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Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes

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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes [#permalink]
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Took me 10:35 to solve all 5. Got all correct

Abbreviated the creatures as GS, WF, P (WF predators), and sq (squirrels). P' for predators in the study described in the second paragraph, since they are a subset of P and don't really eat sq.

Notes looked like this:

1. effect of things done for WF may have mixed results
-remove P, inc GS
-P kill sq; remove P; sq kills GS

2. exp. and explanation:
-removed P': GS - no change
-reason given: P' don't eat sq. so doesn't matter (also P' live in diff area)

I think that somewhat helps.
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes [#permalink]
5. It can be inferred that the habitat preferences of raccoons and striped skunks affected the results of the experiment described in the passage for which of the following reasons?

(A) Songbird nests in the wetlands are usually located in places that most waterfowl-nest predators cannot reach.
(B) Raccoons and striped skunks are not usually found in areas where songbird nests tend to be located.
(C) Mice and ground squirrels tend to avoid predation by raccoons and striped skunks by remaining exclusively in the uplands.
(D) The populations of small mammals in the wetlands are usually controlled by larger waterfowl-nest predators such as raccoons and striped skunks.
(E) The waterfowl on which raccoons and striped skunks prey in the wetlands compete with songbirds for food.

Can anyone explain the Option B?.
I didn't find any information related to option B in the entire passage.
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes [#permalink]
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Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes as waterfowl, particularly in a certain part of those complexes, namely, upland habitats surrounding wetlands. Although some wildlife management procedures directed at waterfowl, such as habitat enhancement or restoration, may also benefit songbirds, the impact of others, especially the control of waterfowl predators, remains difficult to predict. For example, most predators of waterfowl nests prey opportunistically on songbird nests, and removing these predators could directly increase songbird nesting success. Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest. Thus, removing waterfowl-nest predators could affect songbird nesting success through subsequent increases in small-mammal populations.

In 1995 and 1996, researchers trapped and removed certain waterfowl nest predators, primary raccoons and striped skunks, then observed subsequent survival rates for songbird nests. Surprisingly. They observed no significant effect on songbird nesting success. This may be due to several factors. Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests. Thus, their removal may not have led to significant increases in populations of smaller predators. Additionally, both raccoons and striped skunks prefer wetlands and spend little time in upland habitats; removing these species may not have increased the nesting success of songbirds in the uplands enough to allow detection.

avinash2235 I've italicized the relevant portion for you. Hope it helps.
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes [#permalink]
JarvisR wrote:
Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes as waterfowl, particularly in a certain part of those complexes, namely, upland habitats surrounding wetlands. Although some wildlife management procedures directed at waterfowl, such as habitat enhancement or restoration, may also benefit songbirds, the impact of others, especially the control of waterfowl predators, remains difficult to predict. For example, most predators of waterfowl nests prey opportunistically on songbird nests, and removing these predators could directly increase songbird nesting success. Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest. Thus, removing waterfowl-nest predators could affect songbird nesting success through subsequent increases in small-mammal populations.

In 1995 and 1996, researchers trapped and removed certain waterfowl nest predators, primary raccoons and striped skunks, then observed subsequent survival rates for songbird nests. Surprisingly. They observed no significant effect on songbird nesting success. This may be due to several factors. Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests. Thus, their removal may not have led to significant increases in populations of smaller predators. Additionally, both raccoons and striped skunks prefer wetlands and spend little time in upland habitats; removing these species may not have increased the nesting success of songbirds in the uplands enough to allow detection.

1. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the role played by ground squirrels in the ecology of grassland-wetland complexes?

(A) While not important in the diet of raccoons or striped skunks, ground squirrels are a significant source of food for other waterfowl-nest predators.
(B) Whereas ground squirrels are typically important as predators of songbird nests, their opportunistic predation on waterfowl nests also has an observable effect on waterfowl nesting success.
(C) Although most waterfowl-nest predators prey on small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels, populations of ground squirrels tend to increase quickly enough to compensate for this level of predation.
(D) Although ground squirrels have been known to prey on songbird nests, a larger portion of their diets is usually provided by predation on waterfowl nests.
(E) Since larger predators tend to prefer small mammals to songbird eggs as a food source, a large population of ground squirrels plays an important role in controlling opportunistic predation on songbird nests.

2. Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence “Neither raccoons…songbird nests” in the context of the passage as a whole?

