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# Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly

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Manager
Joined: 16 Jul 2009
Posts: 191
Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2009, 21:31
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Question 1
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39% (02:40) correct 61% (02:57) wrong

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Question 2
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Question 3
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Question 4
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74% (00:46) correct 26% (01:00) wrong

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Earth’s surface consists of rigid
plates that are constantly shifting and
jostling one another. Plate movements
Line are the surface expressions of motions
(5) in the mantle—the thick shell of rock
that lies between Earth’s crust and its
metallic core. Although the hot rock of
the mantle is a solid, under the tre-
mendous pressure of the crust and
(10) overlying rock of the mantle, it flows like
a viscous liquid. The mantle’s motions,
analogous to those in a pot of boiling
water, cool the mantle by carrying hot
material to the surface and returning
(15) cooler material to the depths. When
the edge of one plate bends under
another and its cooler material is con-
sumed in the mantle, volcanic activity
occurs as molten lava rises from the
(20) downgoing plate and erupts through the
overlying one.
Most volcanoes occur at plate
boundaries. However, certain “mis-
placed” volcanoes far from plate
(25) edges result from a second, indepen-
dent mechanism that cools the deep
interior of Earth. Because of its prox-
imity to Earth’s core, the rock at the
base of the mantle is much hotter than
(30) rock in the upper mantle. The hotter the
mantle rock is, the less it resists flow-
ing. Reservoirs of this hot rock collect
in the base of the mantle. When a
reservoir is sufficiently large, a sphere
(35) of this hot rock forces its way up
through the upper mantle to Earth’s
surface, creating a broad bulge in the
topography. The “mantle plume” thus
formed, once established, continues to
(40) channel hot material from the mantle
base until the reservoir is emptied.
The surface mark of an established
plume is a hot spot—an isolated
region of volcanoes and uplifted terrain
(45) located far from the edge of a surface
plate. Because the source of a hot
spot remains fixed while a surface
plate moves over it, over a long period
of time an active plume creates a chain
(50) of volcanoes or volcanic islands, a
track marking the position of the plume
relative to the moving plate. The natural
history of the Hawaiian island chain
clearly shows the movement of the
Pacific plate over a fixed plume.
23. It can be inferred from the passage that a chain of volcanoes created by a mantle plume would most likely be characterized by
A. a curved outline
B. constituent volcanoes that differ from each other in age
C. occurrence near a plate boundary where one plate bends under another
D. appearance near many other volcanic chains
E. rocks with a wide range of chemical composition

24. According to the passage, a hot spot on Earth’s surface is an indication of which of the following?
A. An untapped reservoir of hot rock in the base of the mantle
B. Volcanic activity at the edge of a plate
C. Solid mantle rock under tremendous pressure
D. The occurrence of a phenomenon unique to the Pacific plate
E. A plume of hot mantle rock originating near Earth’s core

25. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing
A. the composition of Earth’s mantle
B. how the Hawaiian Islands were created
C. what causes Earth’s surface plates to move
D. two different mechanisms by which volcanoes are formed
E. why most volcanoes occur at plate boundaries

26. The author’s reference to the Hawaiian Islands serves primarily to
A. provide an example of a type of volcanic activity that does not occur elsewhere
B. identify the evidence initially used to establish that the Pacific plate moves
C. call into question a theory about the source of the volcanoes that created the Hawaiian Islands
D. illustrate the distance from plate edges at which volcanoes typically appear
E. provide an example of how mantle plumes manifest themselves on Earth’s surface

Intern
Joined: 03 Jun 2014
Posts: 1
Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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02 May 2015, 09:22
5
1
missjain09 wrote:
It can be inferred from the passage that a chain of volcanoes created by a mantle plume would most likely be characterized by
A. a curved outline
B. constituent volcanoes that differ from each other in age
C. occurrence near a plate boundary where one plate bends under another
D. appearance near many other volcanic chains
E. rocks with a wide range of chemical composition

How is B the answer to this ? I can not find "age" mentioned anywhere in the passage.Please help me understand this .

I chose C , though D also seems correct.

Thanks

"over a long period of time an active plume creates a chain of volcanoes" So, if it takes place over a long period of time, those volcanoes must be different in age relative to each other.
##### General Discussion
Intern
Joined: 04 Oct 2009
Posts: 46
Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2009, 04:24
Where can I find the answers ????
Senior Manager
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GMAT 1: 530 Q47 V17
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Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2009, 04:25
Intern
Joined: 01 Jan 2009
Posts: 25
Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2009, 06:12
I got A, D and E for the last 3 questions. But choose D for the 1st . But now when I reread the question, I had missed the "chain of volcanoes" part and B seems to be the answer.
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Joined: 29 Jul 2009
Posts: 165
Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2009, 09:10
I got BEDE.

