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# Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but fi

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Re: Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but fi [#permalink]
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anilisanil wrote:
Why is D wrong? I chose D.

Hi anilisani:

I guess you picked D because you thought "it" refers to "maintaining", is that correct? Let replace "it" by "maintaining", so D will be:

(D) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as maintaining does for paved roads

You can see the structure is not parallel. "maintaining X costs twice as much as maintaining does for Y" ==> D may be correct if its structure is "maintaining X costs twice as much as maintaining Y does"

Hope it's clear.
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Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but financially strained townships point out that dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads.

A. dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads Here, “dirt roads” is being compared to “maintaining paved roads.” Not parallel.

B. dirt roads cost twice as much to maintain as paved roads do Correct comparison

C. maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads do Here, “maintaining dirt roads” is being compared to “paved roads.” Not parallel.

D. maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as it does for paved roads Not clear what “it” refers to.

E. to maintain dirt roads costs twice as much as for paved roads “to maintain dirt roads” is not parallel to “for paved roads.”

- Nitha Jay
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Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-
ritula wrote:
Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but financially strained townships point out that dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads.

(B) dirt roads cost twice as much to maintain as paved roads do

(C) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads do

(D) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as it does for paved roads

(E) to maintain dirt roads costs twice as much as for paved roads

Meaning is crucial to solving this problem:
Understanding the intended meaning is key to getting this question correct; the intended meaning of the crucial part of this sentence is that the cost of maintaining the dirt roads is twice the cost of maintaining the paved roads.

Concepts tested here: Comparison + Parallelism + Meaning

• Comparison must always be made between similar elements.

A: This answer choice incorrectly compares “dirt roads” to “maintaining paved roads”, incorrectly implying that the cost of the dirt roads, themselves, is twice the cost of maintaining the paved roads; the intended meaning of the sentence is that the cost of maintaining the dirt roads is twice the cost of maintaining the paved roads; please remember, a comparison must always be made between similar elements.

B: Correct. This answer choice correctly compares “dirt roads cost” with “paved roads do”, conveying the intended meaning of the sentence- that the cost of maintaining the dirt roads is twice the cost of maintaining the paved roads.

C: Trap. This answer choice incorrectly compares “maintaining dirt roads costs” to “paved roads do”, incorrectly implying that the cost of maintaining the dirt roads is twice the cost of the paved roads, themselves; the intended meaning of the sentence is that the cost of maintaining the dirt roads is twice the cost of maintaining the paved roads; please remember, a comparison must always be made between similar elements.

E: This answer choice incorrectly compares “to maintain dirt roads” to “for paved roads”, leading to an incoherent meaning; the intended meaning of the sentence is that the cost of maintaining the dirt roads is twice the cost of maintaining the paved roads; please remember, comparison must always be made between similar elements.

Hence, B is the best answer choice.

We hope this helps.
All the best!
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B it is.

Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but financially strained townships point out that dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads.

(A) dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads - incorrect comparosin
(B) dirt roads cost twice as much to maintain as paved roads do [cost to maintain].
(C) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads do
(D) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as it [maintaining] does for paved roads- awkward, wordy
(E) to maintain dirt roads costs twice as much as for paved roads - awkward
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"Hi mate!
Excellent question, thank you!
Hmm... But have you managed to tag your question appropriately?
As I see you did not tag neither the source or type of the question. Please tag it - it will help many test takers after you.

If you have further questions, please refer this thread for more details: tagging-questions-102752.html/

We can change the World making it better, let's start from this website

Thanks!
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Re: Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but fi [#permalink]
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Why is D wrong? I chose D.
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I try my best to look at comparsions as X as much as Y where the sentences X and Y are constructed the same way. Additionally now I try to figure out meaning as well of the original sentence. With this sentence we are trying to say "Something about Dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads". Based on these two things this is what I would have done ->

(B) dirt roads cost twice as much to maintain as paved roads do Split 1: "X costs twices as much as Y does" - Looks fine
(C) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads do Split 1: "something to X costs as much as Y does" This construction looks awkward because you are doing something to X but then flipping the structure with Y.
(D) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as it does for paved roads Split 1: Here you are saying something costs twice as much as cost for Y. The structure is flipped in this one as well so wrong.
(E) to maintain dirt roads costs twice as much as for paved roads Split 1: Here the construction is flipped as well. Since To something X twice as much as For Y.

Based on this analysis I would have picked B. Comparsions are very tricky but based on what I know, I try to always keep the construction the same on both sides of the comparison keyword (Like, Unlike, As, Than, idioms). I don't have my Manhattan's SC book on me but I remember a piece regarding how to use As Much As from the idioms list.
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More than a parallelism question, this is really testing comparisons.

(B) dirt roads cost twice as much to maintain as paved roads do
CORRECT

(C) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads do

(D) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as it does for paved roads
What does it refer to? you may say maintaining, of course! But how come maintaining does something? WRONG

(E) to maintain dirt roads costs twice as much as for paved roads
Does this even make sense? To maintaing costs twice as much to maintain for something?
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Re: Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but fi [#permalink]
Can we kindly get an analysis of answer choices? In particular C and D please?