(A) It raises questions about the validity of a theory described in the first paragraph.
(B) It points out an oversimplification that is inherent in the argument presented in the first paragraph.
(C) It introduces information that may help explain the results of the experiment that are presented earlier in the paragraph.
(D) It provides a specific example of the type of data collected in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.
(E) It anticipates a potential objection to the conclusions drawn by the researchers involved in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.

3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe some procedures used for wildlife management and consider some problems associated with the execution of those procedures
(B) outline a problem related to a wildlife management procedure and offer potential explanations for the results of an experiment bearing on that problem
(C) present experimental results that illustrate the need for certain wildlife management procedures and point out some inconsistencies in those results
(D) argue that a certain procedure used for wildlife management should be modified because of its unintended consequences
(E) propose that further experiments be performed to assess the long-term effects of certain wildlife management procedures

4. The passage suggests that removing waterfowl-nest predators could possibly have a negative effect on songbird populations because

(A) songbird populations could then grow to unsustainable numbers
(B) small-mammal population could then move out of the uplands into wetland areas
(C) competition among remaining waterfowl-nest predators could decrease significantly
(D) a resulting increase in waterfowl populations could crowd out songbird populations
(E) a resulting increase in small-mammal populations could increase small-mammal predation on songbirds

5. It can be inferred that the habitat preferences of raccoons and striped skunks affected the results of the experiment described in the passage for which of the following reasons?

(A) Songbird nests in the wetlands are usually located in places that most waterfowl-nest predators cannot reach.
(B) Raccoons and striped skunks are not usually found in areas where songbird nests tend to be located.
(C) Mice and ground squirrels tend to avoid predation by raccoons and striped skunks by remaining exclusively in the uplands.
(D) The populations of small mammals in the wetlands are usually controlled by larger waterfowl-nest predators such as raccoons and striped skunks.
(E) The waterfowl on which raccoons and striped skunks prey in the wetlands compete with songbirds for food.

Source: GMATPREP COMPREHENSIVE RC

Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest.

Surprisingly. They observed no significant effect on songbird nesting success. This may be due to several factors. Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests. Thus, their removal may not have led to significant increases in populations of smaller predators.

So raccoons do not eat small mammals which is in line with what was being told in the first paragraph...many predators eat mice which mean some does not..
Q2. Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence “Neither raccoons…songbird nests” in the context of the passage as a whole?

(A) It raises questions about the validity of a theory described in the first paragraph.---it does not raise doubt ...but rather simplify things
(B) It points out an oversimplification that is inherent in the argument presented in the first paragraph----to me the highlighted line just says what 1st paragraph says "mall mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators "...paraphrase so over simplification...
(C) It introduces information that may help explain the results of the experiment that are presented earlier in the paragraph----do we really want to explain the results...I thought it just simplification of the argument presented earlier...
(D) It provides a specific example of the type of data collected in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.----not a specific example of type of data collected
(E) It anticipates a potential objection to the conclusions drawn by the researchers involved in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.----no objection to any conclusion...in fact it confirm the premise that few may not consume small mammals.

Originally posted by pk123 on 22 Sep 2018, 05:05.
Last edited by pk123 on 23 Sep 2018, 04:32, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes [#permalink]
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3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe some procedures used for wildlife management and consider some problems associated with the execution of those procedures
(B) outline a problem related to a wildlife management procedure and offer potential explanations for the results of an experiment bearing on that problem
(C) present experimental results that illustrate the need for certain wildlife management procedures and point out some inconsistencies in those results
(D) argue that a certain procedure used for wildlife management should be modified because of its unintended consequences
(E) propose that further experiments be performed to assess the long-term effects of certain wildlife management procedures

Here we can directly eliminate C, D, and E as these are totally irrelevant.
Between A and B, the paragraph is telling about some problem with experimental procedure and its explanation hence the answer is B
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes [#permalink]
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mayursurya wrote:
reading time 3:39 min and question 6:14 min 4/5 correct.
can any one explain 1st question and post official explanation.

Here is my 2 cents about the 1st question

The question stem: "1. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the role played by ground squirrels in the ecology of grassland-wetland complexes? "
So i need to find the role played by ground squirrels in this ecology system mentioned in the paragraph

My approach is to find all the information about ground squirrels and concrete those information into my own answer before reading the given choices.

The 1st info about squirrel: Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest
=> Squirrels are important in the diet of waterfowl
The 2nd info: Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests

=> Squirrels are not in the diet of raccoons and striped skunks and once again, the author mentions squirrels are important source of food for predators of songbird nests (waterfowl)

Scan all the info, only A satisfy those above information
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes [#permalink]
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akanshaxo wrote:
Someone please explain question number 1?
I marked E.

