Summer is Coming! Join the Game of Timers Competition to Win Epic Prizes. Registration is Open. Game starts Mon July 1st.

It is currently 19 Jul 2019, 03:27

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Common sense suggests that we know our own thoughts directly, but that

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
Manager
Manager
User avatar
S
Joined: 21 Dec 2014
Posts: 68
Location: Viet Nam
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, General Management
Schools: Olin '21 (A$)
GMAT 1: 710 Q49 V37
GPA: 3.8
WE: Other (Other)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge
Common sense suggests that we know our own thoughts directly, but that  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 18 May 2019, 21:09
1
8
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 81 sessions

59% (03:28) correct 41% (03:35) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 104 sessions

74% (01:19) correct 26% (01:44) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 106 sessions

32% (01:50) correct 68% (01:46) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 98 sessions

68% (01:22) correct 32% (01:43) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 5
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 100 sessions

36% (01:08) correct 64% (01:04) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 6
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 91 sessions

56% (01:18) correct 44% (01:30) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 7
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 98 sessions

14% (02:07) correct 86% (01:22) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 129, Date : 06-APR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Common sense suggests that we know our own thoughts directly, but that we infer the thoughts of other people. The former process is noninferential and infallible, while the latter is based on others' behavior and can always be wrong. But this assumption is challenged by experiments in psychology demonstrating that in certain circumstances young children tend to misdescribe their own thoughts regarding simple phenomena while nonetheless correctly describing those phenomena. It seems that these children have the same thoughts that adults have regarding the phenomena but are much less capable of identifying these thoughts. Some psychologists argue that this indicates that one's awareness of one's own thoughts is every bit as inferential as one's awareness of another person's thoughts. According to their interpretation of the experiments, thoughts are unobservable entities that, among other things, help to explain why we act as we do. It follows from this that we are wrong to think of ourselves as having noninferential and infallible access to our own thoughts.

Recognizing an obligation to explain why we cling so tenaciously to an illusory belief in noninferential and infallible knowledge of our own thoughts, these psychologists suggest that this illusion is analogous to what happens to us when we become experts in a particular area. Greater expertise appears to change not only our knowledge of the area as a whole, but our very perception of entities in that area. It appears to us that we become able to see and to grasp these entities and their relations directly, whereas before we could only make inferences about them. For instance, chess experts claim the ability to see without calculation whether a position is weak or strong. From a psychological perspective, we become so expert in making incredibly fast introspective inferences about our thinking that we fail to notice that we are making them. This failure leads naturally to the supposition that there is no way for us to be wrong in our identification of what we ourselves think because we believe we are perceiving it directly.

In claiming that we have only inferential access to our thoughts, the psychologists come perilously close to claiming that we base our inferences about what we ourselves are thinking solely on observations of our own external behavior. But, in fact, their arguments do not commit them to this claim; the psychologists suggest that we are somehow able to base our inferences about what we are thinking on internal cognitive activity that is not itself thought—e.g., fleeting and instantaneous sensations and emotions. The frequent occurrence of such internal activities explains why we develop the capacity to make quick and reliable inferences. Their internality makes it impossible for anyone else to make an inference based on them that contradicts our own. Thus, they are crucial in creating the illusion of noninferentiality and infallibility.

1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) Only experts within a given domain have noninferential and infallible access to their own thoughts; other people must infer their own thoughts as they do others' thoughts.
(B) In opposition to the common belief that thoughts are directly perceived, some psychologists argue that people infer what their own thoughts are.
(C) In response to the common belief that thoughts are directly perceived, some psychologists claim that this belief is an illusion resulting from our inability to make quick and reliable inferences.
(D) Some psychologists have recently attributed children's failure to give an accurate description of their own thoughts to their lack of expertise.
(E) Some psychologists hold that people are able to make inferences about what they are thinking that are based solely on observing their own external behavior.

2. Which one of the following, if true, would most call into question the psychologists' interpretation of the experiments with children (fourth and fifth sentences of the passage)?

(A) Some children who took part in the experiments were no less capable than some adults at identifying their own thoughts.
(B) Experiments with older children found that they were as accurate as adults in identifying their thoughts.
(C) The limited language skills possessed by young children make it difficult for them to accurately communicate their thoughts.
(D) Most young children cannot be expected to know the difference between direct and indirect access to one's thoughts.
(E) The psychologists who conducted the experiments with children were concerned with psychological issues other than the nature of people's access to their own thoughts.

