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Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing

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Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing [#permalink]

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Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing density, allows for more open space in areas where little water or services exist.

(A) little water or services exist
(B) little water or services exists
(C) few services and little water exists
(D) there is little water or services available
(E) there are few services and little available water

Guys, can we sort out the above question?
I have no clue at this stage; would appreciate explanations.

Originally posted by seofah on 14 Jul 2007, 02:08.
Last edited by GMATNinjaTwo on 27 Mar 2018, 13:00, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing [#permalink]

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Casinoking wrote:
papillon86 wrote:
251. Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing density, allows for more open space in areas where little water or services exist.
(A) little water or services exist
(B) little water or services exists
(C) few services and little water exists- Verb agreement
(D) there is little water or services available
(E) there are few services and little available water


Pls explain.....


Ans not 'A' because LITTLE doesnt go with SERVICES, because SERVICES are countable.

Ans not 'B' because of the same reason as above.

Not 'C' because EXISTS is Singular which doesnt tie in with Water and Services. The sentence basically doesnt sound ok with option 'C'

Not 'D' for the same reason as why not A.

'E' is perfect.

Does this make sense?
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Re: Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2012, 06:22
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It is a general principle that whenever –or is found in a collection of choices, each of the choices will be taken as singular and the verb also will be singular , while, if – and – is found, both the subject and the verb will be plural

(A) little water or services exist …… services matched the verb exist but little water does not.

(B) little water or services exists … reverse of A; little water tallies with exists, while services does not

(C) few services and little water exists ------ few services and little water is plural; does not tally with exists.

(D) there is little water or services available --- There is little water is okay; but there is services available is not okay.

(E) there are few services and little available water ---- The plural subject --- few services and little available- tallies with the plural verb are ; correct choice
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Re: Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing [#permalink]

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vishalrastogi wrote:
what is wrong with A here ?

as per my understanding when the subject is joined by "or/nor", the verb need to agree with the subject closest to the verb, which is services in A. so it should be exist, which is what is given.

I am confused here, can someone help me out please ?


Hi vishalrastogi.

I'm happy to help.

Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing density, allows for more open space in areas where little water or services exist.

(A) little water or services exist
Wrong. Little (X or Y) = Little X or Little Y. But services is countable --> can't use little

(B) little water or services exists
Wrong. Same as A.

(C) few services and little water exists
Wrong. [X and Y] --> compound noun --> plural --> "exists" is wrong.

(D) there is little water or services available
Wrong. Same as A. Little X or Y = Little X or Little Y. But services is countable --> can't use little

(E) there are few services and little available water
Correct. Only E uses correct grammar. (few services + little water)

Hope it helps.
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Re: Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing [#permalink]

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goodyear2013 wrote:
Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing density, allows for more open space in areas where little water or services exist.
(A) little water or services exist
(B) little water or services exists
(C) few services and little water exists
(D) there is little water or services available
(E) there are few services and little available water.

Dear goodyear2013,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

"water" is uncountable, so we use "little water."
"services" are countable, so we use "few services."
See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... -vs-fewer/
The choices with "little water or services" are completely wrong. This eliminates (A) & (B) & (D).

As a subject, "little water" is singular, and by itself would take a singular verb.
As a subject, "few services" is plural, and by itself would take a plural verb.
As a compound subject, "few services and little available" is definitely plural, and demands a plural verb.
This blog discusses related issues:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-sente ... agreement/
The choices with singular verbs, (B) & (C) & (D), are incorrect.

These splits eliminate everything except (E). Choice (E) is grammatically correct, not ideal, but acceptable, and it is the best possible answer.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2016, 20:04
This question is an excellent candidate to illustrate the benefits of vertical splits, considering the correct choice may be regarded as wordy.

Split 1 : S-V agreement : B & C out.
Split 2 : Countable vs uncountable : cannot use little with services. A & D out.