Actually I also opted E but deep introspection by reading the passage again shows where I went wrong. Hope it helps you:

Per the passage there are two types of Predators ( refer P1) following lines:
Quote:
Although some wildlife management procedures directed at waterfowl, such as habitat enhancement or restoration, may also benefit songbirds, the impact of others, especially the control of waterfowl predators, remains difficult to predict. For example, most predators of waterfowl nests prey opportunistically on songbird nests, and removing these predators could directly increase songbird nesting success

Here, the opportunistic predation is done by one school of predators that are usually waterfowl predators feed on songbird nests opprotunistically

Now there are another school of predators, refer:
Quote:
Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nests. Thus, removing waterfowl-nest predators could affect songbird nesting success through subsequent increases in small-mammal populations.

So here they are. These are some predators that may or maybe same or different from the first school of predators but still the ground rabbits help the songbirds y giving up their lives.

So, in a way the opportunistic predation is not directly or indirectly be a contribution of those rabbits or squirrels.

It is indeed changing the behavior of WATERFOWL PREDATORS that will help control the opportunistic predation of Songbirds.

I hope I make sense.

Regards,
Rishav
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes [#permalink]
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devenmehta2006 wrote:

Hi, in part A of question 3,which says "describe some procedures used for wildlife management and consider some problems associated with the execution of those procedures" , the passage nowhere says that there is a problem with the execution of procedures.But says that the results are inconsistent as mention by option (B).

Hope that helps.
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes [#permalink]
JarvisR wrote:
Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes as waterfowl, particularly in a certain part of those complexes, namely, upland habitats surrounding wetlands. Although some wildlife management procedures directed at waterfowl, such as habitat enhancement or restoration, may also benefit songbirds, the impact of others, especially the control of waterfowl predators, remains difficult to predict. For example, most predators of waterfowl nests prey opportunistically on songbird nests, and removing these predators could directly increase songbird nesting success. Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest. Thus, removing waterfowl-nest predators could affect songbird nesting success through subsequent increases in small-mammal populations.

In 1995 and 1996, researchers trapped and removed certain waterfowl nest predators, primary raccoons and striped skunks, then observed subsequent survival rates for songbird nests. Surprisingly. They observed no significant effect on songbird nesting success. This may be due to several factors. Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests. Thus, their removal may not have led to significant increases in populations of smaller predators. Additionally, both raccoons and striped skunks prefer wetlands and spend little time in upland habitats; removing these species may not have increased the nesting success of songbirds in the uplands enough to allow detection.

1. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the role played by ground squirrels in the ecology of grassland-wetland complexes?

(A) While not important in the diet of raccoons or striped skunks, ground squirrels are a significant source of food for other waterfowl-nest predators.
(B) Whereas ground squirrels are typically important as predators of songbird nests, their opportunistic predation on waterfowl nests also has an observable effect on waterfowl nesting success.
(C) Although most waterfowl-nest predators prey on small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels, populations of ground squirrels tend to increase quickly enough to compensate for this level of predation.
(D) Although ground squirrels have been known to prey on songbird nests, a larger portion of their diets is usually provided by predation on waterfowl nests.
(E) Since larger predators tend to prefer small mammals to songbird eggs as a food source, a large population of ground squirrels plays an important role in controlling opportunistic predation on songbird nests.

2. Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence “Neither raccoons…songbird nests” in the context of the passage as a whole?

(A) It raises questions about the validity of a theory described in the first paragraph.
(B) It points out an oversimplification that is inherent in the argument presented in the first paragraph.
(C) It introduces information that may help explain the results of the experiment that are presented earlier in the paragraph.
(D) It provides a specific example of the type of data collected in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.
(E) It anticipates a potential objection to the conclusions drawn by the researchers involved in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.

3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe some procedures used for wildlife management and consider some problems associated with the execution of those procedures
(B) outline a problem related to a wildlife management procedure and offer potential explanations for the results of an experiment bearing on that problem
(C) present experimental results that illustrate the need for certain wildlife management procedures and point out some inconsistencies in those results
(D) argue that a certain procedure used for wildlife management should be modified because of its unintended consequences
(E) propose that further experiments be performed to assess the long-term effects of certain wildlife management procedures

4. The passage suggests that removing waterfowl-nest predators could possibly have a negative effect on songbird populations because

(A) songbird populations could then grow to unsustainable numbers
(B) small-mammal population could then move out of the uplands into wetland areas
(C) competition among remaining waterfowl-nest predators could decrease significantly
(D) a resulting increase in waterfowl populations could crowd out songbird populations
(E) a resulting increase in small-mammal populations could increase small-mammal predation on songbirds

5. It can be inferred that the habitat preferences of raccoons and striped skunks affected the results of the experiment described in the passage for which of the following reasons?

