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Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish

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Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish  [#permalink]

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Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish that gather beneath thin sheets of floating ice, and they nest on nearby lands. Guillemots need 80 consecutive snow free days in a year to raise their chicks, so until avrage temperature in arctic began to rise recently, the guillemots' range was limited to the southernmost arctic coast. Therefore, if the warming continues, the guillemots' range will probably be enlarged by being extended northward along the coast...

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the the argument?

A. Even if the warming trend continues, there will still be years in which guillemots chicks are killed by an unusually early snow.
B. If Arctic warming continues, guillemots' current predators are likely to succeed in extending their own range farther north
C. Guillemots nest in coastal areas, where tempratures are generally higher than inland areas.
D. If the Arctic warming continues much of the thin ice in southern arctic will disappear.
E. The fish that guillemots eat are currently preyed on by wider variety of predators in southernmost arctic regions than they are farther north.

Originally posted by GODSPEED on 07 Aug 2009, 20:39.
Last edited by GODSPEED on 31 Jul 2012, 00:34, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26]  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2011, 06:42
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Lets analyze the answer choices and see which one stands scrutiny. To find the choice which weakens the argument, we need to select the choice that provides evidence that the birds' range will not be extended.

(A): The keyword here is 'still'. If there are years now when the chicks are being killed by early snow, has it wiped out the birds? No. Therefore if conditions are favorable it cannot act as an impediment to their range expansion. Incorrect.
(B): Guillemots have been co-existing with their predators where they currently live. If the predators migrate northwards, why will this stop the birds from doing so too? Incorrect.
(C): If temperatures are rising then they will be higher than they are now in inland areas too, possibly allowing the birds to live there. Incorrect.
(D): CORRECT. If the ice in the southern arctic disappears, the birds will be forced to move northwards. However, their RANGE will not be extended as they will just shift from a more southern to a more northern point. There is no evidence that says that they will live over longer stretches of land.
(E): This means there will be more fish for the birds to eat in the North. This supports the conclusion that they will move north and extend their range.
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26]  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2009, 04:27
D for me.
If the warming continues, the range of the birds will either decrease or remain constant and NOT increase.
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26]  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2009, 07:41
IMO B

D actually strengthens the argument.
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26]  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2009, 18:41
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I would go with D.

If warming continues and thin ice in southern arctic disappears, birds would be displaced from south to north. So range is not extended.
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26]  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2009, 21:46
Debated over D & E....E seems to be a strong contender....why not E?
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26]  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2009, 02:51
i think (a).
the argument depends on the assumption that as warming continues, there will be more 80 conseutive snow-free days which will increase the population. however, going from 40 snow days and 40 snow-free days to 79 snow-free days and 1 snow day is still considered warming, but the chicks won't survive because of that 1 snow day.
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26]  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2009, 03:05
i think there is too much assumption with this one. Also it is talking about range expansion. The population need not expand for the range to expand.


seongbae wrote:
i think (a).
the argument depends on the assumption that as warming continues, there will be more 80 conseutive snow-free days which will increase the population. however, going from 40 snow days and 40 snow-free days to 79 snow-free days and 1 snow day is still considered warming, but the chicks won't survive because of that 1 snow day.

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26]  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2009, 08:27
OA is D.....

Why not E? Can anybody explain? I do have my reasons......but want to be doubly sure.

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26]  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2009, 10:02
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GODSPEED wrote:
OA is D.....

Why not E? Can anybody explain? I do have my reasons......but want to be doubly sure.

Cheers!


In the weaken type of question it is important to correctly identify a conclusion and then attack it. It is a mistake to attack premises of the argument (at least for GMAT). in our question the conclusion is:

Therefore, if the warming continues, the guillemots' range will probably be enlarged by being extended northward along the coast...


So the correct answer would be undermining that "the birds' range will be enlarged"
Try to read E. Does the fact that the fish eaten by guillemots is also eaten by other predators in the southernmost (where the bird live now) threaten their existense/spread to the north? NO. Instead it highlights that there more predators in the southernmost and states that the birds will have more food ie less competition in the north. So it sounds more like a supporting answer to me rather than a weakening one.

E. The fish that guillemots eat are currently preyed on by wider variety of predators in southernmost arctic regions than they are farther north.