3. Based on the passage, the author is most likely to believe which one of the following about the view that "we base our inferences about what we ourselves are thinking solely on observations of our own external behavior" (first sentence of the last paragraph)?

(A) It constitutes a denial of the possibility of scientifically studying thinking processes.
(B) It has often been misunderstood by psychologists.
(C) It was the prevailing view until undermined by recent psychology experiments.
(D) It seems to contradict common sense but is basically sound.
(E) It is not considered to be an intellectually defensible position.

4. Which one of the following is most closely analogous to the explanation in the passage of how persons fail to notice that they are making inferences about their thoughts?

(A) An anthropologist cannot describe his own culture accurately because he has become too familiar with its workings and therefore takes them for granted.
(B) Science is limited with regard to studying the human mind because science necessarily depends on human reasoning.
(C) As they develop, children become increasingly comfortable with formal abstraction and therefore become vulnerable to failures to learn from concrete experiences.
(D) Judges are barred from trying cases involving their family members because of a potential conflict of interest.
(E) A ship's commander must delegate certain duties and decisions to other officers on her ship because she is too busy to attend to those duties and decisions.

5. According to the passage, one's gaining greater expertise in a field appears to result in

(A) an altered way of expressing one's judgments about issues in that field
(B) a more detail-oriented approach to questions in that field
(C) an increased tendency to ignore one's own errors in judgment within that field
(D) a substantively different way of understanding relations within that field
(E) a reduced reliance on sensations and emotions when inferring one's thoughts regarding that field

6. According to the psychologists cited in the passage, the illusion of direct knowledge of our own thoughts arises from the fact that

(A) we ignore the feedback that we receive regarding the inaccuracy of the inferences we make about our thought processes
(B) knowledge of our own thoughts is usually unmediated due to our expertise, and we simply overlook instances where this is not the case
(C) we are unaware of the inferential processes that allow us to become aware of our thoughts
(D) our inferences regarding our own thoughts are generally extremely accurate, as are our perceptions of the world
(E) our inferences regarding our own thoughts are sometimes clouded and uncertain, as are our perceptions of the world

7. It can most reasonably be inferred that the choice of children as the subjects of the psychology experiments discussed in the passage was advantageous to the experimenters for which one of the following reasons?

(A) Experiments involving children are more likely to give interesting results because children are more creative than adults.
(B) Adults are more likely than children to give inaccurate reports of their thought processes.
(C) Since adults are infallible in their access to their own thoughts, only the thought processes of children shed light on the nature of inference.
(D) Mental processes are sometimes easier to study in children because children are more likely than adults to make certain cognitive errors.
(E) Children are less experienced than adults in inferring the thoughts of others from observations of their behavior.



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 84 (June 2018)
  • Difficulty Level: 700

_________________
Just calm and try.
DON'T QUIT!

Originally posted by LeoGT on 13 Jul 2018, 22:41.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 18 May 2019, 21:09, edited 6 times in total.
UPDATED
Senior RC Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: ----__----___-----____-----
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 3062
Location: Pakistan
GPA: 3.39
Re: Common sense suggests that we know our own thoughts directly, but that  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 09 Apr 2019, 03:16
+1 Kudos to posts containing answer explanation of all questions
_________________
New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Final days of the GMAT Exam? => All GMAT Flashcards.
This Post Helps = Press +1 Kudos
Best of Luck on the GMAT!!
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 06 Mar 2019
Posts: 3
Re: Common sense suggests that we know our own thoughts directly, but that  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 May 2019, 10:38
2
P1-
Common sense states
-own thoughts ??? infallible
-others - always wrong
Challenged by psycho
Child mistake own ??? capability issue
So as inferential
We can think ??? wrong fact stated

P2-
Reason by psycho
Experts ??? perception changes
Fail to notice
No way wrong

P3 ???
Proving our inference but we
Only external
Not fully commit and suggest
Some thought on internal cog
Eg ???frequent activity ??? quick decisions
No one judge us better than us ???internal
Illusion

A1. (B) In opposition to the common belief that thoughts are directly perceived, some psychologists argue that people infer what their own thoughts are.
Opposite to common sense, psychologists believe that people can infer their thoughts with explanations and examples

A2. (C) The limited language skills possessed by young children make it difficult for them to accurately communicate their thoughts.
Para 1 - It seems that these children have the same thoughts that adults have regarding the phenomena but are much less capable of identifying these thoughts.

