500 A.D., Benin artists were making brass plaques incorporating depictions of Europeans. - Benin artists may have used the knowledge acquired from portuguese to make the plaques.
E. Copper, which is required for making brass, can be found throughout Benin territory. - Not relevant to the subject.



Hi,

Thank you for such a good explanation , however can you please elaborate more why A is incorrect. Are we not strengthening the argument by sayin that Portuguese did not even had metal workers when they came to Benin and isn't B little out of scope? Please help

Regards
Megha


If A were as follows, then it would be strengthening:
"The Portuguese records indicate that their expedition of 1485 did not include metalworkers.".
The current construction of A is neither strengthening nor weakening as the option A does not indicate whether there were (or there were no) metalworkers in the expedition team.

Option B:
It could be the case that Ife got the brass jewelry from the Portuguese and then in turn sent to the Benins. But if the Portuguese did not have contact with the Ife (as mentioned in option B), then it cannot be the case that the Benins got the jewelry from the Portuguese (even indirectly).


Hi Sayantan , Can you please explain why C is wrong? i ws confused b/w B and C? C states that they did not use cast brass for commemorative plaques, which is required. So isnt it strenghthen that it cam from neighbour.?

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rakaisraka wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
megha_2709 wrote:

Hi,

Thank you for such a good explanation , however can you please elaborate more why A is incorrect. Are we not strengthening the argument by sayin that Portuguese did not even had metal workers when they came to Benin and isn't B little out of scope? Please help

Regards
Megha


If A were as follows, then it would be strengthening:
"The Portuguese records indicate that their expedition of 1485 did not include metalworkers.".
The current construction of A is neither strengthening nor weakening as the option A does not indicate whether there were (or there were no) metalworkers in the expedition team.

Option B:
It could be the case that Ife got the brass jewelry from the Portuguese and then in turn sent to the Benins. But if the Portuguese did not have contact with the Ife (as mentioned in option B), then it cannot be the case that the Benins got the jewelry from the Portuguese (even indirectly).


Hi Sayantan , Can you please explain why C is wrong? i ws confused b/w B and C? C states that they did not use cast brass for commemorative plaques, which is required. So isnt it strenghthen that it cam from neighbour.?


This is one important concept frequently used to trap candidates.
Premise; X
Conclusion: Y
Argument: X hence Y ( X---> Y)
The strengthening (or weakening) statement of this ARGUMENT (i.e. X---> Y) must strengthen (or weaken) the LINK between this argument, not the conclusion (Y) separately.

In the above example
X = Portuguese records of that expedition mention cast-brass jewelry sent to Benin’s king from neighboring Ife
Y = So it is unlikely that Benin’s knowledge of brass casting derived from the Portuguese.

Please observe that option C strengthens Y in isolation. It has nothing to do with the argument X---> Y. Hence C is not correct.

(rakaisraka , if you have a query that you would like to address specifically to me, please send a link to your post in a PM so that I do not miss it.)

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New post 21 Nov 2016, 01:39
Spovil wrote:
Hi Sayantan,

Thank you so much for helping pout people. Its very appreciative of you.

I have the following questions:

1 - For AD counting, is the year counted from high to low as increasing order? (i.e. 1500 AD comes first, 1485AD comes second and 1400AD comes third)
2 - who came to Benin in 1485 A.D - Does this mean the potuguese came first time or they simply came in 1485AD and would have come before as well
3 - For option D, can there be a logic that Portuguese may have come before 1500Ad say 1550Ad and so, as knowledge could have been imparted by portuguese, conclusion can't be strengthened.

Also, I read your concept about X-->Y. Keeping this structure in mind, a prethinked assumption can be framed as:

Based on an event, held in 1485AD (which is Potuguese sent jewellery to king from Ilfe), author has concluded that Benin knowledge of casting was not learnt from Potuguese.

Now, B does not really fall anywhere in this structrure directly as a strengthener. One has to refer to other premises to spot the answer. So, is there any way one can be better at this spotting?

P.S: I have assumed the backward counting logic behind all my questions.


Reference to commemorative-plaques-cast-from-brass-are-a-characteristic-art-form-of-221749.html


1. A.D is counted upward - we are now in year 2016 A.D. "A.D." means "anno domini", which means ( not literal Translation) "after Christ's birth".
2. The implication is that the Portuguese came for the first time.
3. Please refer to Point 1 above.