(A) Songbird nests in the wetlands are usually located in places that most waterfowl-nest predators cannot reach.
(B) Raccoons and striped skunks are not usually found in areas where songbird nests tend to be located.
(C) Mice and ground squirrels tend to avoid predation by raccoons and striped skunks by remaining exclusively in the uplands.
(D) The populations of small mammals in the wetlands are usually controlled by larger waterfowl-nest predators such as raccoons and striped skunks.
(E) The waterfowl on which raccoons and striped skunks prey in the wetlands compete with songbirds for food.

Can anyone help me to explain question 4, please?
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes [#permalink]
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regarding question 1.
this is typical of hard question.
for CR section, prethinking is a key to success. but for RC section, prethinking answer help us only in easy questions, which seldom appear. the key on RC is elimination. after understanding the passage, answering questions require more elimination than on prethinking.

the correct answer require a high level of inference from the information in a sentence in the passage, so, prethining and looking for a match dose not help for hard question.

the correct answer for question A comes from two sentences which are in two places, paragraph 1 and paragraph 2. so , prethinking can not help here.

we, instead, focus on elimination. find at least one wrong word in the answer choices to eliminate them. this job is more easy. we can find the wrong word/words in choice b,c,d and e.
when we are left with choice A. now we reread the passage and find out the place which yield the information for the answer. it is time consuming if the inference is high or come from two places (this case is question 1). now we can see that choice A is correct from the two sentences in the two paragraph.

if the difference between infomation in the correct answer and the information in the passage is close, prethinking and matching is good. and when we find a match, we can be confident , skimming the other choices and tick the match.

when the prethinking is impossible, we have to eliminate 4 choices. and then prove the remaining choice. we have to work on 5 choices, making inference 5 times. 4 times to eliminate and one time to confirm. this process can take you 4 or 5 time as much time as prethinking. so, hard question require you much more time than easy questions.
the takeaway is

be ready to eliminate 4 choices and reread the passage closely for the remaining answer choice, which has no error to eliminate.
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes [#permalink]
JarvisR wrote:
Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes as waterfowl, particularly in a certain part of those complexes, namely, upland habitats surrounding wetlands. Although some wildlife management procedures directed at waterfowl, such as habitat enhancement or restoration, may also benefit songbirds, the impact of others, especially the control of waterfowl predators, remains difficult to predict. For example, most predators of waterfowl nests prey opportunistically on songbird nests, and removing these predators could directly increase songbird nesting success. Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest. Thus, removing waterfowl-nest predators could affect songbird nesting success through subsequent increases in small-mammal populations.

In 1995 and 1996, researchers trapped and removed certain waterfowl-nest predators, primarily raccoons and striped skunks, then observed subsequent survival rates for songbird nests. Surprisingly, they observed no significant effect on songbird nesting success. This may be due to several factors. Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests. Thus, their removal may not have led to significant increases in populations of smaller predators. Additionally, both raccoons and striped skunks prefer wetlands and spend little time in upland habitats; removing these species may not have increased the nesting success of songbirds in the uplands enough to allow detection.

1. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the role played by ground squirrels in the ecology of grassland-wetland complexes?

(A) While not important in the diet of raccoons or striped skunks, ground squirrels are a significant source of food for other waterfowl-nest predators.
(B) Whereas ground squirrels are typically important as predators of songbird nests, their opportunistic predation on waterfowl nests also has an observable effect on waterfowl nesting success.
(C) Although most waterfowl-nest predators prey on small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels, populations of ground squirrels tend to increase quickly enough to compensate for this level of predation.
(D) Although ground squirrels have been known to prey on songbird nests, a larger portion of their diets is usually provided by predation on waterfowl nests.
(E) Since larger predators tend to prefer small mammals to songbird eggs as a food source, a large population of ground squirrels plays an important role in controlling opportunistic predation on songbird nests.

2. Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence “Neither raccoons…songbird nests” in the context of the passage as a whole?

(A) It raises questions about the validity of a theory described in the first paragraph.
(B) It points out an oversimplification that is inherent in the argument presented in the first paragraph.
(C) It introduces information that may help explain the results of the experiment that are presented earlier in the paragraph.
(D) It provides a specific example of the type of data collected in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.
(E) It anticipates a potential objection to the conclusions drawn by the researchers involved in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.

