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# Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral

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Senior Manager
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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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05 May 2007, 07:34
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234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are
If you have any questions
New!
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05 May 2007, 07:56
234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
'Decling values... are going to force..', therefore 'is' is wrong
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
'Decling values... are going to force..', therefore 'is' is wrong
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
'Decling values... are going to force..', therefore 'is' is wrong
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
wrong meaning, the farmers don't use the declining values as an collateral to get through the winter, therefore wrong!
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are
'Declining values...and land, the collateral...' clearly modiefied, 'are' used as verb. Best answer!
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05 May 2007, 08:07
catgmat wrote:
234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
wrong meaning, the farmers don't use the declining values as an collateral to get through the winter, therefore wrong!
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are
'Declining values...and land, the collateral...' clearly modiefied, 'are' used as verb. Best answer!

I read somewhere that the word 'which' always modifies the word right before 'which.' In this case, 'which' would modify 'farm equipment and land' What's the deal here?
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05 May 2007, 08:22
leeye84 wrote:
catgmat wrote:
234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
wrong meaning, the farmers don't use the declining values as an collateral to get through the winter, therefore wrong!
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are
'Declining values...and land, the collateral...' clearly modiefied, 'are' used as verb. Best answer!

I read somewhere that the word 'which' always modifies the word right before 'which.' In this case, 'which' would modify 'farm equipment and land' What's the deal here?

I think you are right. For example: The declining values, which...' But in (E), I think 'the collateral against which' 'which' clearly refers to 'collateral'. I am not totally happy with (E), but it seems the best choice. I once read that you should correct the mistake and be as close as possible to (A). Any other suggestions??? Cheers
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05 May 2007, 09:20
I think the answer is E.

"Declining values" is a plurial subject then the answer is D or E.
"the collateral against which farmers borrow " sounds better than "which farmers use as collateral to borrow against ". Thats why I select E.
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05 May 2007, 14:42
"Declining value" is plural and requires plural verb "are"->A,B,C are out.
In D " use as collateral to borrow against " is incorrect usage.

I pick E
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11 May 2007, 11:31
Stuck between D and E.

In D, the clause introduced by 'which' is clearly non-restrictive.
So does it not make 'which' necessary ?
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11 May 2007, 16:10
234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

It's between D and E.

D -- which modifies whatever appears before it. So, D sounds like the better choice than E.

E -- you don't borrow against the collateral, you use something as a collateral to borrow against. Am I right?
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Senior Manager
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12 May 2007, 11:01
shoonya wrote:
234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

It's between D and E.

D -- which modifies whatever appears before it. So, D sounds like the better choice than E.

E -- you don't borrow against the collateral, you use something as a collateral to borrow against. Am I right?

My thoughts exactly. But the GMAT certainly doesn't think so. The OA is E.
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13 May 2007, 02:33
catgmat wrote:
leeye84 wrote:
catgmat wrote:
234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
wrong meaning, the farmers don't use the declining values as an collateral to get through the winter, therefore wrong!
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are
'Declining values...and land, the collateral...' clearly modiefied, 'are' used as verb. Best answer!

I read somewhere that the word 'which' always modifies the word right before 'which.' In this case, 'which' would modify 'farm equipment and land' What's the deal here?

I think you are right. For example: The declining values, which...' But in (E), I think 'the collateral against which' 'which' clearly refers to 'collateral'. I am not totally happy with (E), but it seems the best choice. I once read that you should correct the mistake and be as close as possible to (A). Any other suggestions??? Cheers

In this case collateral and "farm equipment" are the same thing. the farm equipment which is used as collateral against something.
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09 Jun 2010, 13:29
I think that I am the only one here that does not catch why the subject is not "Declining values" (therefore singular), but "values". Could anybody explain this?
Thanks.
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17 Jun 2010, 18:04
E it is.

Declining values - plural. Need "are"
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2012, 12:33
Isn't "the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season" a nonessential descriptive for "declining values" . I think this answer choice is problematic because the subject and its descriptive do not match in numbers.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2012, 15:55
IMO E.