A3. (E) It is not considered to be an intellectually defensible position.
As psychologists arguments do not commit to this claim.

A4. (A) An anthropologist cannot describe his own culture accurately because he has become too familiar with its workings and therefore takes them for granted.
From a psychological perspective, we become so expert in making incredibly fast introspective inferences about our thinking that we fail to notice that we are making them.

A5. (D) a substantively different way of understanding relations within that field
It appears to us that we become able to see and to grasp these entities and their relations directly, whereas before we could only make inferences about them

A6. (C) we are unaware of the inferential processes that allow us to become aware of our thoughts
We are in a illusion as we perceive the world wrongly.

A7. (D) Mental processes are sometimes easier to study in children because children are more likely than adults to make certain cognitive errors.
Children have less developed cognitive skills and can make those errors.
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 20 Apr 2019
Posts: 26
Re: Common sense suggests that we know our own thoughts directly, but that  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 May 2019, 12:26
1
Passage Gist:

Paragraph 1:
Introduces the idea that: We know our thoughts instinctively and this process is noninferential and infallable (cannot go wrong) but other people thoughts are inferred and always can go wrong.
But the author is saying that the notion that one's thoughts are non-inferential and infallable can be challenged by experiments in psychology.
The experiment is - In certain circumstances young children misdescribe their own thoughts. According to the interpretation of these experiments,we are wrong to think that our own thoughts are noninferential and infallible.

Paragraph 2
This paragraph explains why we think our thoughts are non-inferential and infallible.
An expert in a field feels like he/she intuitively thinks about the solution but in reality he/she makes incredibly fast introspective inferences that he/she fails to notice that he/she is making them. This failure to notice leads us to believe that there is no way for us to be wrong/infallible about our own thoughts because we believe we are perceiving it directly rather than inferencing (remember?? inferencing can make us go wrong).

Paragraph 3:
Here in this paragraph, the author gives a justification for why we believe our thoughts are non-inferential and infallible.The frequent occurrence of internal activities explains why we develop the capacity to make quick and reliable inferences. It is impossible for anyone else to make an inference based on these internal activities/ thinking process (the very nature of which is they occur internally, so nobody can know these internal activities) and hence our own thoughts cannot be contradicted by others. Thus, they are crucial in creating the illusion of noninferentiality and infallibility.

Quick recap:
Basic belief is that one's own thoughts are non-inferential and infallable. But the author does not agree with this. He says everyone infer their thoughts but they do not know because the process happens intuitively and internally, so they have an illusion that one's own thoughts are non-inferential and infallable.

1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) Only experts within a given domain have noninferential and infallible access to their own thoughts; other people must infer their own thoughts as they do others' thoughts. Not true. Everybody, including experts infer their own thoughts according to the author.
(B) In opposition to the common belief that thoughts are directly perceived, some psychologists argue that people infer what their own thoughts are. In line with our quick review.
(C) In response to the common belief that thoughts are directly perceived, some psychologists claim that this belief is an illusion resulting from our inability to make quick and reliable inferences. The first half of the choice is true, but the part - inability to make quick and reliable inferences- is not true. The opposite of it is true. We make quick inference
(D) Some psychologists have recently attributed children's failure to give an accurate description of their own thoughts to their lack of expertise. Young children were brought up just as an example of experiment in psychology. Not the main point of the passage.
(E) Some psychologists hold that people are able to make inferences about what they are thinking that are based solely on observing their own external behavior. Just a point made by some psychologists. This does not communicate the whole idea of the passage

2. Which one of the following, if true, would most call into question the psychologists' interpretation of the experiments with children (fourth and fifth sentences of the passage)?

psychologists' interpretation of the experiments with children:Based on children's misdescription of their own thoughts, Psychologists interpret that we are wrong to think that our own thoughts are noninferential and infallible.

What would if true, would most call into question/ Weaken the above conclusion?

(A) Some children who took part in the experiments were no less capable than some adults at identifying their own thoughts. If anything, this would strengthen the conclusion.
(B) Experiments with older children found that they were as accurate as adults in identifying their thoughts. Out of scope. The discussion is about young children
(C) The limited language skills possessed by young children make it difficult for them to accurately communicate their thoughts. This option is discrediting the children's ability to describe their own thoughts. Hence, the conclusion based on this expression cannot be relied upon.
(D) Most young children cannot be expected to know the difference between direct and indirect access to one's thoughts. Out of scope. No mention of direct or indirect access to one's thoughts.
(E) The psychologists who conducted the experiments with children were concerned with psychological issues other than the nature of people's access to their own thoughts. Irrelevant and out of scope.

