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Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes

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Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 06 Aug 2019, 03:31
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Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes as waterfowl, particularly in a certain part of those complexes, namely, upland habitats surrounding wetlands. Although some wildlife management procedures directed at waterfowl, such as habitat enhancement or restoration, may also benefit songbirds, the impact of others, especially the control of waterfowl predators, remains difficult to predict. For example, most predators of waterfowl nests prey opportunistically on songbird nests, and removing these predators could directly increase songbird nesting success. Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest. Thus, removing waterfowl-nest predators could affect songbird nesting success through subsequent increases in small-mammal populations.

In 1995 and 1996, researchers trapped and removed certain waterfowl nest predators, primary raccoons and striped skunks, then observed subsequent survival rates for songbird nests. Surprisingly. They observed no significant effect on songbird nesting success. This may be due to several factors. Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests. Thus, their removal may not have led to significant increases in populations of smaller predators. Additionally, both raccoons and striped skunks prefer wetlands and spend little time in upland habitats; removing these species may not have increased the nesting success of songbirds in the uplands enough to allow detection.


1. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the role played by ground squirrels in the ecology of grassland-wetland complexes?

(A) While not important in the diet of raccoons or striped skunks, ground squirrels are a significant source of food for other waterfowl-nest predators.
(B) Whereas ground squirrels are typically important as predators of songbird nests, their opportunistic predation on waterfowl nests also has an observable effect on waterfowl nesting success.
(C) Although most waterfowl-nest predators prey on small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels, populations of ground squirrels tend to increase quickly enough to compensate for this level of predation.
(D) Although ground squirrels have been known to prey on songbird nests, a larger portion of their diets is usually provided by predation on waterfowl nests.
(E) Since larger predators tend to prefer small mammals to songbird eggs as a food source, a large population of ground squirrels plays an important role in controlling opportunistic predation on songbird nests.



2. Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence “Neither raccoons…songbird nests” in the context of the passage as a whole?

(A) It raises questions about the validity of a theory described in the first paragraph.
(B) It points out an oversimplification that is inherent in the argument presented in the first paragraph.
(C) It introduces information that may help explain the results of the experiment that are presented earlier in the paragraph.
(D) It provides a specific example of the type of data collected in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.
(E) It anticipates a potential objection to the conclusions drawn by the researchers involved in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.



3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe some procedures used for wildlife management and consider some problems associated with the execution of those procedures
(B) outline a problem related to a wildlife management procedure and offer potential explanations for the results of an experiment bearing on that problem
(C) present experimental results that illustrate the need for certain wildlife management procedures and point out some inconsistencies in those results
(D) argue that a certain procedure used for wildlife management should be modified because of its unintended consequences
(E) propose that further experiments be performed to assess the long-term effects of certain wildlife management procedures



4. The passage suggests that removing waterfowl-nest predators could possibly have a negative effect on songbird populations because

(A) songbird populations could then grow to unsustainable numbers
(B) small-mammal population could then move out of the uplands into wetland areas
(C) competition among remaining waterfowl-nest predators could decrease significantly
(D) a resulting increase in waterfowl populations could crowd out songbird populations
(E) a resulting increase in small-mammal populations could increase small-mammal predation on songbirds



5. It can be inferred that the habitat preferences of raccoons and striped skunks affected the results of the experiment described in the passage for which of the following reasons?

(A) Songbird nests in the wetlands are usually located in places that most waterfowl-nest predators cannot reach.
(B) Raccoons and striped skunks are not usually found in areas where songbird nests tend to be located.
(C) Mice and ground squirrels tend to avoid predation by raccoons and striped skunks by remaining exclusively in the uplands.
(D) The populations of small mammals in the wetlands are usually controlled by larger waterfowl-nest predators such as raccoons and striped skunks.
(E) The waterfowl on which raccoons and striped skunks prey in the wetlands compete with songbirds for food.