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New post 21 Nov 2016, 11:43
I was able to bring choices down to B and C:

B. The Portuguese had no contact with Ife until the 1500s.
C. In the 1400s the Portuguese did not use cast brass for commemorative plaques.

The reason we are able to eliminate C is because we're told in the prompt that Benin did not learn from the Portuguese, but with C it is still possible that they learned how to cast brass from Portuguese. The demonstration did not have to be for plaques themselves.

B is correct because if we are able to rule out the possibility that the Ife tribe learned from Portuguese (and therefore Benin learned from them; i.e. indirectly learned from Portuguese), then the conclusion stands.

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New post 27 Nov 2016, 10:44
The OA is correct and explanations provided in the thread appear sufficient. If there are any specific questions, please post them here and then click again on the "Request Expert Reply" button.

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This is just another insane question which is not based on solid logic.

Just as in option C-where it could be argued that just because Portuguese didn't practice doesn't imply they didn't share the knowledge- in option B- it could easily be argued that though Portuguese had no contact with Ife, it's possible they learnt from Portuguese art/culture through other means such as indirect trade or depending on how world renowned the Portuguese art form was.

Just as you need a logic leap to justify choosing C, so too is the case for B, there's no real basis for choosing one over another.

In all fairness, if Portuguese didn't practice the artform in the first place, it's far less likely they could've shared it with Benin or Ife or anyone. B is by no means a clear-cut answer

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Re: Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2016, 20:03
cogen234 wrote:
This is just another insane question which is not based on solid logic.

Just as in option C-where it could be argued that just because Portuguese didn't practice doesn't imply they didn't share the knowledge- in option B- it could easily be argued that though Portuguese had no contact with Ife, it's possible they learnt from Portuguese art/culture through other means such as indirect trade or depending on how world renowned the Portuguese art form was.

Just as you need a logic leap to justify choosing C, so too is the case for B, there's no real basis for choosing one over another.

In all fairness, if Portuguese didn't practice the artform in the first place, it's far less likely they could've shared it with Benin or Ife or anyone. B is by no means a clear-cut answer


Option B is definitely better than option C: option C does NOT state that the Portuguese did not use cast brass at all, just that they did not use cast brass for commemorative plaques. The conclusion is that that Benin’s knowledge of brass casting was not derived from the Portuguese, not that Benin’s knowledge of brass casting for Commemorative plaques was not derived from the Portuguese. Hence option C is not correct.

[This is an official question - please keep in mind that official questions are written by experts of extremely high caliber.]

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Re: Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of [#permalink]

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New post 28 Feb 2017, 04:52
Conclusion : So it is unlikely that Benin’s knowledge of brass casting derived from the Portugese.
Premise for the above conclusion is Portuguese records of that expedition mentions cast brass jewelry sent to Benin’s king from neighbouring Ife

A. The Portuguese records do not indicate whether their expedition of 1485 included metalworkers.( Wrong Answer : The very fact that portuguese records of that expedition do not indicate the presence of metalworkers in the expedition is not reason enough to believe that portugese did not brought the knowledge of brass casting along with them to Benin in the expedition.
B. The Portuguese had no contact with Ife until the 1500s.( Right Answer : This option negates the possibility that people of Ife would have learnt about brass casting from Portuguese in the 1400s.)
C. In the 1400s the Portuguese did not use cast brass for commemorative plaques.( Wrong Answer : This does not negate the possibility that the people of Benin after having learnt about brass casting from Portuguese in the 1400s manufactured them indigeniously)
D. As early as 1500 A.D., Benin artists were making brass plaques incorporating depictions of Europeans.( Wrong Answer : This options does not throw any light upon when the people of Benin would have learnt the process of Brass casting)
E. Copper, which is required for making brass, can be found throughout Benin territory.(Wrong Answer : This option does not throw any light upon when the people of Benin would have learnt the process of Brass Casting.)

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Re: Commemorative plaques cast from brass are a characteristic art form of [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2017, 11:17
B is correct - If the Portuguese had no contact with Ife before 1500, then Ife's earlier knowledge of brass casting did not derive directly from the Portuguese. This increases the likelihood that knowledge of brass-casting in Benin did not derive from the Portuguese, even if it derived from Ife.

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