Chose E for the second one bc of the lines below. So a hot spot indicates more than just an untapped resevoir put a plume of hot rock. 2nd question is very difficult since A and E to me basically said very similar things, so I could be wrong. What's the OA?

When a
reservoir is sufficiently large, a sphere
(35) of this hot rock forces its way up
through the upper mantle to Earth’s
surface, creating a broad bulge in the
topography. The “mantle plume” thus
formed, once established, continues to
(40) channel hot material from the mantle
base until the reservoir is emptied.
The surface mark of an established
plume is a hot spot.
Senior Manager
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Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2009, 14:41
11 MBA... yeah I think you're right
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He that is in me > he that is in the world. - source 1 John 4:4
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Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2009, 22:01
1
BEDE
Manager
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Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2009, 22:16
IMO b,e,d,b
For last question
Quote:
The natural
history of the Hawaiian island chain
clearly shows the movement of the Pacific plate over a fixed plume.
--->
Senior Manager
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Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2009, 05:05
I don't know, angel2009. I think that it does carry B out but I don't think that B is the primary use of the text. Rather I think it was to provide an example of the plumes showing up at different points. But I could be wrong. Your answer is directly evidenced in the passage but in the context of the rest of it I'm not sure it's the best answer. I certainly could be wrong though.
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He that is in me > he that is in the world. - source 1 John 4:4
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Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2009, 04:16
there's no true correction ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2014, 08:59
It can be inferred from the passage that a chain of volcanoes created by a mantle plume would most likely be characterized by
A. a curved outline
B. constituent volcanoes that differ from each other in age
C. occurrence near a plate boundary where one plate bends under another
D. appearance near many other volcanic chains
E. rocks with a wide range of chemical composition

How is B the answer to this ? I can not find "age" mentioned anywhere in the passage.Please help me understand this .

I chose C , though D also seems correct.

Thanks
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Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2015, 08:11
6 mins all correct.
Q1 & 2 should be watched out for.
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Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2016, 03:24
JarvisR wrote:
6 mins all correct.
Q1 & 2 should be watched out for.

He Jarvis could you please explain why is the second one

According to the passage, a hot spot on Earth's surface is an indication of which of the following?

-An untapped reservoir of hot rock in the base of the mantle

-Volcanic activity at the edge of a plate

-Solid mantle rock under tremendous pressure

-The occurrence of a phenomenon unique to the Pacific plate

-A plume of hot mantle rock originating near Earth's core

Why is the answer E ?- and not A?
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Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2016, 11:47
2
1
neilsheth1 wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
6 mins all correct.
Q1 & 2 should be watched out for.

He Jarvis could you please explain why is the second one

According to the passage, a hot spot on Earth's surface is an indication of which of the following?

-An untapped reservoir of hot rock in the base of the mantle

-Volcanic activity at the edge of a plate

-Solid mantle rock under tremendous pressure

-The occurrence of a phenomenon unique to the Pacific plate

-A plume of hot mantle rock originating near Earth's core

Why is the answer E ?- and not A?

There is no mention in the passage that this source is tapped or untapped and if you read it carefull you will find it out of scope while E seems to be perfectly fine as per the passage.

Kudos !!!
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Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2016, 13:02
6 min 30
D E B E

I understand that the answer for the first question is B.... because of the tiny detail "chains" in D
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Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2017, 07:31
Why answer of question 4th is not B? Because of the plates movement only hawaiian islands got a chain of volcanoes.
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Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly  [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2018, 14:05
missjain09 wrote:
It can be inferred from the passage that a chain of volcanoes created by a mantle plume would most likely be characterized by
A. a curved outline
B. constituent volcanoes that differ from each other in age
C. occurrence near a plate boundary where one plate bends under another
D. appearance near many other volcanic chains
E. rocks with a wide range of chemical composition

How is B the answer to this ? I can not find "age" mentioned anywhere in the passage.Please help me understand this .

I chose C , though D also seems correct.

Thanks

exactly d makes more sense... Is there anyone who can help? how "age" is inferred about volcanic formation?
Re: Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly   [#permalink] 25 Dec 2018, 14:05
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