Originally posted by JarvisR on 16 Jun 2015, 10:33.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 06 Aug 2019, 03:31, edited 1 time in total.
Updated complete topic (89).
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2017, 17:20
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1)"small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nests". "Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests."
It means the ground squirrles are not eaten by racoons or skunks but they play a very important role in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators.So, if you combine above two statements you can see that only option that matches is A.
"While not important in the diet of raccoons or striped skunks, ground squirrels are a significant source of food for other waterfowl-nest predators."
2)Researchers conducted some random experiment but it doesn't lead to a conclusion or their prediction which they were looking for and several factors are considered before this highlighted bold part and this flow of pattern exactly matches with option C.
"It introduces information that may help explain the results of the experiment that are presented earlier in the paragraph".
3)The author predicts the following chain of events
removal of waterfowl predators ---> proliferation of small animals ---> negative impact on songbird nesting
But the removal of the waterfowl predators doesn't have the predicted impact. Lines 34-37 help explain why the predicted impact didn't happen. There's no potential objection to a conclusion. In other words, no one is refuting an idea in the abstract. There's just an experiment with an unexpected result that requires an explanation. Hence B.
"outline a problem related to a wildlife management procedure and offer potential explanations for the results of an experiment bearing on that problem".
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2018, 05:15
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Took me 10:35 to solve all 5. Got all correct :)

Abbreviated the creatures as GS, WF, P (WF predators), and sq (squirrels). P' for predators in the study described in the second paragraph, since they are a subset of P and don't really eat sq.

Notes looked like this:

1. effect of things done for WF may have mixed results
-remove P, inc GS
-P kill sq; remove P; sq kills GS

2. exp. and explanation:
-removed P': GS - no change
-reason given: P' don't eat sq. so doesn't matter (also P' live in diff area)

I think that somewhat helps.
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New post 17 Aug 2018, 02:10
5. It can be inferred that the habitat preferences of raccoons and striped skunks affected the results of the experiment described in the passage for which of the following reasons?

(A) Songbird nests in the wetlands are usually located in places that most waterfowl-nest predators cannot reach.
(B) Raccoons and striped skunks are not usually found in areas where songbird nests tend to be located.
(C) Mice and ground squirrels tend to avoid predation by raccoons and striped skunks by remaining exclusively in the uplands.
(D) The populations of small mammals in the wetlands are usually controlled by larger waterfowl-nest predators such as raccoons and striped skunks.
(E) The waterfowl on which raccoons and striped skunks prey in the wetlands compete with songbirds for food.

Can anyone explain the Option B?.
I didn't find any information related to option B in the entire passage.
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2018, 03:46
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Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes as waterfowl, particularly in a certain part of those complexes, namely, upland habitats surrounding wetlands. Although some wildlife management procedures directed at waterfowl, such as habitat enhancement or restoration, may also benefit songbirds, the impact of others, especially the control of waterfowl predators, remains difficult to predict. For example, most predators of waterfowl nests prey opportunistically on songbird nests, and removing these predators could directly increase songbird nesting success. Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest. Thus, removing waterfowl-nest predators could affect songbird nesting success through subsequent increases in small-mammal populations.

In 1995 and 1996, researchers trapped and removed certain waterfowl nest predators, primary raccoons and striped skunks, then observed subsequent survival rates for songbird nests. Surprisingly. They observed no significant effect on songbird nesting success. This may be due to several factors. Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests. Thus, their removal may not have led to significant increases in populations of smaller predators. Additionally, both raccoons and striped skunks prefer wetlands and spend little time in upland habitats; removing these species may not have increased the nesting success of songbirds in the uplands enough to allow detection.

avinash2235 I've italicized the relevant portion for you. Hope it helps.
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 23 Sep 2018, 04:32
JarvisR wrote:
Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes as waterfowl, particularly in a certain part of those complexes, namely, upland habitats surrounding wetlands. Although some wildlife management procedures directed at waterfowl, such as habitat enhancement or restoration, may also benefit songbirds, the impact of others, especially the control of waterfowl predators, remains difficult to predict. For example, most predators of waterfowl nests prey opportunistically on songbird nests, and removing these predators could directly increase songbird nesting success. Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest. Thus, removing waterfowl-nest predators could affect songbird nesting success through subsequent increases in small-mammal populations.

In 1995 and 1996, researchers trapped and removed certain waterfowl nest predators, primary raccoons and striped skunks, then observed subsequent survival rates for songbird nests. Surprisingly. They observed no significant effect on songbird nesting success. This may be due to several factors. Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests. Thus, their removal may not have led to significant increases in populations of smaller predators. Additionally, both raccoons and striped skunks prefer wetlands and spend little time in upland habitats; removing these species may not have increased the nesting success of songbirds in the uplands enough to allow detection.

1. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the role played by ground squirrels in the ecology of grassland-wetland complexes?

(A) While not important in the diet of raccoons or striped skunks, ground squirrels are a significant source of food for other waterfowl-nest predators.
(B) Whereas ground squirrels are typically important as predators of songbird nests, their opportunistic predation on waterfowl nests also has an observable effect on waterfowl nesting success.
(C) Although most waterfowl-nest predators prey on small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels, populations of ground squirrels tend to increase quickly enough to compensate for this level of predation.
(D) Although ground squirrels have been known to prey on songbird nests, a larger portion of their diets is usually provided by predation on waterfowl nests.
(E) Since larger predators tend to prefer small mammals to songbird eggs as a food source, a large population of ground squirrels plays an important role in controlling opportunistic predation on songbird nests.



2. Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence “Neither raccoons…songbird nests” in the context of the passage as a whole?

(A) It raises questions about the validity of a theory described in the first paragraph.
(B) It points out an oversimplification that is inherent in the argument presented in the first paragraph.
(C) It introduces information that may help explain the results of the experiment that are presented earlier in the paragraph.
(D) It provides a specific example of the type of data collected in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.
(E) It anticipates a potential objection to the conclusions drawn by the researchers involved in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.



3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe some procedures used for wildlife management and consider some problems associated with the execution of those procedures
(B) outline a problem related to a wildlife management procedure and offer potential explanations for the results of an experiment bearing on that problem
(C) present experimental results that illustrate the need for certain wildlife management procedures and point out some inconsistencies in those results
(D) argue that a certain procedure used for wildlife management should be modified because of its unintended consequences
(E) propose that further experiments be performed to assess the long-term effects of certain wildlife management procedures



4. The passage suggests that removing waterfowl-nest predators could possibly have a negative effect on songbird populations because

(A) songbird populations could then grow to unsustainable numbers
(B) small-mammal population could then move out of the uplands into wetland areas
(C) competition among remaining waterfowl-nest predators could decrease significantly
(D) a resulting increase in waterfowl populations could crowd out songbird populations
(E) a resulting increase in small-mammal populations could increase small-mammal predation on songbirds



5. It can be inferred that the habitat preferences of raccoons and striped skunks affected the results of the experiment described in the passage for which of the following reasons?

(A) Songbird nests in the wetlands are usually located in places that most waterfowl-nest predators cannot reach.
(B) Raccoons and striped skunks are not usually found in areas where songbird nests tend to be located.
(C) Mice and ground squirrels tend to avoid predation by raccoons and striped skunks by remaining exclusively in the uplands.
(D) The populations of small mammals in the wetlands are usually controlled by larger waterfowl-nest predators such as raccoons and striped skunks.
(E) The waterfowl on which raccoons and striped skunks prey in the wetlands compete with songbirds for food.



Source: GMATPREP COMPREHENSIVE RC


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Can someone please explain Q2?
Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest.

Surprisingly. They observed no significant effect on songbird nesting success. This may be due to several factors. Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests. Thus, their removal may not have led to significant increases in populations of smaller predators.

So raccoons do not eat small mammals which is in line with what was being told in the first paragraph...many predators eat mice which mean some does not..
Q2. Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence “Neither raccoons…songbird nests” in the context of the passage as a whole?

(A) It raises questions about the validity of a theory described in the first paragraph.---it does not raise doubt ...but rather simplify things
(B) It points out an oversimplification that is inherent in the argument presented in the first paragraph----to me the highlighted line just says what 1st paragraph says "mall mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators "...paraphrase so over simplification...
(C) It introduces information that may help explain the results of the experiment that are presented earlier in the paragraph----do we really want to explain the results...I thought it just simplification of the argument presented earlier...
(D) It provides a specific example of the type of data collected in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.----not a specific example of type of data collected
(E) It anticipates a potential objection to the conclusions drawn by the researchers involved in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.----no objection to any conclusion...in fact it confirm the premise that few may not consume small mammals.