3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe some procedures used for wildlife management and consider some problems associated with the execution of those procedures
(B) outline a problem related to a wildlife management procedure and offer potential explanations for the results of an experiment bearing on that problem
(C) present experimental results that illustrate the need for certain wildlife management procedures and point out some inconsistencies in those results
(D) argue that a certain procedure used for wildlife management should be modified because of its unintended consequences
(E) propose that further experiments be performed to assess the long-term effects of certain wildlife management procedures

4. The passage suggests that removing waterfowl-nest predators could possibly have a negative effect on songbird populations because

(A) songbird populations could then grow to unsustainable numbers
(B) small-mammal population could then move out of the uplands into wetland areas
(C) competition among remaining waterfowl-nest predators could decrease significantly
(D) a resulting increase in waterfowl populations could crowd out songbird populations
(E) a resulting increase in small-mammal populations could increase small-mammal predation on songbirds

5. It can be inferred that the habitat preferences of raccoons and striped skunks affected the results of the experiment described in the passage for which of the following reasons?

(A) Songbird nests in the wetlands are usually located in places that most waterfowl-nest predators cannot reach.
(B) Raccoons and striped skunks are not usually found in areas where songbird nests tend to be located.
(C) Mice and ground squirrels tend to avoid predation by raccoons and striped skunks by remaining exclusively in the uplands.
(D) The populations of small mammals in the wetlands are usually controlled by larger waterfowl-nest predators such as raccoons and striped skunks.
(E) The waterfowl on which raccoons and striped skunks prey in the wetlands compete with songbirds for food.

DmitryFarber BrightOutlookJenn GMATNinja Can you please comment on Question 1? I took a long time on the question and still got it wrong. How would you approach this question? Tks!
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes [#permalink]
Will2020 wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes as waterfowl, particularly in a certain part of those complexes, namely, upland habitats surrounding wetlands. Although some wildlife management procedures directed at waterfowl, such as habitat enhancement or restoration, may also benefit songbirds, the impact of others, especially the control of waterfowl predators, remains difficult to predict. For example, most predators of waterfowl nests prey opportunistically on songbird nests, and removing these predators could directly increase songbird nesting success. Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest. Thus, removing waterfowl-nest predators could affect songbird nesting success through subsequent increases in small-mammal populations.

In 1995 and 1996, researchers trapped and removed certain waterfowl-nest predators, primarily raccoons and striped skunks, then observed subsequent survival rates for songbird nests. Surprisingly, they observed no significant effect on songbird nesting success. This may be due to several factors. Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests. Thus, their removal may not have led to significant increases in populations of smaller predators. Additionally, both raccoons and striped skunks prefer wetlands and spend little time in upland habitats; removing these species may not have increased the nesting success of songbirds in the uplands enough to allow detection.

1. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the role played by ground squirrels in the ecology of grassland-wetland complexes?

(A) While not important in the diet of raccoons or striped skunks, ground squirrels are a significant source of food for other waterfowl-nest predators.
(B) Whereas ground squirrels are typically important as predators of songbird nests, their opportunistic predation on waterfowl nests also has an observable effect on waterfowl nesting success.
(C) Although most waterfowl-nest predators prey on small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels, populations of ground squirrels tend to increase quickly enough to compensate for this level of predation.
(D) Although ground squirrels have been known to prey on songbird nests, a larger portion of their diets is usually provided by predation on waterfowl nests.
(E) Since larger predators tend to prefer small mammals to songbird eggs as a food source, a large population of ground squirrels plays an important role in controlling opportunistic predation on songbird nests.

2. Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence “Neither raccoons…songbird nests” in the context of the passage as a whole?

(A) It raises questions about the validity of a theory described in the first paragraph.
(B) It points out an oversimplification that is inherent in the argument presented in the first paragraph.
(C) It introduces information that may help explain the results of the experiment that are presented earlier in the paragraph.
(D) It provides a specific example of the type of data collected in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.
(E) It anticipates a potential objection to the conclusions drawn by the researchers involved in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.