3. Based on the passage, the author is most likely to believe which one of the following about the view that "we base our inferences about what we ourselves are thinking solely on observations of our own external behavior" (first sentence of the last paragraph)?


Quote:
we base our inferences about what we ourselves are thinking solely on observations of our own external behavior. But, in fact, their arguments do not commit them to this claim
The bold part is the opinion of the author and the author is not in agreement with the mentioned view.

(A) It constitutes a denial of the possibility of scientifically studying thinking processes. Scientifically studying thinking processes is out of scope of the passage.
(B) It has often been misunderstood by psychologists. Not true. Not supported from passage
(C) It was the prevailing view until undermined by recent psychology experiments. Nothing from the passage indicates that the view was undermined
(D) It seems to contradict common sense but is basically sound. Agreeing. So, not correct.
(E) It is not considered to be an intellectually defensible position. This option comes close to non-agreement of the author.

4. Which one of the following is most closely analogous to the explanation in the passage of how persons fail to notice that they are making inferences about their thoughts?
A person fails to notice that they are making inferences about their thoughts because the process is very intuitive.

(A) An anthropologist cannot describe his own culture accurately because he has become too familiar with its workings and therefore takes them for granted. Correct because anthropologist is intuitive.
Rest all options are completely irrelevant.
(B) Science is limited with regard to studying the human mind because science necessarily depends on human reasoning.
(C) As they develop, children become increasingly comfortable with formal abstraction and therefore become vulnerable to failures to learn from concrete experiences.
(D) Judges are barred from trying cases involving their family members because of a potential conflict of interest.
(E) A ship's commander must delegate certain duties and decisions to other officers on her ship because she is too busy to attend to those duties and decisions.

5. According to the passage, one's gaining greater expertise in a field appears to result in

Quote:
Greater expertise appears to change not only our knowledge of the area as a whole, but our very perception of entities in that area. It appears to us that we become able to see and to grasp these entities and their relations directly


(A) an altered way of expressing one's judgments about issues in that field. Altered way of expressing is out of scope of the passage.
(B) a more detail-oriented approach to questions in that field. Not supported by the passage.
(C) an increased tendency to ignore one's own errors in judgment within that field. This line of thought is not supported by the passage.
(D) a substantively different way of understanding relations within that field. Yes. Supported as shown in the quoted text.
(E) a reduced reliance on sensations and emotions when inferring one's thoughts regarding that field. Not supported by the passage.

6. According to the psychologists cited in the passage, the illusion of direct knowledge of our own thoughts arises from the fact that

(A) we ignore the feedback that we receive regarding the inaccuracy of the inferences we make about our thought processes. Not Supported by the passage.
(B) knowledge of our own thoughts is usually unmediated due to our expertise, and we simply overlook instances where this is not the case. Not Supported by the passage.
(C) we are unaware of the inferential processes that allow us to become aware of our thoughts. Yes. Because the process is intuitive, we are unaware of it happening. Hence, we believe that it is a direct knowledge, not an inferential one.
(D) our inferences regarding our own thoughts are generally extremely accurate, as are our perceptions of the world. May be true, but this statement does not support why we believe our thoughts are because of our direct knowledge.
(E) our inferences regarding our own thoughts are sometimes clouded and uncertain, as are our perceptions of the world. Not Supported by the passage.. Never anywhere it is mentioned that our thoughts are clouded and uncertain.

7. It can most reasonably be inferred that the choice of children as the subjects of the psychology experiments discussed in the passage was advantageous to the experimenters for which one of the following reasons?

(A) Experiments involving children are more likely to give interesting results because children are more creative than adults. Creativity is not the aspect of study. Hence, not the right answer.
(B) Adults are more likely than children to give inaccurate reports of their thought processes. Cannot be inferred.
(C) Since adults are infallible in their access to their own thoughts, only the thought processes of children shed light on the nature of inference. Nature of inference is not the object of study.
(D) Mental processes are sometimes easier to study in children because children are more likely than adults to make certain cognitive errors. Correct.
(E) Children are less experienced than adults in inferring the thoughts of others from observations of their behavior. Thoughts of others are not under study.
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Common sense suggests that we know our own thoughts directly, but that   [#permalink] 20 May 2019, 12:26
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Common sense suggests that we know our own thoughts directly, but that

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne