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Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha

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Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 155, Date : 19-APR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological behavioral traits that aid survival in arid conditions. Some send out long, unusually deep taproots; others utilize shallow but widespread roots, which allow them to absorb large, intermittent flows of water. Certain plants protect their access to water. The creosote bush produces a potent root toxin which inhibits the growth of competing root systems. Daytime closure of stomata exemplifies a further genetic adaptation; guard cells work to minimize daytime water loss, later allowing the stomata to open when conditions are more favorable to gas exchange with the environment. Certain adaptations reflect the principle that a large surface area facilitates water and gas exchange. Most plants have small leaves, modified leaves (spines), or no leaves at all. The main food-producing organ is not the leaf but the stem, which is often green and non-woody. Thick, waxy stems and cuticles, seen in succulents such as cacti and agaves, also help conserve water. Spines and thorns (modified branches) protect against predators and also minimize water loss.
1. The passage refers to the spines and thorns of desert plants as

I. genetically evolved structural adaptations that protect against predation
II. genetic modifications that aid in the reduction of water loss
III. structures that do not participate directly in food production

(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II and III



2. The author suggest that the guard cells of desert plants act to do which of the following?

I. Facilitate gas and water exchange between the plants and their surroundings
II. Cause the stomata of desert plants to remain closed during daytime hours
III. Respond to sudden, heavy rainfalls by forcing the plants’ stomata to open

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) I, II, and III



3. The passage suggests that which of the following weather-related conditions would most benefit plants with shallow root systems?

(A) An unusually prolonged drought
(B) A windstorm
(C) A flash flood
(D) A light spring rain
(E) A winter snowfall



4. The adaptations of desert plants to their environment would tend to support the statement that

(A) the rate of genetic evolution is greater in the desert than in more temperate surroundings
(B) structures in a plant which usually perform one function may, under certain conditions, perform different functions
(C) while the amount of leaf surface area is critical for a desert plant, it is much less so for plants in most other environments
(D) desert plants do not have many physiological and behavioral traits in common with other plants
(E) desert plants could probably adapt to life in a variety of harsh ecosystems



Originally posted by kapil1990 on 28 Oct 2012, 11:41.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 29 Aug 2019, 04:37, edited 2 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (330).
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Re: Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2019, 18:50
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Official Explanation


Topic and Scope: Desert plant adaptations and how aid in these plants’ survival.

Purpose and Main Idea: The author is trying to describe the physiological traits that desert plants have adapted in order to survive in arid conditions.

Paragraph Structure: The first paragraph describes some general adaptations. The second paragraph discusses adaptations based on the principle that a large surface area facilitates water and gas exchange.


1. The passage refers to the spines and thorns of desert plants as

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The whole passage focuses on structural and behavioral adaptations that desert plants have made in order to survive. While the word “genetic” is used only once (in the last sentence of paragraph 1), it’s clear that many of these modifications are genetic. Spines and thorns, which are identified in the second paragraph as modified leaves and branches, are inferably among these genetic adaptations. In the last sentence, it’s further stated that they protect against predation (I) and also that they help minimize water loss (II). Option III is confirmed in the third sentence of the second paragraph: most of a desert plant’s food is produced in its stem, not in its leaves, so it’s pretty clear that spines and thorns (again, modified leaves and branches) have little or nothing to do with food production.

ANSWER: E


2. The author suggest that the guard cells of desert plants act to do which of the following?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

Like question 1, this is another detail question, this time focusing on the functioning of guard cells, mentioned in the sentence that concludes paragraph 1. This sentence discusses two closely related plant features: the stomata and the guard cells. You read first that daytime closing of the stomata is an adaptation that helps to minimize daytime water loss. The second half of the sentence clearly implies that it’s the guard cells that control this opening and closing of the stomata. So, the guard cells force the stomata to close during the day, to minimize water loss, and then they later cause the stomata to open, when conditions for gas exchange between the plant and its environment are more favorable. The first two options are thus clearly suggested. The third option, however, is an unjustified inference. Nothing at all is stated to link the functioning of guard cells to sudden downpours.

ANSWER: D


3. The passage suggests that which of the following weather-related conditions would most benefit plants with shallow root systems?

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

The stem is looking for the weather-related condition that would especially benefit plants with shallow root systems. Shallow root systems are mentioned up in the second sentence, and the point is that these specially adapted roots allow desert plants to take advantage of heavy, irregular flows of water. One example would be a very heavy, torrential downpour. The only choice that comes close to this is a flash flood. Flash floods result from unexpected, torrential rainfall. (A) and (B) are impossible; neither drought nor windstorms involve water. (D) won’t work because a light rain doesn’t fit with the idea of a large, sudden quantity of water. (E), finally, is pretty impossible , too. First, this choice doesn’t suggest a heavy, intermittent snowfall, and second, nothing is said in the passage to suggest snow would be of special benefit to shallow rooted plants.

ANSWER: C


Hope it helps

aankit wrote:
Can someone explain the passage and Question 1,2,3?

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Re: Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Apr 2017, 20:06
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I think an answer to question no 7 is not correct. because in the paragraph it is written: "the main food-producing organ is not the leaf but the stem". And it means spines and leaves are not main food processing organ so it may subsidiary food producing organs.
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Re: Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2017, 08:09
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techiesam wrote:
can anyone explain the answer choice in qsn no 9


"others utilize shallow but widespread roots, which allow them to absorb large, intermittent flows of water"
This above sentence form the passage tells us that they are adapted to absorb water thats not regular.
The only option that matches this is a flash flood. Because Floods aren't regular.

Hope its clear.
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Re: Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2017, 04:27
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Can some expert help me with this:

in the first question, I did not consider I and II as appropriate answers because the passage doesn't refer to spines and thorns as 'genetic' modifications, or 'genetic' evolution. They are simply referred to as 'evolution' or modification'. Aren't we supposed to stick to words used in the passage?
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Re: Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2017, 00:53
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this is descriptive passage which describe somthing. this is not typical of gmat passage which are argument in which many idea is explained and hard to understand.
we should not do this passage though the questions are not easy .
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Re: Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha  [#permalink]

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Re: Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2019, 10:11
Can someone explain the passage and Question 1,2,3?
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Re: Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2019, 08:05
2. The author suggest that the guard cells of desert plants act to do which of the following?

I. Facilitate gas and water exchange between the plants and their surroundings
II. Cause the stomata of desert plants to remain closed during daytime hours
III. Respond to sudden, heavy rainfalls by forcing the plants’ stomata to open



OA is D(I and II only).

I. Facilitate gas and water exchange between the plants and their surroundings - can we actually say that guard cells actually facilitate gas and water exchange since it controls the opening and closure of stomata?
II. Cause the stomata of desert plants to remain closed during daytime hours- can we infer this statement based on the following statement(the part that precedes the semicolon) because the part after semicolon talks only about the closure of stomata?

Daytime closure of stomata exemplifies a further genetic adaptation; guard cells work to minimize daytime water loss, later allowing the stomata to open when conditions are more favorable to gas exchange with the environment.


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Re: Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2019, 05:36
can someone explain why the answer is B for the question 4 please?
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Re: Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2019, 06:23
kapil1990 wrote:
New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 155, Date : 19-APR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological behavioral traits that aid survival in arid conditions. Some send out long, unusually deep taproots; others utilize shallow but widespread roots, which allow them to absorb large, intermittent flows of water. Certain plants protect their access to water. The creosote bush produces a potent root toxin which inhibits the growth of competing root systems. Daytime closure of stomata exemplifies a further genetic adaptation; guard cells work to minimize daytime water loss, later allowing the stomata to open when conditions are more favorable to gas exchange with the environment. Certain adaptations reflect the principle that a large surface area facilitates water and gas exchange. Most plants have small leaves, modified leaves (spines), or no leaves at all. The main food-producing organ is not the leaf but the stem, which is often green and non-woody. Thick, waxy stems and cuticles, seen in succulents such as cacti and agaves, also help conserve water. Spines and thorns (modified branches) protect against predators and also minimize water loss.
1. The passage refers to the spines and thorns of desert plants as

I. genetically evolved structural adaptations that protect against predation
II. genetic modifications that aid in the reduction of water loss
III. structures that do not participate directly in food production

(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II and III



2. The author suggest that the guard cells of desert plants act to do which of the following?

I. Facilitate gas and water exchange between the plants and their surroundings
II. Cause the stomata of desert plants to remain closed during daytime hours
III. Respond to sudden, heavy rainfalls by forcing the plants’ stomata to open

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) I, II, and III



3. The passage suggests that which of the following weather-related conditions would most benefit plants with shallow root systems?

(A) An unusually prolonged drought
(B) A windstorm
(C) A flash flood
(D) A light spring rain
(E) A winter snowfall



4. The adaptations of desert plants to their environment would tend to support the statement that

(A) the rate of genetic evolution is greater in the desert than in more temperate surroundings
(B) structures in a plant which usually perform one function may, under certain conditions, perform different functions
(C) while the amount of leaf surface area is critical for a desert plant, it is much less so for plants in most other environments
(D) desert plants do not have many physiological and behavioral traits in common with other plants
(E) desert plants could probably adapt to life in a variety of harsh ecosystems





2. The author suggest that the guard cells of desert plants act to do which of the following?[/b]

I. Facilitate gas and water exchange between the plants and their surroundings
II. Cause the stomata of desert plants to remain closed during daytime hours
III. Respond to sudden, heavy rainfalls by forcing the plants’ stomata to open

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) I, II, and III

Facilitate is to assist.
"Daytime closure of stomata exemplifies a further genetic adaptation; guard cells work to minimize daytime water loss, later allowing the stomata to open when conditions are more favorable to gas exchange with the environment."

Guard cells close and later allow the stomato to open. Hence they assist in the way gas and water exchange happens.
Also, stomato are closed during daytime by guard cells (which later allow them to open)
We can imply both (I) and (II) from the passage.

Answer (D)
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Re: Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2019, 06:29
kapil1990 wrote:
New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 155, Date : 19-APR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological behavioral traits that aid survival in arid conditions. Some send out long, unusually deep taproots; others utilize shallow but widespread roots, which allow them to absorb large, intermittent flows of water. Certain plants protect their access to water. The creosote bush produces a potent root toxin which inhibits the growth of competing root systems. Daytime closure of stomata exemplifies a further genetic adaptation; guard cells work to minimize daytime water loss, later allowing the stomata to open when conditions are more favorable to gas exchange with the environment. Certain adaptations reflect the principle that a large surface area facilitates water and gas exchange. Most plants have small leaves, modified leaves (spines), or no leaves at all. The main food-producing organ is not the leaf but the stem, which is often green and non-woody. Thick, waxy stems and cuticles, seen in succulents such as cacti and agaves, also help conserve water. Spines and thorns (modified branches) protect against predators and also minimize water loss.
1. The passage refers to the spines and thorns of desert plants as

I. genetically evolved structural adaptations that protect against predation
II. genetic modifications that aid in the reduction of water loss
III. structures that do not participate directly in food production

(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II and III



2. The author suggest that the guard cells of desert plants act to do which of the following?

I. Facilitate gas and water exchange between the plants and their surroundings
II. Cause the stomata of desert plants to remain closed during daytime hours
III. Respond to sudden, heavy rainfalls by forcing the plants’ stomata to open

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) I, II, and III



3. The passage suggests that which of the following weather-related conditions would most benefit plants with shallow root systems?

(A) An unusually prolonged drought
(B) A windstorm
(C) A flash flood
(D) A light spring rain
(E) A winter snowfall



4. The adaptations of desert plants to their environment would tend to support the statement that

(A) the rate of genetic evolution is greater in the desert than in more temperate surroundings
(B) structures in a plant which usually perform one function may, under certain conditions, perform different functions
(C) while the amount of leaf surface area is critical for a desert plant, it is much less so for plants in most other environments
(D) desert plants do not have many physiological and behavioral traits in common with other plants
(E) desert plants could probably adapt to life in a variety of harsh ecosystems





4. The adaptations of desert plants to their environment would tend to support the statement that

(A) the rate of genetic evolution is greater in the desert than in more temperate surroundings
(B) structures in a plant which usually perform one function may, under certain conditions, perform different functions
(C) while the amount of leaf surface area is critical for a desert plant, it is much less so for plants in most other environments
(D) desert plants do not have many physiological and behavioral traits in common with other plants
(E) desert plants could probably adapt to life in a variety of harsh ecosystems

Note this:
Most plants have small leaves, modified leaves (spines), or no leaves at all. The main food-producing organis not the leaf but the stem, which is often green and non-woody. Thick, waxy stems and cuticles, seen in succulents such as cacti and agaves, also help conserve water. Spines (modified leaves) and thorns (modified branches) protect against predators and also minimize water loss.

Food is not produced by leaves but my stem. Modified leaves and branches serve other purposes - protect against predators and minimise water loss.

It is clear that (B) holds.

The other options are not implied.
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Re: Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2019, 11:04
Official Explanation


4. The adaptations of desert plants to their environment would tend to support the statement that

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The second paragraph contains several examples of structures that in desert plants perform different functions than those they normally perform in plants in other environments. Spines and thorns in desert plants are modified leaves and branches, to reduce water loss. And as a result of their lack of normal leaves, most desert plants produce their food in their green, fleshy stems. As for the wrong choices, three of them—(A), (D), and (E)—simply can’t be answered.

There’s no information to support any of these statements. Finally, in choice (C), while the passage does indicate that a small leaf surface area is a critical factor for desert plants, nothing suggests that leaf surface area isn’t critical for plants in most other environments. Since the general principle is that a large surface area facilitates gas and water exchange one can infer that the larger leaf surface area of other plants helps in this process.

Answer: B


Hope it helps

NeoNguyen1989 wrote:
can someone explain why the answer is B for the question 4 please?

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Re: Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2019, 17:33
6 minutes. 3 out of 4 correct.
Quote:
4. The adaptations of desert plants to their environment would tend to support the statement that
(A) the rate of genetic evolution is greater in the desert than in more temperate surroundings
(B) structures in a plant which usually perform one function may, under certain conditions, perform different functions
(C) while the amount of leaf surface area is critical for a desert plant, it is much less so for plants in most other environments
(D) desert plants do not have many physiological and behavioral traits in common with other plants
(E) desert plants could probably adapt to life in a variety of harsh ecosystems


B and E are the only possible choices (if you infer the passage well enough)

Got tripped and marked E. Though I knew B is a possible answer but couldn't find an explicit support so couldn't convince myself. Nice Sweet RC~
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Re: Desert plant populations have evolved sophisticated physiological beha   [#permalink] 19 Nov 2019, 17:33
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