Would be happy to throw some Kudos out there!

Cheers!
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jlgdr wrote:
Can we kindly get an analysis of answer choices? In particular C and D please?

Would be happy to throw some Kudos out there!

Cheers!
J

Okay, let me go about explaining this.

C. There is an incorrect comparison between "maintaining dirt roads" and "paved roads." (X twice as much as Y structure.) Then there is a subject-verb disagreement as well. Something like this would have been awesome :- "maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as maintaining paved roads."

D. Even though I chose this, at the hindsight this option looks awkward. "It" might refer to the proper antecedent "maintaining" but the construction "does for paved roads" doesn't look good to me (it did then )

B. Comparison between dirt roads and paved roads in terms of their action "cost" seems okay and there's no subject-verb disagreement.
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Re: Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but fi [#permalink]
Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but financially strained townships point out that dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads.

(A) dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads not comparing similar elements
(B) dirt roads cost twice as much to maintain as paved roads do
(C) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads do the subject who is performing these two actions is different
(D) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as it does for paved roads "it" is not clear and the rest is also not parallel
(E) to maintain dirt roads costs twice as much as for paved roads not comparing similar elements
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Responding to a PM: Why B is better than D?

D has two problems: the pronoun "it" does not have an antecedent.

The compared elements are not parallel:
maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as it does for paved roads.

The correct construction would be :
maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as maintaining paved roads does.

In option B, the compared elements are parallel:

dirt roads cost twice as much to maintain as paved roads cost.

It is allowed to replaced the verb with "do" in the second element. Hence:
dirt roads cost twice as much to maintain as paved roads do.
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Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but financially strained townships point out that dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads.

The structure of comparison "X as much as Y" where X and Y must follow the same form.

Hence only B satisfied.

(B) dirt roads cost twice as much to maintain as paved roads do

(C) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads do

(D) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as it does for paved roads

(E) to maintain dirt roads costs twice as much as for paved roads
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Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but financially strained townships point out that dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads.

Intended Meaning : Maintaining Dirt Roads costs twice as much as Maintaining Paved Roads. This is the intended comparison implied from the original sentence.

(A) dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads (do)
Incorrect. Here, the cost of construction of the dirt roads is compared with the cost of maintenance of the paved roads. This is not the intended meaning.

Understanding the structure : Maintaining Paved Roads -- Maintaining (Gerund/Action Noun) Paved (Adjective) Roads. So, here maintaining is specifically referring to the paved roads.
Dirt roads cost : here, the implied meaning is the cost of construction of the dirt roads.

(B) dirt roads cost twice as much to maintain as paved roads do (do -- cost to maintain)
Correct. In terms with the intended meaning.

(C) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads do
Incorrect. Here, the cost of maintenance of the dirt roads is compared with the cost of construction of the paved roads. This is not the intended meaning.
One More Important Thing to Note Here : Only VERBS or PREPOSITIONS can be ellided, nothing else.
If someone thought, option C as,
maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as maintaining paved roads do (costs). Then that is INCORRECT for the reason mentioned above.

(D) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as it does for paved roads
What does "it" refers to here? It does not have a logical antecedent. Therefore, Incorrect.

(E) to maintain dirt roads costs twice as much as for paved roads
The comparison is not very clear in this option. What "for paved roads" is referring to? Choice B is much better than this option choice.
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Re: Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but fi [#permalink]
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GMATNinja wrote:

Quote:
(C) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads do

This is lamentably subtle. Keep in mind that “do” replaces a verb phrase – and “maintaining” is a noun (gerund) in this case, and definitely not a verb. (For more on –ing words, check out this article: https://gmatclub.com/forum/experts-topi ... 39780.html.) So this is literally saying that “maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads [cost].” Now we’re comparing the cost of maintaining dirt roads with the cost of paved roads themselves, and that doesn’t makes sense.

Thanks a lot for your explanation GMATNinja. Just wondering whether C would have been correct as "maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as [maintaining] paved roads does"

Regards
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Re: Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but fi [#permalink]
ManishKM1 wrote:

Thanks a lot for your explanation GMATNinja. Just wondering whether C would have been correct as "maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as [maintaining] paved roads does"

Sure, it would be acceptable to say "maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as maintaining paved roads" -- but in that case, there's no reason to include the word "does."

I hope this helps!
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GMATNinja wrote:
ManishKM1 wrote:

Thanks a lot for your explanation GMATNinja. Just wondering whether C would have been correct as "maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as [maintaining] paved roads does"

Sure, it would be acceptable to say "maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as maintaining paved roads" -- but in that case, there's no reason to include the word "does."

I hope this helps!

Thanks GMATNinja, but I meant to say [maintaining] in ellipsis. The sentence would be "maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads does". Would that be okay?
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