Hope my clarification was coherent.
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26]  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2011, 05:47
The keyword here is snow free not snow filled.. Haha

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26]  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2011, 06:15
E) actually strengthens right? It says in the southernmost region there are more predators than in north. All the more reason to move north for the guillemots as is put forward by the claim.
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2013, 06:04
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an explanation could be since the premise says "Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish that gather beneath thin sheets of floating ice, and they nest on nearby lands." --> D suggests that if this ice has melted, it becomes easier to feed on fishes hence no reason to move northward
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2013, 18:02
ashwintthomas wrote:
an explanation could be since the premise says "Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish that gather beneath thin sheets of floating ice, and they nest on nearby lands." --> D suggests that if this ice has melted, it becomes easier to feed on fishes hence no reason to move northward


I read it as they feed on fish that gather beneath thin sheets of floating ice; if those sheets of ice disappear then so too do those fish they feed on. This would actually prevent them from expanding their range.
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2013, 20:34
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I choose D.
First, I will break down the stimulus.
Premise 1: Guillemots feed on fish beneath thin sheets of floating ice, and nest on nearby lands.
Premise 2: Guillemots need 80 consecutive snow free days to raise their chicks, presently, the guillemots' range was limited to the southernmost arctic coast.
Conclusion: if the warming continues, the guillemots' range will probably be enlarged by being extended northward along the coast.
We can see that this is a Cause n Effect reasoning. The warming => the guillemots' range will probably be enlarged by being extended northward

This is a weaken question type and we must identify an answer which shows that when the cause occurs, the effect doesnt occur or reversely or find an alternative cause for the effect...just as the method of CR Bible.
A) Even if the warming trend continues, there will still be years in which guillemots chicks are killed by an unusually early snow.
=> This doesnt effect the conclusion much because the conclusion tells us the guillemots come to grow in the northward.
B) If Arctic warming continues, guillemots' current predators are likely to succeed in extending their own range farther north
=> It is too far if we infer that guillemots' current predators succeeded in moving farther north and control the population of the guillemots there. And in this answer, the word is "likely" not "surely".
C) Guillemots nest in coastal areas, where tempratures are generally higher than inland areas.
=> OOS. The argument makes no statement about inland areas or any comparision between inland n costal areas.
D) If the Arctic warming continues much of the thin ice in southern arctic will disappear.
=> Thin ice disappear => birth moves from south to north, So, the guillemots' range wont be enlarged. This shows that when the cause occurs the effect doesnot occur. So it is a Contender.
E) The fish that guillemots eat are currently preyed on by wider variety of predators in southernmost arctic regions than they are farther north.
=> This actually strengthens the argument. Because the fish is more abundant in the north. if the birds move to the north, they will surely enlarge their range.

D is the correct answer.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2014, 06:04
AccipiterQ wrote:
ashwintthomas wrote:
an explanation could be since the premise says "Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish that gather beneath thin sheets of floating ice, and they nest on nearby lands." --> D suggests that if this ice has melted, it becomes easier to feed on fishes hence no reason to move northward


I read it as they feed on fish that gather beneath thin sheets of floating ice; if those sheets of ice disappear then so too do those fish they feed on. This would actually prevent them from expanding their range.


I understood it the same way as you did/ Even though I chose the correct answer choice, I don't really get what the logic of the argument is. Would someone please clarify what is going on here?

I will be happy to provide some Kudos for good answers
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2014, 21:34
GODSPEED wrote:
Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish that gather beneath thin sheets of floating ice, and they nest on nearby lands. Guillemots need 80 consecutive snow free days in a year to raise their chicks, so until avrage temperature in arctic began to rise recently, the guillemots' range was limited to the southernmost arctic coast. Therefore, if the warming continues, the guillemots' range will probably be enlarged by being extended northward along the coast...

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the the argument?

A. Even if the warming trend continues, there will still be years in which guillemots chicks are killed by an unusually early snow.
B. If Arctic warming continues, guillemots' current predators are likely to succeed in extending their own range farther north
C. Guillemots nest in coastal areas, where tempratures are generally higher than inland areas.
D. If the Arctic warming continues much of the thin ice in southern arctic will disappear.
E. The fish that guillemots eat are currently preyed on by wider variety of predators in southernmost arctic regions than they are farther north.


Conclusion : if the warming continues, the guillemots' range will probably be enlarged by being extended northward along the coast.

Premise 1: Guillemots feed on fish that gather beneath thin sheets of floating ice, and they nest on nearby lands.

Premise 2 : Guillemots need 80 consecutive snow free days in a year to raise their chicks, so until avrage temperature in arctic began to rise recently, the guillemots' range was limited to the southernmost arctic coast.