3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe some procedures used for wildlife management and consider some problems associated with the execution of those procedures
(B) outline a problem related to a wildlife management procedure and offer potential explanations for the results of an experiment bearing on that problem
(C) present experimental results that illustrate the need for certain wildlife management procedures and point out some inconsistencies in those results
(D) argue that a certain procedure used for wildlife management should be modified because of its unintended consequences
(E) propose that further experiments be performed to assess the long-term effects of certain wildlife management procedures

4. The passage suggests that removing waterfowl-nest predators could possibly have a negative effect on songbird populations because

(A) songbird populations could then grow to unsustainable numbers
(B) small-mammal population could then move out of the uplands into wetland areas
(C) competition among remaining waterfowl-nest predators could decrease significantly
(D) a resulting increase in waterfowl populations could crowd out songbird populations
(E) a resulting increase in small-mammal populations could increase small-mammal predation on songbirds

5. It can be inferred that the habitat preferences of raccoons and striped skunks affected the results of the experiment described in the passage for which of the following reasons?

(A) Songbird nests in the wetlands are usually located in places that most waterfowl-nest predators cannot reach.
(B) Raccoons and striped skunks are not usually found in areas where songbird nests tend to be located.
(C) Mice and ground squirrels tend to avoid predation by raccoons and striped skunks by remaining exclusively in the uplands.
(D) The populations of small mammals in the wetlands are usually controlled by larger waterfowl-nest predators such as raccoons and striped skunks.
(E) The waterfowl on which raccoons and striped skunks prey in the wetlands compete with songbirds for food.

DmitryFarber BrightOutlookJenn GMATNinja Can you please comment on Question 1? I took a long time on the question and still got it wrong. How would you approach this question? Tks!

Quote:
Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest.

Quote:
Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests.

1. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the role played by ground squirrels in the ecology of grassland-wetland complexes?

(A) While not important in the diet of raccoons or striped skunks, ground squirrels are a significant source of food for other waterfowl-nest predators.
ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators but Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels- matching as it is - correct

(B) Whereas ground squirrels are typically important as predators of songbird nests, their opportunistic predation on waterfowl nests also has an observable effect on waterfowl nesting success.
Nothing is mentioned in passage about nesting success of waterfowl- reject

(C) Although most waterfowl-nest predators prey on small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels, populations of ground squirrels tend to increase quickly enough to compensate for this level of predation.
Increase of population is not mentioned in the passage about squirrels-reject

(D) Although ground squirrels have been known to prey on songbird nests, a larger portion of their diets is usually provided by predation on waterfowl nests.
We don’t know about their diets- reject

(E) Since larger predators tend to prefer small mammals to songbird eggs as a food source, a large population of ground squirrels plays an important role in controlling opportunistic predation on songbird nests.
large population of ground squirrels COULD play an important role in controlling opportunistic predation on songbird nests. But nothing is mentioned about larger predators tend to prefer small mammals to songbird eggs as a food source.-reject
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Question 1: Choice A says "While not important in the diet of raccoons or striped skunk" . however in passage it is mentioned "Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels". should we not infer that ground squirrels are not a part of raccoons diet. Isn't "not important" wrong?
Because of this I chose D. although, I know why D is wrong. May be A is not the perfect but the best available choice.
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Choose A in my first attempt. Here my correction :

3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe some procedures used for wildlife management and consider some problems associated with the execution of those procedures
Problems came out only in experiment. according to researchers, they didn't expect to see surprising results.
(B) outline a problem related to a wildlife management procedure and offer potential explanations for the results of an experiment bearing on that problem
Surprisingly, they observed no significant effect on songbird nesting success. and 2nd part of 2nd para explains the reasons.
(C) present experimental results that illustrate the need for certain wildlife management procedures and point out some inconsistencies in those results
Experiment was not done to illustrate the need of a wildlife management procedure but it was done on the expectations of results/
(D) argue that a certain procedure used for wildlife management should be modified because of its unintended consequences
No suggestions from the author or anyone by the end
(E) propose that further experiments be performed to assess the long-term effects of certain wildlife management procedures
no such discussion by the end of passage

hence B is correct answer after precise understanding.
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i am having hard time understanding the context of the passage. in some 700 plus passages my score is 80% and in some easy going passages i dont even understand the text could not understand what is wrong with me. (((
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query,
q2 what makes option c different from option a?
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Why can't A or B be the correct answers?

- Option A says that it proves a theory mentioned in paragraph 1 to be invalid. This is true right?

"Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest"

But then paragraph 2 says that two specific predators do not actually eat small mammals. Isn't this a violation of the theory mentioned in the paragraph 1?

- Option B talks about an oversimplification. There actually seems to be an oversimplification present right? In the sense that the predator-small mammal relationship has been thought/said to be true for all predators, but we're told in paragraph 2 that it is not actually true for all predators

Would be great if one of you could help. Thanks in advance!
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