Declining values is plural. So A B C are out. Out of D and E, E fits perfectly.
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05 Jan 2013, 07:31
defenestrate wrote:
catgmat wrote:

I think you are right. For example: The declining values, which...' But in (E), I think 'the collateral against which' 'which' clearly refers to 'collateral'. I am not totally happy with (E), but it seems the best choice. I once read that you should correct the mistake and be as close as possible to (A). Any other suggestions??? Cheers

In this case collateral and "farm equipment" are the same thing. the farm equipment which is used as collateral against something.

same here ... wouldn't the collateral damage refer to declining values qithout a 'which'
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05 Jan 2013, 08:39
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catgmat wrote:
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
wrong meaning, the farmers don't use the declining values as an collateral to get through the winter, therefore wrong!
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are
'Declining values...and land, the collateral...' clearly modiefied, 'are' used as verb. Best answer!

I do not see any issues with "Which" Vs "The". The usage of either an appositive or adjective clause doesn't make any difference. Both the ways convey a nonrestrictive description of "farm equipment and land".

But consider below:
Omit the excessive portion.

Declining values for farm equipment and land, which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

Problems:
Clause ends with preposition : "against"
If we add the extra portion ... to borrow against.. to get through... This double infinitive kind of lengthens the sentence. In GMAT short is sweet.

Though above issues are not major, still in presence of a better choice E - these issues are accountable.

Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrowto get through the harvest season, are going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

This looks good.
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05 Jan 2013, 09:02
shoonya wrote:
234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

It's between D and E.

D -- which modifies whatever appears before it. So, D sounds like the better choice than E.

E -- you don't borrow against the collateral, you use something as a collateral to borrow against. Am I right?

You hit the nail perfectly but fails to dig it in right direction. Actually when you use something as collateral that you say: "X as collateral to borrow Y amount" now if you read in D option it smartly put one lethal work killing this option: "X as collateral to borrow AGAINST" AGAINST is already imlied in collarteral.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2013, 02:07
I have came across many times with these question.
and always misinterpret Declining values for farm equipment and land as a singular phrase.
and chosen option 'A'
any idea how to differentiate between Adjective in these one as 'Declining' from phrases that starts from '-ING' form?
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2013, 02:25
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Aristocrat wrote:
I have came across many times with these question.
and always misinterpret Declining values for farm equipment and land as a singular phrase.
and chosen option 'A'
any idea how to differentiate between Adjective in these one as 'Declining' from phrases that starts from '-ING' form?

whenever a clause or a phrase acts as a subject of a clause, it is always singular.
ex-"............., but what is much more difficult to determine IS.....". In the example, " But what ...........determine" is an intermediate clause, and the subject of this clause is "what is much more to difficult to determine". Hence we have a singular subject here.

Aristocrat, in the question above, the subject of the status quo phrase is "Declining values". We must remember that subject of the clause or phrase can't reside in the prep. phrase unless there is some quantity word. Hence Declining Values is correctly modified by "are".
Hope that helps.
Do let me know if anything remains unclear.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2013, 07:54
Marcab wrote:
Aristocrat wrote:
I have came across many times with these question.
and always misinterpret Declining values for farm equipment and land as a singular phrase.
and chosen option 'A'
any idea how to differentiate between Adjective in these one as 'Declining' from phrases that starts from '-ING' form?

whenever a clause or a phrase acts as a subject of a clause, it is always singular.
ex-"............., but what is much more difficult to determine IS.....". In the example, " But what ...........determine" is an intermediate clause, and the subject of this clause is "what is much more to difficult to determine". Hence we have a singular subject here.

Aristocrat, in the question above, the subject of the status quo phrase is "Declining values". We must remember that subject of the clause or phrase can't reside in the prep. phrase unless there is some quantity word. Hence Declining Values is correctly modified by "are".
Hope that helps.
Do let me know if anything remains unclear.

Thnx marcab
for a detailed explanation
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral   [#permalink] 07 Jan 2013, 07:54

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