Hence, it implies rise in temperature ---> increased bird population. Now, the argument can be weakened by "ways" which will negatively affect "increased bird population". Of the statements given above, there are ONLY two contenders, B & D. B is clearly out of scope as no where in the argument is there a mention of predators of the birds. D is hence, the clear winner as mentioned in premise 2.
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2015, 06:22
vaodeanhem wrote:
I choose D.
First, I will break down the stimulus.
Premise 1: Guillemots feed on fish beneath thin sheets of floating ice, and nest on nearby lands.
Premise 2: Guillemots need 80 consecutive snow free days to raise their chicks, presently, the guillemots' range was limited to the southernmost arctic coast.
Conclusion: if the warming continues, the guillemots' range will probably be enlarged by being extended northward along the coast.
We can see that this is a Cause n Effect reasoning. The warming => the guillemots' range will probably be enlarged by being extended northward

This is a weaken question type and we must identify an answer which shows that when the cause occurs, the effect doesnt occur or reversely or find an alternative cause for the effect...just as the method of CR Bible.
A) Even if the warming trend continues, there will still be years in which guillemots chicks are killed by an unusually early snow.
=> This doesnt effect the conclusion much because the conclusion tells us the guillemots come to grow in the northward.
B) If Arctic warming continues, guillemots' current predators are likely to succeed in extending their own range farther north
=> It is too far if we infer that guillemots' current predators succeeded in moving farther north and control the population of the guillemots there. And in this answer, the word is "likely" not "surely".
C) Guillemots nest in coastal areas, where tempratures are generally higher than inland areas.
=> OOS. The argument makes no statement about inland areas or any comparision between inland n costal areas.
D) If the Arctic warming continues much of the thin ice in southern arctic will disappear.
=> Thin ice disappear => birth moves from south to north, So, the guillemots' range wont be enlarged. This shows that when the cause occurs the effect doesnot occur. So it is a Contender.
E) The fish that guillemots eat are currently preyed on by wider variety of predators in southernmost arctic regions than they are farther north.
=> This actually strengthens the argument. Because the fish is more abundant in the north. if the birds move to the north, they will surely enlarge their range.

D is the correct answer.

Hope it helps.


Not convinced why E is wrong. To your point, yes E strenghtens the point that birds will extend the range agreed but the cause is not temp increase but the wider variety of predators. So this should weaken. Please advice, looking forward for your reply.
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2016, 06:39
D looks as a Strengthener, or has no effect on the argument. To me it looks like no ice = easier to fish = expand the population! Or it's like, no ice=no fish?... Is this what the OA want to convey? But nowhere in the argument it's made clear the the fish needs the ice to stay alive and as a consequence be eaten by the birds.
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Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 26 Sep 2016, 11:22
People will come to all sort of random answers if they not read carefully and realise that No unnecessary information is ever given in a CR question.
Every sentence and every word in CR questions serve a purpose. Keeping this in mind the correct answer is D
Time taken to solve 32 seconds

Guillemots bird eat fish that gather beneath the thin ice.<=== given in stimulus

Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish that gather beneath thin sheets of floating ice, and they nest on nearby lands. Guillemots need 80 consecutive snow free days in a year to raise their chicks, so until avrage temperature in arctic began to rise recently, the guillemots' range was limited to the southernmost arctic coast. Therefore, if the warming continues, the guillemots' range will probably be enlarged by being extended northward along the coast...

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the the argument?

A. Even if the warming trend continues, there will still be years in which guillemots chicks are killed by an unusually early snow.
A mild strengthener or irrelevant actually at best... If bird chicks are killed by unusual early snow; many chicks may die along the North coast thus making more birds to move further south increasing the birds range. Or this is irrelevant because the argument is about RANGE (geographical location) even if one bird continues to live in south, this will still contribute to the extension of the range. This option is of no definite use because argument is about range and not population.

B. If Arctic warming continues, guillemots' current predators are likely to succeed in extending their own range farther north.
Are there no predators right now in South. There are always predators... Let the predator extend their range in the north. Newly migrated Guilemonte will save itself in north, just as Guillemonte is currently protecting itself in south. The skill for survival needed are not going to change when Guillemonte reaches North and finds that predator have already there. Guillmonte will do the same trick for survival in North that it is currently doing in South.

C. Guillemots nest in coastal areas, where tempratures are generally higher than inland areas.
No effect :- North is also a coastal area.. right !! ... The coastal line runs NORTH-SOUTH. You can confirm it in the argument. So it makes no difference what part of the coast Guillemonte make nest. North or South. This options tells us that temperature along the coastal line (which include North and South) are higher. So Guillmonte should not feel or face any difference as far as temperature is concerned.

D. If the Arctic warming continues much of the thin ice in southern arctic will disappear.
BAMM:- {No thin floating ice in south---> No fish to eat} {No fish to eat ----> Probable Starvation} {Starvation---->Probable death} {Death--->no increase in territory along the southern coastal lines}
CORRECT

E. The fish that guillemots eat are currently preyed on by wider variety of predators in southernmost arctic regions than they are farther north.
Mildly Strenghtening.. so guillmonte will get more fishes to eat when they move north.. its not a weakener ..
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Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 22 Jun 2016, 08:58.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 26 Sep 2016, 11:22, edited 4 times in total.
Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish &nbs [#permalink] 22 Jun 2016, 08:58

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