Originally posted by pk123 on 22 Sep 2018, 05:05.
Last edited by pk123 on 23 Sep 2018, 04:32, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2018, 00:11
2
3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe some procedures used for wildlife management and consider some problems associated with the execution of those procedures
(B) outline a problem related to a wildlife management procedure and offer potential explanations for the results of an experiment bearing on that problem
(C) present experimental results that illustrate the need for certain wildlife management procedures and point out some inconsistencies in those results
(D) argue that a certain procedure used for wildlife management should be modified because of its unintended consequences
(E) propose that further experiments be performed to assess the long-term effects of certain wildlife management procedures

Here we can directly eliminate C, D, and E as these are totally irrelevant.
Between A and B, the paragraph is telling about some problem with experimental procedure and its explanation hence the answer is B
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New post 25 Oct 2018, 22:21
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mayursurya wrote:
reading time 3:39 min and question 6:14 min 4/5 correct.
can any one explain 1st question and post official explanation.

Here is my 2 cents about the 1st question

The question stem: "1. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the role played by ground squirrels in the ecology of grassland-wetland complexes? "
So i need to find the role played by ground squirrels in this ecology system mentioned in the paragraph

My approach is to find all the information about ground squirrels and concrete those information into my own answer before reading the given choices.

The 1st info about squirrel: Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest
=> Squirrels are important in the diet of waterfowl
The 2nd info: Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests

=> Squirrels are not in the diet of raccoons and striped skunks and once again, the author mentions squirrels are important source of food for predators of songbird nests (waterfowl)

Scan all the info, only A satisfy those above information
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 10:25
1
akanshaxo wrote:
Someone please explain question number 1?
I marked E.

Actually I also opted E but deep introspection by reading the passage again shows where I went wrong. Hope it helps you:

Per the passage there are two types of Predators ( refer P1) following lines:
Quote:
Although some wildlife management procedures directed at waterfowl, such as habitat enhancement or restoration, may also benefit songbirds, the impact of others, especially the control of waterfowl predators, remains difficult to predict. For example, most predators of waterfowl nests prey opportunistically on songbird nests, and removing these predators could directly increase songbird nesting success


Here, the opportunistic predation is done by one school of predators that are usually waterfowl predators feed on songbird nests opprotunistically

Now there are another school of predators, refer:
Quote:
Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nests. Thus, removing waterfowl-nest predators could affect songbird nesting success through subsequent increases in small-mammal populations.


So here they are. These are some predators that may or maybe same or different from the first school of predators but still the ground rabbits help the songbirds y giving up their lives.

So, in a way the opportunistic predation is not directly or indirectly be a contribution of those rabbits or squirrels.

It is indeed changing the behavior of WATERFOWL PREDATORS that will help control the opportunistic predation of Songbirds.

I hope I make sense.

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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2019, 21:36
devenmehta2006 wrote:
Can someone please help in explaining between A and B in Q3?


Hi, in part A of question 3,which says "describe some procedures used for wildlife management and consider some problems associated with the execution of those procedures" , the passage nowhere says that there is a problem with the execution of procedures.But says that the results are inconsistent as mention by option (B).

Hope that helps.
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2019, 07:42
JarvisR wrote:
Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes as waterfowl, particularly in a certain part of those complexes, namely, upland habitats surrounding wetlands. Although some wildlife management procedures directed at waterfowl, such as habitat enhancement or restoration, may also benefit songbirds, the impact of others, especially the control of waterfowl predators, remains difficult to predict. For example, most predators of waterfowl nests prey opportunistically on songbird nests, and removing these predators could directly increase songbird nesting success. Alternatively, small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels are important in the diet of many waterfowl-nest predators and can themselves be important predators of songbird nest. Thus, removing waterfowl-nest predators could affect songbird nesting success through subsequent increases in small-mammal populations.

In 1995 and 1996, researchers trapped and removed certain waterfowl nest predators, primary raccoons and striped skunks, then observed subsequent survival rates for songbird nests. Surprisingly. They observed no significant effect on songbird nesting success. This may be due to several factors. Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests. Thus, their removal may not have led to significant increases in populations of smaller predators. Additionally, both raccoons and striped skunks prefer wetlands and spend little time in upland habitats; removing these species may not have increased the nesting success of songbirds in the uplands enough to allow detection.

1. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the role played by ground squirrels in the ecology of grassland-wetland complexes?