Left with E, though wordy, is correct.
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Re: Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2016, 00:10
seofah wrote:
Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing density, allows for more open space in areas where little water or services exist.


(A) little water or services exist
Little (water or services) - it means little water or little services. We cannot use little for services because services are countable. If you do not get this in a go then scanning or POE of choices would make you think about “few” Vs “little”.

(B) little water or services exists
Same as A.

(C) few services and little water exists
This corrects the problem in A and B but introduces S-V error. A AND B existS.

(D) there is little water or services available
same as A. little is used for services.

(E) there are few services and little available water
correct.
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Re: Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2017, 12:19
Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing density, allows for more open space in areas where little water or services exist.

Issue: Subject-Verb Agreement | Modifier

Analysis:
1. In this sentence we see little being used to modify "services". Since "service" is countable, we need to use "few" to modify it.
2. Another thing to notice is subject-verb agreement issue for the verb being used for compound subject "few services and little water". We need to use a plural verb to refer to them.


(A) little water or services exist
- "little" incorrectly modifies services

(B) little water or services exists
- "little" incorrectly modifies services
- In case of two nouns separated by "or", the verb should agree with closer noun. However, in case this does not happen. "exists" does not agree with plural "services"


(C) few services and little water exists
- "exists" does not agree with plural subject "few services and little water"

(D) there is little water or services available
- "little" incorrectly modifies services
- "available" does not agree with singular subject "water or services"


(E) there are few services and little available water

Answer: (E)
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Re: Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing [#permalink]

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'E' is the correct choice - Posting OE as well

In this sentence, the adjective little correctly modifies the noun water because water is not a countable quantity. However, the noun services is a countable quantity and must be modified by few, not by little. Logically, the areas described would suffer from both little water and few services at the same time, so the correct conjunction is and, not or. This compound subject requires a plural verb.

A is out - Services should be modified by few, not little.
B is out because singular verb exists does not agree with the plural subject services.
C is out - When a compound subject consists of two distinct units joined by the conjunction and, the verb must be plural.
D is out - Little cannot modify services.

Correct 'E' - In this sentence, few correctly modifies services; and correctly joins services and water.
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Re: Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2017, 23:57
daagh mikemcgarry pqhai

Can you pls help me in understanding the meaning?

(E) there are few services and little available water

a) With replacement of or by and, are we not changing the meaning of the sentence.
b) available is modifying water. There is a meaning difference between available water and existing water
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Re: Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2017, 22:29
gaitbhu wrote:
daagh mikemcgarry pqhai

Can you pls help me in understanding the meaning?

(E) there are few services and little available water

a) With replacement of or by and, are we not changing the meaning of the sentence.
b) available is modifying water. There is a meaning difference between available water and existing water


Hi, the first underline option is not necessarily the meaning of the sentence. The sentence just has to have a reasonable meaning with the complementary underlined phrase/part. This answer ( E) just makes the best logical complement when compared to the others, in terms of parallelism and noun agreement. Hope this is helpful.
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Re: Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2017, 14:39
gaitbhu wrote:
Can you pls help me in understanding the meaning?

(E) there are few services and little available water

a) With replacement of or by and, are we not changing the meaning of the sentence.
b) available is modifying water. There is a meaning difference between available water and existing water

Dear gaitbhu,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

I will say a few things.

First of all, notice that the "or" appears only in the grammatically incorrect construction "little water or services," as if it were trying to make the word "little" apply to both words. When that structure was not used, the answer choices had "and." Thus, this is not a direct "and" vs. "or" choice, but a choice between that structure and other structures.

Second, "available water" and "existing water" mean exactly the same thing: the water that people have available to drink in a given situation.

Finally, your questions really indicate that you have a lot to learn about the English language. While it's great to ask questions about individual Verbal problems, what will most support your rapid progress is the habit of reading. See:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score

Also, here are some free GMAT Idiom Flashcards that you may find helpful.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing   [#permalink] 25 Sep 2017, 14:39
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