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For farmers in the Salinas Valley, the vegetable growing business has

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Re: For farmers in the Salinas Valley, the vegetable growing business has [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2016, 19:22
For farmers in the Salinas Valley, the vegetable growing business has always been one of economic ups and downs, the downs usually because of unfavorable weather that killed crops, or they ripened too quickly.

(A) because of unfavorable weather that killed crops, or they ripened
(B) because of unfavorable weather killing or ripening crops
(C) being caused by unfavorable weather that killed or ripened crops
(D) caused by unfavorable weather that kills crops or ripens them
(E) caused by unfavorable weather killing crops, or that they ripen


Here the use of caused by is more justified as it is modifying the noun(subject) " the downs". Because of is generally used when the verb is modified or is used to present a reason.

This leaves us with D and E. Chose D as E is not parallel.

Please correct me if i am wrong.

Thanks.

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Re: For farmers in the Salinas Valley, the vegetable growing business has [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2016, 10:34
kamathimanshu wrote:
For farmers in the Salinas Valley, the vegetable growing business has always been one of economic ups and downs, the downs usually because of unfavorable weather that killed crops, or they ripened too quickly.

(A) because of unfavorable weather that killed crops, or they ripened
(B) because of unfavorable weather killing or ripening crops
(C) being caused by unfavorable weather that killed or ripened crops
(D) caused by unfavorable weather that kills crops or ripens them
(E) caused by unfavorable weather killing crops, or that they ripen


Here the use of caused by is more justified as it is modifying the noun(subject) " the downs". Because of is generally used when the verb is modified or is used to present a reason.

This leaves us with D and E. Chose D as E is not parallel.

Please correct me if i am wrong.

Thanks.

Dear kamathimanshu,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

The structure "the downs caused by" is very good, but the structure "the downs because of" would also work. Choice (C) is super-awkward, but we can't reject (A) & (B) purely on their beginnings. (A) & (E) have the same parallelism problem: that's a reason to reject them both. If you look at my post in this thread from Mar 22, 2012, you will see my discussion of what's wrong with (B).

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: For farmers in the Salinas Valley, the vegetable growing business has [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2017, 05:56
mikemcgarry wrote:
kraizada84 wrote:
mike

Could you please comment on B. I cant differentiate between B and D.

THANX


Well, it's subtle ---

(B) the downs usually because of unfavorable weather killing or ripening crops too quickly.

One problem is what I mentioned in my above post --- if the verbs ("killing" & "ripening") are this closely joined, then the adverb "quickly" applies to both them. The adverb "quickly" is only supposed to apply to the verb "ripening" --- while it's fine for plants to ripen, it's a problem if they ripen too quickly. The adverb "quickly" is not supposed to apply to "killing" --- it's bad for the weather to kill the plants, and whether it does so quickly or slowly doesn't matter. That is the biggest obvious problem with (B).

Even more subtle --- I can't quite explain why, but "the downs usually caused by unfavorable weather . . ." sounds more natural than the "downs usually because of unfavorable weather . . ." Using some form of the verb "cause" is usually more direct than using the words "because of."

In this sense, this question is not really a solid GMAT SC question, because aside from that relatively subtle thing about the adverb "quickly", there's no real glaring mistake with (B). Here, (D) is right because it has absolutely no mistake, but on the real GMAT, the wrong answers will be more obviously wrong.

Does this make sense? Let me know if you have any questions.

Mike :)



I also felt We need restrictive clause "that" in option D. ?
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Re: For farmers in the Salinas Valley, the vegetable growing business has [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2017, 12:06
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sumanainampudi wrote:


I also felt We need restrictive clause "that" in option D. ?




Hello sumanainampudi,

I will be glad to help you with this one. :-)


Use of the phrase caused by is correct in this sentence because this phrase has been used to present the reason for a noun - the downs.

The phrase because of is used to present the reason for an action.


Essentially, the structure the downs usually caused by unfavorable weather that kills crops or ripens them too quickly is a Noun + Noun Modifier on which the downs = Noun and caused by unfavorable weather that kills crops or ripens them too quickly = Noun Modifier.


These modifiers are very versatile as they can associate with any noun in the preceding clause or can even modify the entire preceding clause. In this official sentence this modifier describes the noun downs in the preceding clause.


There is no need for an that clause in the correct answer choice d because the downs that are caused by = the downs caused by. There is no difference in the meaning conveyed by these two structures.


As for the Noun + Noun Modifiers, you can learn about these modifiers in our one of the most read article named Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier in the following link:

https://gmatclub.com/forum/noun-noun-modifiers-the-most-versatile-modifier-137292.html



Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: For farmers in the Salinas Valley, the vegetable growing business has   [#permalink] 25 Sep 2017, 12:06

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