(A) While not important in the diet of raccoons or striped skunks, ground squirrels are a significant source of food for other waterfowl-nest predators.
(B) Whereas ground squirrels are typically important as predators of songbird nests, their opportunistic predation on waterfowl nests also has an observable effect on waterfowl nesting success.
(C) Although most waterfowl-nest predators prey on small mammals such as mice and ground squirrels, populations of ground squirrels tend to increase quickly enough to compensate for this level of predation.
(D) Although ground squirrels have been known to prey on songbird nests, a larger portion of their diets is usually provided by predation on waterfowl nests.
(E) Since larger predators tend to prefer small mammals to songbird eggs as a food source, a large population of ground squirrels plays an important role in controlling opportunistic predation on songbird nests.



2. Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence “Neither raccoons…songbird nests” in the context of the passage as a whole?

(A) It raises questions about the validity of a theory described in the first paragraph.
(B) It points out an oversimplification that is inherent in the argument presented in the first paragraph.
(C) It introduces information that may help explain the results of the experiment that are presented earlier in the paragraph.
(D) It provides a specific example of the type of data collected in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.
(E) It anticipates a potential objection to the conclusions drawn by the researchers involved in the experiment described earlier in the paragraph.



3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe some procedures used for wildlife management and consider some problems associated with the execution of those procedures
(B) outline a problem related to a wildlife management procedure and offer potential explanations for the results of an experiment bearing on that problem
(C) present experimental results that illustrate the need for certain wildlife management procedures and point out some inconsistencies in those results
(D) argue that a certain procedure used for wildlife management should be modified because of its unintended consequences
(E) propose that further experiments be performed to assess the long-term effects of certain wildlife management procedures



4. The passage suggests that removing waterfowl-nest predators could possibly have a negative effect on songbird populations because

(A) songbird populations could then grow to unsustainable numbers
(B) small-mammal population could then move out of the uplands into wetland areas
(C) competition among remaining waterfowl-nest predators could decrease significantly
(D) a resulting increase in waterfowl populations could crowd out songbird populations
(E) a resulting increase in small-mammal populations could increase small-mammal predation on songbirds



5. It can be inferred that the habitat preferences of raccoons and striped skunks affected the results of the experiment described in the passage for which of the following reasons?

(A) Songbird nests in the wetlands are usually located in places that most waterfowl-nest predators cannot reach.
(B) Raccoons and striped skunks are not usually found in areas where songbird nests tend to be located.
(C) Mice and ground squirrels tend to avoid predation by raccoons and striped skunks by remaining exclusively in the uplands.
(D) The populations of small mammals in the wetlands are usually controlled by larger waterfowl-nest predators such as raccoons and striped skunks.
(E) The waterfowl on which raccoons and striped skunks prey in the wetlands compete with songbirds for food.


Can anyone help me to explain question 4, please?
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2019, 02:28
regarding question 1.
this is typical of hard question.
for CR section, prethinking is a key to success. but for RC section, prethinking answer help us only in easy questions, which seldom appear. the key on RC is elimination. after understanding the passage, answering questions require more elimination than on prethinking.

the correct answer require a high level of inference from the information in a sentence in the passage, so, prethining and looking for a match dose not help for hard question.

the correct answer for question A comes from two sentences which are in two places, paragraph 1 and paragraph 2. so , prethinking can not help here.

we, instead, focus on elimination. find at least one wrong word in the answer choices to eliminate them. this job is more easy. we can find the wrong word/words in choice b,c,d and e.
when we are left with choice A. now we reread the passage and find out the place which yield the information for the answer. it is time consuming if the inference is high or come from two places (this case is question 1). now we can see that choice A is correct from the two sentences in the two paragraph.

if the difference between infomation in the correct answer and the information in the passage is close, prethinking and matching is good. and when we find a match, we can be confident , skimming the other choices and tick the match.

when the prethinking is impossible, we have to eliminate 4 choices. and then prove the remaining choice. we have to work on 5 choices, making inference 5 times. 4 times to eliminate and one time to confirm. this process can take you 4 or 5 time as much time as prethinking. so, hard question require you much more time than easy questions.
the takeaway is

be ready to eliminate 4 choices and reread the passage closely for the remaining answer choice, which has no error to eliminate.
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Re: Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes   [#permalink] 06 Oct 2019, 02:28
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Grassland songbirds often nest in the same grassland-wetland complexes

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